Involvement of the M-CSF/IL-34/CSF-1R pathway in malignant pleural mesothelioma.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive cancer related to asbestos exposure. The tumor microenvironment content, particularly the presence of macrophages, was described as crucial for the development of the disease. This work aimed at studying the involvement of the M-CSF (CSF-1)/IL-34/CSF-1R pathway in the formation of macrophages in MPM, using samples from patients. METHODS:Pleural effusions (PEs), frozen tumors, primary MPM cells and MPM cell lines used in this study belong to biocollections associated with clinical databases. Cytokine expressions were studied using real-time PCR and ELISA. The Cancer Genome Atlas database was used to confirm our results on an independent cohort. An original three-dimensional (3D) coculture model including MPM cells, monocytes from healthy donors and a tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8 T cell clone was used. RESULTS:We observed that high interleukin (IL)-34 levels in PE were significantly associated with a shorter survival of patients. In tumors, expression of CSF1 was correlated with 'M2-like macrophages' markers, whereas this was not the case with IL34 expression, suggesting two distinct modes of action of these cytokines. Expression of IL34 was higher in MPM cells compared with primary mesothelial cells. Particularly, high expression of IL34 was observed in MPM cells with an alteration of CDKN2A. Finally, using 3D coculture model, we demonstrated the direct involvement of MPM cells in the formation of immunosuppressive macrophages, through activation of the colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1-R) pathway, causing the inhibition of cytotoxicity of tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. CONCLUSIONS:The M-CSF/IL-34/CSF-1R pathway seems strongly implicated in MPM and could constitute a therapeutic target to act on immunosuppression and to support immunotherapeutic strategies.
Project description:CSF-1 is broadly expressed and regulates macrophage and osteoclast development. The action and expression of IL-34, a novel CSF-1R ligand, were investigated in the mouse. As expected, huIL-34 stimulated macrophage proliferation via the huCSF-1R, equivalently to huCSF-1, but was much less active at stimulating mouse macrophage proliferation than huCSF-1. Like muCSF-1, muIL-34 and a muIL-34 isoform lacking Q81 stimulated mouse macrophage proliferation, CSF-1R tyrosine phosphorylation, and signaling and synergized with other cytokines to generate macrophages and osteoclasts from cultured progenitors. However, they respectively possessed twofold and fivefold lower affinities for the CSF-1R and correspondingly, lower activities than muCSF-1. Furthermore, muIL-34, when transgenically expressed in a CSF-1-dependent manner in vivo, rescued the bone, osteoclast, tissue macrophage, and fertility defects of Csf1(op)/(op) mice, suggesting similar regulation of CSF-1R-expressing cells by IL-34 and CSF-1. Whole-mount IL34 in situ hybridization and CSF-1 reporter expression revealed that IL34 mRNA was strongly expressed in the embryonic brain at E11.5, prior to the expression of Csf1 mRNA. QRT-PCR revealed that compared with Csf1 mRNA, IL34 mRNA levels were lower in pregnant uterus and in cultured osteoblasts, higher in most regions of the brain and heart, and not compensatorily increased in Csf1(op/op) mouse tissues. Thus, the different spatiotemporal expression of IL-34 and CSF-1 allows for complementary activation of the CSF-1R in developing and adult tissues.
Project description:IBD (inflammatory bowel disease), where CD (Crohn's disease) and UC (ulcerative colitis) represent the two main forms, are chronic inflammatory conditions of the intestine. Macrophages play a central role in IBD pathogenesis and are regulated by major differentiation factors such as CSF-1 (colony-stimulating factor 1) in homoeostasis and inflammation. IL (interleukin)-34 has recently been discovered as a second ligand for CSF-1R (CSF-1 receptor). However, expression and involvement of IL-34 in IBD remain unknown. In the present paper, we investigated the expression of IL34, CSF1 and their shared receptor CSF1R in normal human ileum and colon, in inflamed and non-inflamed tissues of CD and UC patients, and in a mouse model of experimental colitis. We found distinct expression patterns of IL34 and CSF1 in ileum and colon, with higher IL34 in ileum and, in contrast, higher CSF1 in colon. Furthermore, IL34 and CSF1 expression was increased with inflammation in IBD patients and in experimental colitis. In humans, infiltrating cells of the lamina propria and intestinal epithelial cells expressed IL-34, and TNF-α (tumour necrosis factor α) regulated IL-34 expression in intestinal epithelial cells through the NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) pathway. These data demonstrate the expression pattern of IL-34 in ileum and colon and suggest IL-34 as a new modulator of inflammation in IBD.
