Bioactive Potential of Extracts of Labrenzia aggregata Strain USBA 371, a Halophilic Bacterium Isolated from a Terrestrial Source.
ABSTRACT: Previous studies revealed the potential of Labrenzia aggregata USBA 371 to produce cytotoxic metabolites. This study explores its metabolic diversity and compounds involved in its cytotoxic activity. Extracts from the extracellular fraction of strain USBA 371 showed high levels of cytotoxic activity associated with the production of diketopiperazines (DKPs). We purified two compounds and a mixture of two other compounds from this fraction. Their structures were characterized by 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The purified compounds were evaluated for additional cytotoxic activities. Compound 1 (cyclo (l-Pro-l-Tyr)) showed cytotoxicity to the following cancer cell lines: breast cancer 4T1 (IC50 57.09 ± 2.11 µM), 4T1H17 (IC50 40.38 ± 1.94), MCF-7 (IC50 87.74 ± 2.32 µM), murine melanoma B16 (IC50 80.87 ± 3.67), human uterus sarcoma MES-SA/Dx5 P-pg (-) (IC50 291.32 ± 5.64) and MES-SA/Dx5 P-pg (+) (IC50 225.28 ± 1.23), and murine colon MCA 38 (IC50 29.85 ± 1.55). In order to elucidate the biosynthetic route of the production of DKPs and other secondary metabolites, we sequenced the genome of L. aggregata USBA 371. We found no evidence for biosynthetic pathways associated with cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPSs) or non-ribosomal peptides (NRPS), but based on proteogenomic analysis we suggest that they are produced by proteolytic enzymes. This is the first report in which the cytotoxic effect of cyclo (l-Pro-l-Tyr) produced by an organism of the genus Labrenzia has been evaluated against several cancer cell lines.
Project description:In order to select halophilic microorganisms as a source of compounds with cytotoxic activities, a total of 135 bacterial strains were isolated from water and sediment samples collected from the Zipaquirá salt mine in the Colombian Andes. We determined the cytotoxic effects of 100 crude extracts from 54 selected organisms on the adherent murine mammary cell carcinoma 4T1 and human mammary adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cell lines. These extracts were obtained from strains of Isoptericola, Ornithinimicrobium, Janibacter, Nesterenkonia, Alkalibacterium, Bacillus, Halomonas, Chromohalobacter, Shewanella, Salipiger, Martellela, Oceanibaculum, Caenispirillum and Labrenzia. The extracts of 23 strains showed an IC50 of less than 100 ?g mL-1. They were subsequently analyzed by LC/MS allowing dereplication of 20 compounds. The cytotoxic effect was related to a complex mixture of diketopiperazines present in many of the extracts analyzed. The greatest cytotoxic activity against both of the evaluated cell lines was obtained from the chloroform extract of Labrenzia aggregata USBA 371 which had an IC50 < 6 ?g mL-1. Other extracts with high levels of cytotoxic activity were obtained from Bacillus sp. (IC50 < 50 ?g mL-1) which contained several compounds such as macrolactin L and A, 7-O-succinoylmacrolactin F and iturin. Shewanella chilikensis USBA 344 also showed high levels of cytotoxic activity against both cell lines in the crude extract: an IC50 < 15 ?g mL-1 against the 4T1 cell line and an IC50 < 68 ?g mL-1 against the MCF-7 cell line. Nesterenkonia sandarakina CG 35, which has an IC50 of 118 µg mL-1 against 4T1, is a producer of diketopiperazines and 1-acetyl-?-carboline. Also, Ornithinimicrobium kibberense CG 24, which has IC50 < 50 ?g mL-1, was a producer of diketopiperazines and lagunamycin. Our study demonstrates that these saline environments are habitats of halophilic and halotolerant bacteria that have previously unreported cytotoxic activity.
