Exercise rejuvenates quiescent skeletal muscle stem cells in old mice through restoration of Cyclin D1.
ABSTRACT: Aging impairs tissue repair. This is pronounced in skeletal muscle, whose regeneration by muscle stem cells (MuSCs) is robust in young adult animals but inefficient in older organisms. Despite this functional decline, old MuSCs are amenable to rejuvenation through strategies that improve the systemic milieu, such as heterochronic parabiosis. One such strategy, exercise, has long been appreciated for its benefits on healthspan, but its effects on aged stem cell function in the context of tissue regeneration are incompletely understood. Here we show that exercise in the form of voluntary wheel running accelerates muscle repair in old animals and improves old MuSC function. Through transcriptional profiling and genetic studies, we discovered that the restoration of old MuSC activation ability hinges on restoration of Cyclin D1, whose expression declines with age in MuSCs. Pharmacologic studies revealed that Cyclin D1 maintains MuSC activation capacity by repressing TGF? signaling. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that voluntary exercise is a practicable intervention for old MuSC rejuvenation. Furthermore, this work highlights the distinct role of Cyclin D1 in stem cell quiescence.
Project description:Voluntary exercise enhances old skeletal muscle stem cell (MuSC) function in vivo and ex vivo, dependent on upregulation of Ccnd1. To determine the transcriptional changes associated with these phenotypes, RNA-Seq was performed on MuSCs from young and old mice that had exercised or not exercised, and from young mice with MuSC-specific loss-of-function deletions in zero, one, or both alleles of Ccnd1. Overall design: To study the effects of exercise on MuSCs, 3-month-old (Y) or 18-month-old (O) C57BL6 male mice were given access to a running wheel that was locked (-Ex) or free (+Ex) for three weeks, and hindlimb MuSCs were FACS-isolated as CD31-, CD45-, Sca1-, VCAM+, and viable (DAPI-) cells. To study the effects of Ccnd1 loss in MuSCs, 3-month-old or 18-month-old C57BL6 Pax7_CreERT2; R26R_YFP; Ccnd1_+/+ (WT), Ccnd1_+/flox (HET), or Ccnd1_flox/flox (KO) mice were injected with tamoxifen to induce recombination in MuSCs, which were FACS-isolated six weeks later as YFP+, viable (DAPI-) cells. PolyA-selected RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced on a HiSeq2000, generating paired-end 101-bp reads. Each replicate represents MuSCs from an individual mouse. Y(-Ex) = young, no exercise; O(-Ex) = old, no exercise; Y(+Ex) = young, exercise; O(+Ex) = old, exercise; Y(WT) = young, Pax7_CreERT2; R26R_YFP; Ccnd1_+/+; Y(HET) = young, Pax7_CreERT2; R26R_YFP; Ccnd1_+/flox; Y(KO) = young, Pax7_CreERT2; R26R_YFP; Ccnd1_flox/flox; O(WT) = old, Pax7_CreERT2; R26R_YFP; Ccnd1_+/+.
Project description:Skeletal muscle comprises 30-40% of the weight of a healthy human body and is required for voluntary movements in humans. Mature skeletal muscle is formed by multinuclear cells, which are called myofibers. Formation of myofibers depends on the proliferation, differentiation, and fusion of muscle progenitor cells during development and after injury. Muscle progenitor cells are derived from muscle satellite (stem) cells (MuSCs), which reside on the surface of the myofiber but beneath the basement membrane. MuSCs play a central role in postnatal maintenance, growth, repair, and regeneration of skeletal muscle. In sedentary adult muscle, MuSCs are mitotically quiescent, but are promptly activated in response to muscle injury. Physiological and chronological aging induces MuSC aging, leading to an impaired regenerative capability. Importantly, in pathological situations, repetitive muscle injury induces early impairment of MuSCs due to stem cell aging and leads to early impairment of regeneration ability. In this review, we discuss (1) the role of MuSCs in muscle regeneration, (2) stem cell aging under physiological and pathological conditions, and (3) prospects related to clinical applications of controlling MuSCs.