Project description:Colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) and interleukin 34 (IL34) signal via the CSF1 receptor to regulate macrophage differentiation. Studies in IL34- or CSF1-deficient mice have revealed that IL34 function is limited to the central nervous system and skin during development. However, the roles of IL34 and CSF1 at homeostasis or in the context of inflammatory diseases or cancer in wild-type mice have not been clarified in vivo. By neutralizing CSF1 and/or IL34 in adult mice, we identified that they play important roles in macrophage differentiation, specifically in steady-state microglia, Langerhans cells, and kidney macrophages. In several inflammatory models, neutralization of both CSF1 and IL34 contributed to maximal disease protection. However, in a myeloid cell-rich tumor model, CSF1 but not IL34 was required for tumor-associated macrophage accumulation and immune homeostasis. Analysis of human inflammatory conditions reveals IL34 upregulation that may account for the protection requirement of IL34 blockade. Furthermore, evaluation of IL34 and CSF1 blockade treatment during Listeria infection reveals no substantial safety concerns. Thus, IL34 and CSF1 play non-redundant roles in macrophage differentiation, and therapeutic intervention targeting IL34 and/or CSF1 may provide an effective treatment in macrophage-driven immune-pathologies.
Project description:IL-34 and colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) are two alternative ligands for the CSF1 receptor that play nonredundant roles in the development, survival, and function of tissue macrophages and Langerhans cells (LCs). In this study, we investigated the spatio-temporal production of IL-34 and its impact on skin LCs in the developing embryo and adult mice in the steady state and during inflammation using Il34(LacZ) reporter mice and newly generated inducible Il34-knockout mice. We found that IL-34 is produced in the developing skin epidermis of the embryo, where it promotes the final differentiation of LC precursors. In adult life, LCs required IL-34 to continually self-renew in the steady state. However, during UV-induced skin damage, LC regeneration depended on neutrophils infiltrating the skin, which produced large amounts of CSF1. We conclude that LCs require IL-34 when residing in fully differentiated and anatomically intact skin epidermis, but rely on neutrophil-derived CSF1 during inflammation. Our demonstration that neutrophils are an important source of CSF1 during skin inflammation may exemplify a mechanism through which neutrophils promote their subsequent replacement with mononuclear phagocytes.
Project description:Differential intestinal expression of the macrophage growth factors colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1), interleukin (IL)-34, and their shared CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been shown. Diverse expression between CSF-1 and IL-34, suggest that IL-34 may signal via an alternate receptor. Receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase ? (PTPRZ1, RPTP-?), an additional IL-34 receptor, was recently identified. Here, we aimed to assess PTPRZ1 expression in IBD and non-IBD intestinal biopsies. Further, we aimed to investigate cellular PTPRZ1 and CSF-1R expression, and cytokine- and chemokine responses by IL-34 and CSF-1. The expression of PTPRZ1 was higher in non-IBD colon compared to ileum. PTPRZ1 expression was not altered with inflammation in IBD, however, correlated to IL34, CSF1, and CSF1R. The expression patterns of PTPRZ1 and CSF-1R differed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), monocytes, macrophages, and intestinal epithelial cell line. PBMCs and monocytes of the same donors responded differently to IL-34 and CSF-1 with altered expression of tumor-necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), IL-1?, interferon ? (IFN-?), IL-13, IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) levels. This study shows that PTPRZ1 was expressed in bowel tissue. Furthermore, CSF-1R protein was detected in an intestinal epithelial cell line and donor dependently in primary PBMCs, monocytes, and macrophages, and first hints also suggest an expression in these cells for PTPRZ1, which may mediate IL-34 and CSF-1 actions.
Project description:The differentiation of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells into monocytes, tissue macrophages and some dendritic cell (DC) subtypes requires the growth factor CSF1 and its receptor, CSF1R. Langerhans cells (LCs) and microglia develop from embryonic myeloid precursor cells that populate the epidermis and central nervous system (CNS) before birth. Notably, LCs and microglia are present in CSF1-deficient mice but absent from CSF1R-deficient mice. Here we investigated whether an alternative CSF1R ligand, interleukin 34 (IL-34), is responsible for this discrepancy. Through the use of IL-34-deficient (Il34(LacZ/LacZ)) reporter mice, we found that keratinocytes and neurons were the main sources of IL-34. Il34(LacZ/LacZ) mice selectively lacked LCs and microglia and responded poorly to skin antigens and viral infection of the CNS. Thus, IL-34 specifically directs the differentiation of myeloid cells in the skin epidermis and CNS.
