Human CRY1 variants associate with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
ABSTRACT: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and heritable phenotype frequently accompanied by insomnia, anxiety, and depression. Here, using a reverse phenotyping approach, we report heterozygous coding variations in the core circadian clock gene cryptochrome 1 in 15 unrelated multigenerational families with combined ADHD and insomnia. The variants led to functional alterations in the circadian molecular rhythms, providing a mechanistic link to the behavioral symptoms. One variant, CRY1?11 c.1657+3A>C, is present in approximately 1% of Europeans, therefore standing out as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker. We showed by exome sequencing in an independent cohort of patients with combined ADHD and insomnia that 8 of 62 patients and 0 of 369 controls carried CRY1?11. Also, we identified a variant, CRY1?6 c.825+1G>A, that shows reduced affinity for BMAL1/CLOCK and causes an arrhythmic phenotype. Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis revealed that this variant segregated with ADHD and delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) in the affected family. Finally, we found in a phenome-wide association study involving 9438 unrelated adult Europeans that CRY1?11 was associated with major depressive disorder, insomnia, and anxiety. These results defined a distinctive group of circadian psychiatric phenotypes that we propose to designate as "circiatric" disorders.
Project description:Patterns of daily human activity are controlled by an intrinsic circadian clock that promotes ?24 hr rhythms in many behavioral and physiological processes. This system is altered in delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD), a common form of insomnia in which sleep episodes are shifted to later times misaligned with the societal norm. Here, we report a hereditary form of DSPD associated with a dominant coding variation in the core circadian clock gene CRY1, which creates a transcriptional inhibitor with enhanced affinity for circadian activator proteins Clock and Bmal1. This gain-of-function CRY1 variant causes reduced expression of key transcriptional targets and lengthens the period of circadian molecular rhythms, providing a mechanistic link to DSPD symptoms. The allele has a frequency of up to 0.6%, and reverse phenotyping of unrelated families corroborates late and/or fragmented sleep patterns in carriers, suggesting that it affects sleep behavior in a sizeable portion of the human population.
Project description:Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric condition that has been strongly associated with changes in sleep and circadian rhythms. Circadian rhythms are near 24-h cycles that are primarily generated by an endogenous circadian timekeeping system, encoded at the molecular level by a panel of clock genes. Stimulant and non-stimulant medication used in the management of ADHD has been shown to potentially impact on circadian processes and their behavioral outputs. In the current study, we have analyzed circadian rhythms in daily activity and sleep, and the circadian gene expression in a cohort of healthy controls (N?=?22), ADHD participants not using ADHD-medication (N?=?17), and participants with ADHD and current use of ADHD medication (N?=?17). Rhythms of sleep/wake behavior were assessed via wrist-worn actigraphy, whilst rhythms of circadian gene expression were assessed ex-vivo in primary human-derived dermal fibroblast cultures. Behavioral data indicate that patients with ADHD using ADHD-medication have lower relative amplitudes of diurnal activity rhythms, lower sleep efficiency, more nocturnal activity but not more nocturnal wakenings than both controls and ADHD participants without medication. At the molecular level, there were alterations in the expression of PER2 and CRY1 between ADHD individuals with no medication compared to medicated ADHD patients or controls, whilst CLOCK expression was altered in patients with ADHD and current medication. Analysis of fibroblasts transfected with a BMAL1:luc reporter showed changes in the timing of the peak expression across the three groups. Taken together, these data support the contention that both ADHD and medication status impact on circadian processes.
Project description:Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in children and adults. While ADHD patients often display circadian abnormalities, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we found that the zebrafish mutant for the circadian gene period1b (per1b) displays hyperactive, impulsive-like, and attention deficit-like behaviors and low levels of dopamine, reminiscent of human ADHD patients. We found that the circadian clock directly regulates dopamine-related genes monoamine oxidase and dopamine ? hydroxylase, and acts via genes important for the development or maintenance of dopaminergic neurons to regulate their number and organization in the ventral diencephalic posterior tuberculum. We then found that Per1 knock-out mice also display ADHD-like symptoms and reduced levels of dopamine, thereby showing highly conserved roles of the circadian clock in ADHD. Our studies demonstrate that disruption of a circadian clock gene elicits ADHD-like syndrome. The circadian model for attention deficiency and hyperactive behavior sheds light on ADHD pathogenesis and opens avenues for exploring novel targets for diagnosis and therapy for this common psychiatric disorder.
Project description:The circadian clock coordinates behavioral and circadian cues with availability and utilization of nutrients. Proteasomal degradation of clock repressors, such as cryptochrome (CRY)1, maintains periodicity. Whether macroautophagy, a quality control pathway, degrades circadian proteins remains unknown. Here we show that circadian proteins BMAL1, CLOCK, REV-ERB?, and CRY1 are lysosomal targets, and that macroautophagy affects the circadian clock by selectively degrading CRY1. Autophagic degradation of CRY1, an inhibitor of gluconeogenesis, occurs in a diurnal window when rodents rely on gluconeogenesis, suggesting that CRY1 degradation is time-imprinted to maintenance of blood glucose. High-fat feeding accelerates autophagic CRY1 degradation and contributes to obesity-associated hyperglycemia. CRY1 contains several light chain 3 (LC3)-interacting region (LIR) motifs, which facilitate the interaction of cargo proteins with the autophagosome marker LC3. Using mutational analyses, we identified two distinct LIRs on CRY1 that exert circadian glycemic control by regulating CRY1 degradation, revealing LIRs as potential targets for controlling hyperglycemia.