Project description:Skeletal muscle is a complex tissue containing tissue resident muscle stem cells (satellite cells) (MuSCs) important for postnatal muscle growth and regeneration. Quantitative analysis of the biological function of MuSCs and the molecular pathways responsible for a potential juxtavascular niche for MuSCs is currently lacking. We utilized fluorescent reporter mice and muscle tissue clearing to investigate the proximity of MuSCs to capillaries in 3 dimensions. We show that MuSCs express abundant VEGFA, which recruits endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro, whereas blocking VEGFA using both a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor and MuSC-specific VEGFA gene deletion reduces the proximity of MuSCs to capillaries. Importantly, this proximity to the blood vessels was associated with MuSC self-renewal in which the EC-derived Notch ligand Dll4 induces quiescence in MuSCs. We hypothesize that MuSCs recruit capillary ECs via VEGFA, and in return, ECs maintain MuSC quiescence though Dll4.
Project description:Age-related declines in skeletal muscle regeneration have been attributed to muscle stem cell (MuSC) dysfunction. Aged MuSCs display a fibrogenic conversion, leading to fibrosis and impaired recovery after injury. Although studies have demonstrated the influence of in vitro substrate characteristics on stem cell fate, whether and how aging of the extracellular matrix (ECM) affects stem cell behavior has not been investigated. Here, we investigated the direct effect of the aged muscle ECM on MuSC lineage specification. Quantification of ECM topology and muscle mechanical properties reveals decreased collagen tortuosity and muscle stiffening with increasing age. Age-related ECM alterations directly disrupt MuSC responses, and MuSCs seeded ex vivo onto decellularized ECM constructs derived from aged muscle display increased expression of fibrogenic markers and decreased myogenicity, compared to MuSCs seeded onto young ECM. This fibrogenic conversion is recapitulated in vitro when MuSCs are seeded directly onto matrices elaborated by aged fibroblasts. When compared to young fibroblasts, fibroblasts isolated from aged muscle display increased nuclear levels of the mechanosensors, Yes-associated protein (YAP)/transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), consistent with exposure to a stiff microenvironment in vivo. Accordingly, preconditioning of young fibroblasts by seeding them onto a substrate engineered to mimic the stiffness of aged muscle increases YAP/TAZ nuclear translocation and promotes secretion of a matrix that favors MuSC fibrogenesis. The findings here suggest that an age-related increase in muscle stiffness drives YAP/TAZ-mediated pathogenic expression of matricellular proteins by fibroblasts, ultimately disrupting MuSC fate.
Project description:Muscle undergoes progressive weakening and regenerative dysfunction with age due in part to the functional decline of skeletal muscle stem cells (MuSCs). MuSCs are heterogeneous but whether their gene expression changes with age and the implication of such changes are unclear. Here we show that in mice, Growth arrest-specific gene 1 (Gas1) is expressed in a small subset of young MuSCs with its expression progressively increasing in larger fractions of MuSCs later in life. Over-expression of Gas1 in young MuSCs and inactivation of Gas1 in aged MuSCs support that Gas1 reduces the quiescence and self-renewal capacity of MuSCs. Gas1 reduces Ret signaling, which is required for MuSC quiescence and self-renewal. Indeed, we show that the Ret ligand, Glial Cell-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF), can counteract Gas1 by stimulating Ret signaling and enhancing MuSC self-renewal and regeneration, thus improving muscle function. We propose that strategies aimed to target this pathway can be exploited to improve the regenerative decline of muscle stem cells.
Project description:Muscle stem cells (MuSCs) exhibit distinct behavior during successive phases of developmental myogenesis. However, how their transition to adulthood is regulated is poorly understood. Here, we show that fetal MuSCs resist progenitor specification and exhibit altered division dynamics, intrinsic features that are progressively lost postnatally. After transplantation, fetal MuSCs expand more efficiently and contribute to muscle repair. Conversely, niche colonization efficiency increases in adulthood, indicating a balance between muscle growth and stem cell pool repopulation. Gene expression profiling identified several extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules preferentially expressed in fetal MuSCs, including tenascin-C, fibronectin, and collagen VI. Loss-of-function experiments confirmed their essential and stage-specific role in regulating MuSC function. Finally, fetal-derived paracrine factors were able to enhance adult MuSC regenerative potential. Together, these findings demonstrate that MuSCs change the way in which they remodel their microenvironment to direct stem cell behavior and support the unique demands of muscle development or repair.