Project description:P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a transmembrane efflux pump that has been associated with ineffective cancer chemotherapy and multidrug resistance (MDR). Chemical inhibitors of P-gp could have potential cancer therapeutic applications by preventing or reversing MDR. To exploit this, we designed twenty-five tetrahydroquinolinone analogs bearing pyridyl methyl carboxylate at C3 and different substituents at C4 as MDR reversal agents. The inhibitory effects of the synthesized compounds against P-gp were assessed by flow cytometric determination of rhodamine 123 accumulation in P-gp over-expressing MES-SA/DX5 cells. Fluorescence imaging of intracellular rhodamine 123 accumulation in MES-SA/DX5 cells was also performed. Furthermore, the effect of active derivatives on the reduction of doxorubicin's IC50 in MES-SA/DX5 cells was evaluated using MTT assay. Molecular docking was used to confirm the binding mode of some of the synthesized compounds. Five compounds in group A, bearing a 2-pyridyl methyl ester substituent at the C3 position, significantly increased rhodamine accumulation at 25 ?M comparable to verapamil, a well-established P-gp inhibitor, while only 2 compounds in group B bearing 3-pyridyl methyl ester at the same position had this effect. This study shows that tetrahydroquinolinones containing methyl pyridine esters could represent an attractive scaffold for the discovery of P-gp inhibitors as MDR reversal agents in cancer cells.
Project description:Overexpression of the efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the important mechanisms of multidrug resistance (MDR) in many tumor cells. In this study, 26 novel 5-oxo-hexahydroquinoline derivatives containing different nitrophenyl moieties at C4 and various carboxamide substituents at C3 were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit P-gp by measuring the amount of rhodamine 123 (Rh123) accumulation in uterine sarcoma cells that overexpress P-gp (MES-SA/Dx5) using flow cytometry. The effect of compounds with highest MDR reversal activities was further evaluated by measuring the alterations of MES-SA/Dx5 cells' sensitivity to doxorubicin (DXR) using MTT assay. The results of both biological assays indicated that compounds bearing 2-nitrophenyl at C4 position and compounds with 4-chlorophenyl carboxamide at C3 demonstrated the highest activities in resistant cells, while they were devoid of any effect in parental nonresistant MES-SA cells. One of the active derivatives, 5c, significantly increased intracellular Rh123 at 100 µM, and it also significantly reduced the IC50 of DXR by 70.1% and 88.7% at 10 and 25 µM, respectively, in MES-SA/Dx5 cells. The toxicity of synthesized compounds against HEK293 as a noncancer cell line was also investigated. All tested derivatives except for 2c compound showed no cytotoxicity. A molecular dynamics simulation study was also performed to investigate the possible binding site of 5c in complex with human P-gp, which showed that this compound formed 11 average H-bonds with Ser909, Thr911, Arg547, Arg543 and Ser474 residues of P-gp. A good agreement was found between the results of the computational and experimental studies. The findings of this study show that some 5-oxo-hexahydroquinoline derivatives could serve as promising candidates for the discovery of new agents for P-gp-mediated MDR reversal.
Project description:Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a main reason of chemotherapy failure in many patients and is often related to overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, including P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1). Agents that are capable of modulation of the activity of these transporters might be effective in overcoming MDR. In this study, a new set of 1,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydro 5-oxo quinoline-3-carboxamide derivatives bearing 4-methylthiazole moiety and their tetrahydroquinoline counterparts were synthesized. MDR reversal activity of these 16 newly synthesized derivatives was tested in P-gp overexpressing MES-SA-DX5 human uterine sarcoma cells by flow cytometric determination of Rhodamine123 efflux. The effect of the most potent compounds in induction of apoptosis and alterations of cell cycle was examined in these cells by a flow cytometric method. Inherent cytotoxicity of the synthesized compounds was evaluated against MCF-7, A-549 and K562 cancer cell lines, as well as MES-SA-DX5 and their parental non-resistant MES-SA and also HEK-293 non-cancerous cells by MTT assay. Compounds A1 and A2 with 5-oxo-hexahydroquinoline structure bearing 2,4-dichlorophenyl and 4-bromophenyl moieties, respectively, and their tetrahydroquinoline counterparts B1 and B2 significantly blocked P-gp efflux, induced apoptosis and showed the highest cytotoxicities against MES-SA-DX5 cells. However, only A2 and B2 compounds were relatively selective against cancer and MDR cells as compared to non-resistant and non-cancerous cells. These findings demonstrate that 5-oxo-hexahydroquinoline and 5-oxo-tetrahydroquinoline derivatives represent promising agents with therapeutic potential in drug resistant cancers.