Project description:Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (CSF-1) controls the survival, differentiation and proliferation of cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system. A second ligand for the CSF-1R, Interleukin 34 (IL-34), has been described, but its physiological role is not yet known. The domestic pig provides an alternative to traditional rodent models for evaluating potential therapeutic applications of CSF-1R agonists and antagonists. To enable such studies, we cloned and expressed active pig CSF-1. To provide a bioassay, pig CSF-1R was expressed in the factor-dependent Ba/F3 cell line. On this transfected cell line, recombinant porcine CSF-1 and human CSF-1 had identical activity. Mouse CSF-1 does not interact with the human CSF-1 receptor but was active on pig. By contrast, porcine CSF-1 was active on mouse, human, cat and dog cells. IL-34 was previously shown to be species-specific, with mouse and human proteins demonstrating limited cross-species activity. The pig CSF-1R was equally responsive to both mouse and human IL-34. Based upon the published crystal structures of CSF-1/CSF-1R and IL34/CSF-1R complexes, we discuss the molecular basis for the species specificity.
Project description:Clinical management of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is very challenging because of the uncommon resistance of this tumor to chemotherapy. We report here increased expression of macrophage colony-stimulating-factor-1-receptor (M-CSF/CSF-1R) mRNA in mesothelioma versus normal tissue specimens and demonstrate that CSF-1R expression identifies chemoresistant cells of mesothelial nature in both primary cultures and mesothelioma cell lines. By using RNAi or ligand trapping, we demonstrate that the chemoresistance properties of those cells depend on autocrine CSF-1R signaling. At the single-cell level, the isolated CSF-1R(pos) cells exhibit a complex repertoire of pluripotency, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and detoxifying factors, which define a clonogenic, chemoresistant, precursor-like cell sub-population. The simple activation of CSF-1R in untransformed mesothelial cells is sufficient to confer clonogenicity and resistance to pemetrexed, hallmarks of mesothelioma. In addition, this induced a gene expression profile highly mimicking that observed in the MPM cells endogenously expressing the receptor and the ligands, suggesting that CSF-1R expression is mainly responsible for the phenotype of the identified cell sub-populations. The survival of CSF1R(pos) cells requires active AKT (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1) signaling, which contributed to increased levels of nuclear, transcriptionally competent ?-catenin. Inhibition of AKT reduced the transcriptional activity of ?-catenin-dependent reporters and sensitized the cells to senescence-induced clonogenic death after pemetrexed treatment. This work expands what is known on the non-macrophage functions of CSF-1R and its role in solid tumors, and suggests that CSF-1R signaling may have a critical pathogenic role in a prototypical, inflammation-related cancer such as MPM and therefore may represent a promising target for therapeutic intervention.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Macrophages have many functions in development and homeostasis as well as innate immunity. Recent studies in mammals suggest that cells arising in the yolk sac give rise to self-renewing macrophage populations that persist in adult tissues. Macrophage proliferation and differentiation is controlled by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1) and interleukin 34 (IL34), both agonists of the CSF1 receptor (CSF1R). In the current manuscript we describe the origin, function and regulation of macrophages, and the role of CSF1R signaling during embryonic development, using the chick as a model. RESULTS:Based upon RNA-sequencing comparison to bone marrow-derived macrophages grown in CSF1, we show that embryonic macrophages contribute around 2% of the total embryo RNA in day 7 chick embryos, and have similar gene expression profiles to bone marrow-derived macrophages. To explore the origins of embryonic and adult macrophages, we injected Hamburger-Hamilton stage 16 to 17 chick embryos with either yolk sac-derived blood cells, or bone marrow cells from EGFP+ donors. In both cases, the transferred cells gave rise to large numbers of EGFP+ tissue macrophages in the embryo. In the case of the yolk sac, these cells were not retained in hatched birds. Conversely, bone marrow EGFP+ cells gave rise to tissue macrophages in all organs of adult birds, and regenerated CSF1-responsive marrow macrophage progenitors. Surprisingly, they did not contribute to any other hematopoietic lineage. To explore the role of CSF1 further, we injected embryonic or hatchling CSF1R-reporter transgenic birds with a novel chicken CSF1-Fc conjugate. In both cases, the treatment produced a large increase in macrophage numbers in all tissues examined. There were no apparent adverse effects of chicken CSF1-Fc on embryonic or post-hatch development, but there was an unexpected increase in bone density in the treated hatchlings. CONCLUSIONS:The data indicate that the yolk sac is not the major source of macrophages in adult birds, and that there is a macrophage-restricted, self-renewing progenitor cell in bone marrow. CSF1R is demonstrated to be limiting for macrophage development during development in ovo and post-hatch. The chicken provides a novel and tractable model to study the development of the mononuclear phagocyte system and CSF1R signaling.