Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, lessons to be learned!
ABSTRACT: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been reported as a worldwide emergency. Due to the extensiveness of spread and death, it has been declared as a pandemic. This review focused on the current pandemic situation and understanding the prevention and control strategies of COVID-19. Data presented here was by April 3, 2020. A total of 1,016,399 cases of COVID-19 with 53,238 deaths was reported from 204 countries and territories including two international conveyances over the world. After China, most of the new cases were from Europe, particularly Italy acting as the source of importation to many of the other countries around the world. China has obtained success by ascribing control strategies against COVID-19. The implementation of China's strategy, as well as the development of a vaccine, may control the pandemic of COVID-19. Further robust studies are required for a clear understanding of transmission parameters, prevention, and control strategies of SARS-CoV-2. This review paper describes the nature of COVID-19 and the possible ways for the effective controlling of the COVID-19 or similar viral diseases that may come in the future.
Project description:In this review, we focused on the origins of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), origin, pathogenesis, immune responses, genes and genetic variations, phylogenetic analyses, and potential therapeutic strategies to summarize approaches for developing broadly effective preventions and vaccines to cope COVID-19. Towards the end of 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has emerged in association with the SARS, later was named COVID-19 caused an environment of chaos worldwide and infected a massive number of lives. Since these epidemics or pandemics had spread to 210 countries and territories around the world and 2 international conveyances with 6,467,229 confirmed cases, including, 382,766 deaths, as of June 03, 2020 (https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/), hence the World Health Organization declared it as a global Public Health Emergency. There are no clinically approved vaccines or antiviral drugs available for either of new or old corona infections; thus, the development of effective therapeutic and preventive strategies that can be readily available to cope with these strains.
Project description:The fatal acute respiratory coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020, infection and mortality rates have been rising steadily worldwide. The lack of a vaccine, as well as preventive and therapeutic strategies, emphasize the need to develop new strategies to mitigate SARS-CoV-2 transmission and pathogenesis. Since mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2 share a common genus, lessons learnt from MHV and SARS-CoV could offer mechanistic insights into SARS-CoV-2. This review provides a comprehensive review of MHV in mice and SARS-CoV-2 in humans, thereby highlighting further translational avenues in the development of innovative strategies in controlling the detrimental course of SARS-CoV-2. Specifically, we have focused on various aspects, including host species, organotropism, transmission, clinical disease, pathogenesis, control and therapy, MHV as a model for SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 as well as mouse models for infection with SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. While MHV in mice and SARS-CoV-2 in humans share various similarities, there are also differences that need to be addressed when studying murine models. Translational approaches, such as humanized mouse models are pivotal in studying the clinical course and pathology observed in COVID-19 patients. Lessons from prior murine studies on coronavirus, coupled with novel murine models could offer new promising avenues for treatment of COVID-19.
Project description:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has recently become a pandemic. As the sudden emergence and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 is endangering global health and the economy, the development of strategies to contain the virus's spread are urgently needed. At present, various diagnostic kits to test for SARS-CoV-2 are available for use to initiate appropriate treatment faster and to limit further spread of the virus. Several drugs have demonstrated in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 or potential clinical benefits. In addition, institutions and companies worldwide are working tirelessly to develop treatments and vaccines against COVID-19. However, no drug or vaccine has yet been specifically approved for COVID-19. Given the urgency of the outbreak, we focus here on recent advances in the diagnostics, treatment, and vaccine development for SARS-CoV-2 infection, helping to guide strategies to address the current COVID-19 pandemic.
Project description:SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) is a novel virus of the family Coronaviridae. The virus causes the infectious disease COVID-19. The biology of coronaviruses has been studied for many years. However, bioinformatics tools designed explicitly for SARS-CoV-2 have only recently been developed as a rapid reaction to the need for fast detection, understanding and treatment of COVID-19. To control the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, it is of utmost importance to get insight into the evolution and pathogenesis of the virus. In this review, we cover bioinformatics workflows and tools for the routine detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the reliable analysis of sequencing data, the tracking of the COVID-19 pandemic and evaluation of containment measures, the study of coronavirus evolution, the discovery of potential drug targets and development of therapeutic strategies. For each tool, we briefly describe its use case and how it advances research specifically for SARS-CoV-2. All tools are free to use and available online, either through web applications or public code repositories. Contact: email@example.com.
Project description:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease that causes fatal disorders including severe pneumonia. To develop a therapeutic drug for COVID-19, a model that can reproduce the viral life cycle and can evaluate the drug efficacy of anti-viral drugs is essential. In this study, we established a method to generate human bronchial organoids (hBO) from commercially available cryopreserved primary human bronchial epithelial cells (hBEpC) and examined whether they could be used as a model for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) research. The hBO were found to contain basal, club, ciliated, and goblet cells. Also, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is a receptor for SARS-CoV-2, and transmembrane serine proteinase 2 (TMPRSS2), which is an essential serine protease for priming spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, were highly expressed. After hBO were infected with SARS-CoV-2, remarkable amplification of the viral genome and the expression of spike protein of the virus was confirmed. In addition, cytotoxicity and pyknosis cells were observed due to the virus infection. Furthermore, treatment with camostat, an inhibitor of TMPRSS2, reduced the viral copy number to 2% of the control group. RNA-seq analyses revealed genes whose expression was altered by SARS-CoV-2 infection and camostat treatment. These results suggest that our hBO are acceptable for SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication, but also can be used as a model for COVID-19 drug discovery. Overall design: Total RNA was isolated from human bronchial organoids, primary human bronchial epithelial cells, and A549 cell, and then RNA-seq was performed. The human bronchial organoids were infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the presence of absence of camostat. At 5 days after the infection, total RNA was collected and RNA-seq was performed.