Project description:Dedicated stem cells ensure postnatal growth, repair and homeostasis of skeletal muscle. Following injury, muscle stem cells (MuSCs) exit from quiescence and divide to reconstitute the stem cell pool and give rise to muscle progenitors. The transcriptomes of pooled MuSCs have provided a rich source of information for describing the genetic programs of distinct static cell states; however, bulk microarray and RNA sequencing provide only averaged gene expression profiles, blurring the heterogeneity and developmental dynamics of asynchronous MuSC populations. Instead, the granularity required to identify distinct cell types, states, and their dynamics can be afforded by single cell analysis. We were able to compare the transcriptomes of thousands of MuSCs and primary myoblasts isolated from homeostatic or regenerating muscles by single cell RNA sequencing. Using computational approaches, we could reconstruct dynamic trajectories and place, in a pseudotemporal manner, the transcriptomes of individual MuSC within these trajectories. This approach allowed for the identification of distinct clusters of MuSCs and primary myoblasts with partially overlapping but distinct transcriptional signatures, as well as the description of metabolic pathways associated with defined MuSC states.
Project description:Control of stem cell fate to either enter terminal differentiation versus returning to quiescence (self-renewal) is crucial for tissue repair. Here, we showed that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the master metabolic regulator of the cell, controls muscle stem cell (MuSC) self-renewal. AMPK?1-/- MuSCs displayed a high self-renewal rate, which impairs muscle regeneration. AMPK?1-/- MuSCs showed a Warburg-like switch of their metabolism to higher glycolysis. We identified lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a new functional target of AMPK?1. LDH, which is a non-limiting enzyme of glycolysis in differentiated cells, was tightly regulated in stem cells. In functional experiments, LDH overexpression phenocopied AMPK?1-/- phenotype, that is shifted MuSC metabolism toward glycolysis triggering their return to quiescence, while inhibition of LDH activity rescued AMPK?1-/- MuSC self-renewal. Finally, providing specific nutrients (galactose/glucose) to MuSCs directly controlled their fate through the AMPK?1/LDH pathway, emphasizing the importance of metabolism in stem cell fate.
Project description:Skeletal muscle is a regenerative tissue which can repair damaged myofibers through the activation of tissue-resident muscle stem cells (MuSCs). Many muscle diseases with impaired regeneration cause excessive adipose tissue accumulation in muscle, alter the myogenic fate of MuSCs, and deregulate the cross-talk between MuSCs and fibro/adipogenic progenitors (FAPs), a bi-potent cell population which supports myogenesis and controls intra-muscular fibrosis and adipocyte formation. In order to better characterize the interaction between adipogenesis and myogenesis, we studied muscle regeneration and MuSC function in whole body Pparg null mice generated by epiblast-specific Cre/lox deletion (Pparg?/?). We demonstrate that deletion of PPAR? completely abolishes ectopic muscle adipogenesis during regeneration and impairs MuSC expansion and myogenesis after injury. Ex vivo assays revealed that perturbed myogenesis in Pparg?/? mice does not primarily result from intrinsic defects of MuSCs or from perturbed myogenic support from FAPs. The immune transition from a pro- to anti-inflammatory MuSC niche during regeneration is perturbed in Pparg?/? mice and suggests that PPAR? signaling in macrophages can interact with ectopic adipogenesis and influence muscle regeneration. Altogether, our study demonstrates that a PPAR?-dependent adipogenic response regulates muscle fat infiltration during regeneration and that PPAR? is required for MuSC function and efficient muscle repair.
Project description:Tissue renewal and muscle regeneration largely rely on the proliferation and differentiation of muscle stem cells called muscular satellite cells (MuSCs). MuSCs are normally quiescent, but they are activated in response to various stimuli, such as inflammation. Activated MuSCs proliferate, migrate, differentiate, and fuse to form multinucleate myofibers. Meanwhile, inappropriate cues for MuSC activation induce premature differentiation and bring about stem cell loss. Recent studies revealed that stem cell regulation is disrupted in various aged tissues. We found that the expression of microRNA (miR)-155, which is an inflammation-associated miR, is upregulated in MuSCs of aged muscles, and this upregulation activates the differentiation process through suppression of C/ebp?, which is an important molecule for maintaining MuSC self-renewal. We also found that Notch1 considerably repressed miR-155 expression, and loss of Notch1 induced miR-155 overexpression. Our findings suggest that miR-155 can act as an activator of muscular differentiation and might be responsible for accelerating aging-associated premature differentiation of MuSCs.