Project description:Labrenzia aggregata LZB033 (Rhodobacteraceae), which produces dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and reduces nitrate to nitrogen, was isolated from seawater of the East China Sea. Its genome encodes a large number of transcriptional regulators which may be important for its adaptation to diverse marine environments. The alternative ?54 factor (RpoN) is a central regulator of many bacteria, regulating the transcription of multiple genes and controlling important cellular functions. However, the exact role of RpoN in Labrenzia spp. is unknown. In this study, an in-frame rpoN deletion mutant was constructed in LZB033, and the function of RpoN was determined. To systematically identify RpoN-controlled genes, we performed a detailed analysis of gene expression differences between the wild-type strain and the ?rpoN mutant using RNA sequencing. The expression of 175 genes was shown to be controlled by RpoN. Subsequent phenotypic assays showed that the ?rpoN mutant was attenuated in flagellar biosynthesis and swimming motility, utilized up to 13 carbon substrates differently, lacked the ability to assimilate malic acid, and displayed markedly decreased bio?lm formation. In addition, stress response assays showed that the ?rpoN mutant was impaired in the ability to survive under different challenge conditions, including osmotic stress, oxidative stress, temperature changes, and acid stress. Moreover, both the DMSP synthesis and catabolism rates of LZB033 decreased after rpoN was knocked out. Our work provides essential insight into the regulatory function of RpoN, revealing that RpoN is a key determinant for LZB033 flagellar formation, motility, biofilm formation, and environmental fitness, as well as DMSP production and degradation.IMPORTANCE This study established an in-frame gene deletion method in the alphaproteobacterium Labrenzia aggregata LZB033 and generated an rpoN gene mutant. A comparison of the transcriptomes and phenotypic characteristics between the mutant and wild-type strains confirmed the role of RpoN in L. aggregata LZB033 flagellar formation, motility, biofilm formation, and carbon usage. Most importantly, RpoN is a key factor for survival under different environmental challenge conditions. Furthermore, the ability to synthesize and metabolize dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) was related to RpoN. These features revealed RpoN to be an important regulator of stress resistance and survival for L. aggregata LZB033 in marine environments.
Project description:<i>Inonotus nidus-pici</i> is a sterile conk which produces macrofungus, a neglected Central-Eastern European relative of the prized <i>Inonotus obliquus</i>, also known as chaga. Investigation of the methanol extract of the poroid fungus <i>I. nidus-pici</i> resulted in the isolation of citropremide (<b>1</b>), 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (<b>2</b>) , lanosterol (<b>3</b>), ergost-6,8,22-trien-3β-ol (<b>4</b>), and ergosterol peroxide (<b>5</b>). The structures of fungal compounds were determined on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR and MS spectroscopic analysis. Compounds <b>1</b>-<b>2</b> and <b>4</b>-<b>5</b> were evaluated for their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties against several bacterial and fungal strains. 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (<b>2</b>) and ergost-6,8,22-trien-3β-ol (<b>4</b>) demonstrated moderate antimicrobial activity, while the former possessed notable antioxidant activity in DPPH assay. The antiproliferative examinations performed on three human cancer (MES-SA, MES-SA/Dx5, A431) cell lines demonstrated that compounds <b>4</b> and <b>5</b> have notable cytotoxic activity with IC values in micromolar range. The current study represents the first report on the chemical profile of <i>I. nidus-pici</i>, providing a comprehensive study on the isolation and structure determination of bioactive secondary metabolites of this macrofungus.