Project description:In December 2019, an acute respiratory disease caused by novel species of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in China and has spread throughout the world. On 11th March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) a pandemic, severe coronavirus-mediated human disease. Based on genomic and phylogenetic studies, SARS-CoV-2 might originate from bat coronaviruses and infects humans directly or through intermediate zoonotic hosts. However, the exact origin or the host intermediate remains unknown. Genetically, SARS-CoV-2 is similar to several existing coronaviruses, particularly SARS-CoV, but differs by silent and non-silent mutations. The virus uses different transmission routes and targets cells and tissues with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein, which makes it contagious. COVID-19 shares both the main clinical features and excessive/dysregulated cell responses with the two previous Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS) epidemics. In this review, we provide an update of the current knowledge on the COVID-19 pandemic. Gaining a deeper understanding of SARS-CoV-2 structure, transmission routes, and molecular responses, will assist in the prevention and control of COVID-19 outbreaks in the future.
Project description:Corona viruses (CoV) are known to cause extreme pandemics in the globe. The year 2020 will be a pandemic with the spread of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) across the globe. Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has been a part of our scary life for more than a quarter of a year in 2020. The Wuhan market and China have been the most commonly used terms in the world for at least a quarter of 2020. A zoonotic coronavirus has entered organisms to affect organisms for the third season in several centuries. CoV is a global pandemic prompted a drastic and rapid reconfiguration of society. CoV have extraordinary broad genomes of about 30 kilobases of RNA. There is no genetic relationship between the SARS-CoV, MERS and SARS-CoV-2. For health care strategies and for anticipating and preventing potential outbreaks, adequate description of the international spread of COVID-19 virus is imperative. The WHO has declared COVID-19 as endemic to pandemic in the first trimester of 2020. The biggest issues for diagnosis COVID-19 is not established apart from Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In order to monitor the COVID-19 pandemic, testing of active SARS-CoV-2 infections is a fundamental public health method. The vast use of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tests around the world has led to increased availability of test kits, which is also a major bottleneck. The technique RT-PCR was generally agreed in the present scenario to detect SARS-CoV-2 in the human body. This review discusses about the importance of molecular technique for diagnosing the pandemic disease of 2019. In conclusion, RT-PCR was found to be an apt technique for identification of SARS-CoV-2.
Project description:The current COVID-19 pandemic has urged the scientific community internationally to find answers in terms of therapeutics and vaccines to control SARS-CoV-2. Published investigations mostly on SARS-CoV and to some extent on MERS has taught lessons on vaccination strategies to this novel coronavirus. This is attributed to the fact that SARS-CoV-2 uses the same receptor as SARS-CoV on the host cell i.e. human Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (hACE2) and is approximately 79% similar genetically to SARS-CoV. Though the efforts on COVID-19 vaccines started very early, initially in China, as soon as the outbreak of novel coronavirus erupted and then world-over as the disease was declared a pandemic by WHO. But we will not be having an effective COVID-19 vaccine before September, 2020 as per very optimistic estimates. This is because a successful COVID-19 vaccine will require a cautious validation of efficacy and adverse reactivity as the target vaccinee population include high-risk individuals over the age of 60, particularly those with chronic co-morbid conditions, frontline healthcare workers and those involved in essentials industries. Various platforms for vaccine development are available namely: virus vectored vaccines, protein subunit vaccines, genetic vaccines, and monoclonal antibodies for passive immunization which are under evaluations for SARS-CoV-2, with each having discrete benefits and hindrances. The COVID-19 pandemic which probably is the most devastating one in the last 100 years after Spanish flu mandates the speedy evaluation of the multiple approaches for competence to elicit protective immunity and safety to curtail unwanted immune-potentiation which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this virus. This review is aimed at providing an overview of the efforts dedicated to an effective vaccine for this novel coronavirus which has crippled the world in terms of economy, human health and life.
Project description:A cluster of pneumonia (COVID-19) cases have been found in Wuhan China in late December, 2019, and subsequently, a novel coronavirus with a positive stranded RNA was identified to be the aetiological virus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2), which has a phylogenetic similarity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). SARS-CoV-2 transmits mainly through droplets and close contact and the elder or people with chronic diseases are high-risk population. People affected by SARS-CoV-2 can be asymptomatic, which brings about more difficulties to control the transmission. COVID-19 has become pandemic rapidly after onset, and so far the infected people have been above 2 000 000 and more than 130 000 died worldwide according to COVID-19 situation dashboard of World Health Organization (https://covid19.who.int). Here, we summarized the current known knowledge regarding epidemiological, pathogenesis, pathology, clinical features, comorbidities and treatment of COVID-19/ SARS-CoV-2 as reference for the prevention and control COVID-19.
Project description:Approximately 3 billion people around the world have gone into some form of social separation to mitigate the current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. The uncontrolled influx of patients in need of emergency care has rapidly brought several national health systems to near-collapse with deadly consequences to those afflicted by Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other critical diseases associated with COVID-19. Solid scientific evidence regarding SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 remains scarce; there is an urgent need to expand our understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 pathophysiology to facilitate precise and targeted treatments. The capacity for rapid information dissemination has emerged as a double-edged sword; the existing gap of high-quality data is frequently filled by anecdotal reports, contradictory statements, and misinformation. This review addresses several important aspects unique to the SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic highlighting the most relevant knowledge gaps and existing windows-of-opportunity. Specifically, focus is given on SARS-CoV-2 immunopathogenesis in the context of experimental therapies and preclinical evidence and their applicability in supporting efficacious clinical trial planning. The review discusses the existing challenges of SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics and the potential application of translational technology for epidemiological predictions, patient monitoring, and treatment decision-making in COVID-19. Furthermore, solutions for enhancing international strategies in translational research, cooperative networks, and regulatory partnerships are contemplated.