Project description:The multidrug resistance phenotype is a global phenomenon and causes chemotherapy failure in various cancers, such as in uterine sarcomas that have a high mortality rate. To overcome this phenotype, there is growing research interest in developing new treatment strategies. In this study, we highlight the potential of two essential oils from the Apiaceae family, <i>Pituranthos chloranthus</i> (PC) and <i>Teucrium ramosissimum</i> Desf. (TR), to act as chemopreventive and chemosensitizing agents against two uterine sarcoma cell lines, MES-SA and P-gp-overexpressing MES-SA/Dx5 cells. We found that PC and TR were able to inhibit the cell viability of sensitive MES-SA and resistant MES-SA/Dx5 cells by a slight modulation of the cell cycle and its regulators, but also through a significant induction of apoptosis. The molecular mechanism involved both caspase pathways associated with an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Very interestingly, the combination of doxorubicin with PC or TR induced a synergism to increase cell death in resistant MES-SA/Dx5 cells and, subsequently, had the benefit of decreasing the resistance index to doxorubicin. These synergistic effects were reinforced by a decrease in P-gp expression and its P-gp adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity, which subsequently led to intracellular doxorubicin accumulation in resistant sarcoma cells.
Project description:Several new amino-substituted aza-acridine derivatives bearing a basic side chain have been designed and synthesized. The antiproliferative activity of the target compounds has been evaluated against three cancer cell lines-namely HCT-116 (colorectal), the uterine sarcoma MES-SA, and its doxorubicin-resistant variant MES-SA/Dx5. A limited number of the new acridines showed marginal cytotoxicity against the tested cell lines; nevertheless, these analogues possessed a similar substitution pattern. The moderate biological activity of these derivatives was attributed to their instability in aqueous media, which has been studied by mass spectrometry and computational chemistry experiments at the density functional level of theory (DFT).
Project description:We designed 39 new 2-phenylindole derivatives as potential anticancer agents bearing the 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl moiety with a sulfur, ketone, or methylene bridging group at position 3 of the indole and with halogen or methoxy substituent(s) at positions 4-7. Compounds 33 and 44 strongly inhibited the growth of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing multi-drug-resistant cell lines NCI/ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5. At 10 nM, 33 and 44 stimulated the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. At 20-50 nM, 33 and 44 arrested >80% of HeLa cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, with stable arrest of mitotic progression. Cell cycle arrest was followed by cell death. Indoles 33, 44, and 81 showed strong inhibition of the SAG-induced Hedgehog signaling activation in NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells with IC50 values of 19, 72, and 38 nM, respectively. Compounds of this class potently inhibited tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth, including stimulation of natural killer cell cytotoxic activity and repression of Hedgehog-dependent cancer.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to compare the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of targeted and nontargeted doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded poly(d,l-lactide co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticle (NP) drug delivery systems in drug-resistant ovarian (SKOV-3) and uterine (MES-SA/Dx5) cancer cell lines. The cellular uptakes of DOX from nonconjugated DOX-loaded NPs (DNPs) and from HER-2 antibody-conjugated DOX-loaded NPs (ADNPs) in MES-SA/Dx5 cancer cells were higher compared to free DOX. Results also showed higher uptake of DOX from ADNPs in SKOV-3 cells compared with both free DOX and DNPs treatment. Cytotoxicity results at 10 ?M extracellular DOX concentration were consistent with the cellular uptake results. Our study concludes that cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of DOX can be improved in MES-SA/Dx5 cells by loading DOX into PLGA NPs. DNPs targeted to membrane receptors may enhance cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in SKOV-3 cells.The authors of this study compare the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of targeted and nontargeted doxorubicin loaded PLGA nanoparticle delivery systems in drug-resistant ovarian and uterine cancer cell lines, concluding that cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of doxorubicin can be improved by the proposed methods.