Project description:The mammalian circadian clock coordinates various physiological activities with environmental cues to achieve optimal adaptation. The clock manifests oscillations of key clock proteins, which are under dynamic control at multiple post-translational levels. As a major post-translational regulator, the ubiquitination-dependent proteasome degradation system is counterbalanced by a large group of deubiquitin proteases with distinct substrate preference. Until now, whether deubiquitination by ubiquitin-specific proteases can regulate the clock protein stability and circadian pathways remains largely unclear. The mammalian clock protein, cryptochrome 1 (CRY1), is degraded via the FBXL3-mediated ubiquitination pathway, suggesting that it is also likely to be targeted by the deubiquitination pathway. Here, we identified that USP2a, a circadian-controlled deubiquitinating enzyme, interacts with CRY1 and enhances its protein stability via deubiquitination upon serum shock. Depletion of Usp2a by shRNA greatly enhances the ubiquitination of CRY1 and dampens the oscillation amplitude of the CRY1 protein during a circadian cycle. By stabilizing the CRY1 protein, USP2a represses the Per2 promoter activity as well as the endogenous Per2 gene expression. We also demonstrated that USP2a-dependent deubiquitination and stabilization of the CRY1 protein occur in the mouse liver. Interestingly, the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-?, increases the CRY1 protein level and inhibits circadian gene expression in a USP2a-dependent fashion. Therefore, USP2a potentially mediates circadian disruption by suppressing the CRY1 degradation during inflammation.
Project description:Circadian and sleep disorders, short sleep duration, and evening chronotype are often present in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). CLOCK, considered the master gene in the circadian rhythm, has been explored by few studies. Understanding the relationship between ADHD and CLOCK may provide additional information to understand the correlation between ADHD and sleep problems. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between ADHD and CLOCK, using several genetic markers to comprehensively cover the gene extension. A total of 259 ADHD children and their parents from a Brazilian clinical sample were genotyped for eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CLOCK locus. We tested the individual markers and the haplotype effects using binary logistic regression. Binary logistic and linear regressions considering ADHD symptoms among ADHD cases were conducted as secondary analysis. As main result, the analysis showed a risk effect of the G-A-T-G-G-C-G-A (rs534654, rs1801260, rs6855837, rs34897046, rs11931061, rs3817444, rs4864548, rs726967) haplotype on ADHD. A suggestive association between ADHD and rs534654 was observed. The results suggest that the genetic susceptibility to circadian rhythm attributed to the CLOCK gene may play an important role on ADHD.
Project description:Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by disruptions in circadian rhythms such as sleep and daily activity that often normalize after lithium treatment in responsive patients. As lithium is known to interact with the circadian clock, we hypothesized that variation in circadian 'clock genes' would be associated with lithium response in BD. We determined genotype for 16 variants in seven circadian clock genes and conducted a candidate gene association study of these in 282 Caucasian patients with BD who were previously treated with lithium. We found that a variant in the promoter of NR1D1 encoding Rev-Erb? (rs2071427) and a second variant in CRY1 (rs8192440) were nominally associated with good treatment response. Previous studies have shown that lithium regulates Rev-Erb? protein stability by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?). We found that GSK3? genotype was also suggestive of a lithium response association, but not statistically significant. However, when GSK3? and NR1D1 genotypes were considered together, they predicted lithium response robustly and additively in proportion to the number of response-associated alleles. Using lymphoblastoid cell lines from patients with BD, we found that both the NR1D1 and GSK3? variants are associated with functional differences in gene expression. Our findings support a role for Rev-Erb? in the therapeutic mechanism of lithium and suggest that the interaction between Rev-Erb? and GSK3? may warrant further study.
Project description:Disruptions in circadian rhythms have been described in mood disorders (MD), but the involvement of genetic variation in genes pertaining to the molecular circadian machinery in the susceptibility to MD has not been conclusively determined. We examined 209 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering 19 circadian genes (ADCYAP1, ARNTL, ARNTL2, BHLHB2, BHLHB3, CLOCK, CRY1, CRY2, CSNK1E, DBP, NPAS2, NR1D1, PER1, PER2, PER3, RORA, TIMELESS, VIP, and VIPR2) in a sample of 534 MD patients (335 with unipolar major mood depression (MDD) and 199 with bipolar disorder (BD)) and 440 community-based screened controls. Nominally, statistically significant associations were found in 15 circadian genes. The gene-wide test, corrected for the number of SNPs analyzed in each gene, identified significant associations in CRY1 (rs2287161), NPAS2 (rs11123857), and VIPR2 (rs885861) genes with the combined MD sample. In the MDD subsample, the same SNPs in CRY1 and NPAS2 of the combined sample remained associated, whereas in the BD subsample CLOCK (rs10462028) and VIP (rs17083008) were specifically associated. The association with an SNP located 3' near CRY1 gene in MDD remained statistically significant after permutation correction at experiment level (p=0.007). Significant additive effects were found between the SNPs that were statistically significant at the gene-wide level. We also found evidence of associations between two-marker haplotypes in CRY1 and NPAS2 genes and MD. Our data support the contribution of the circadian system to the genetic susceptibility to MD and suggest that different circadian genes may have specific effects on MD polarity.
Project description:The circadian clock comprises a set of genes involved in cell-autonomous transcriptional feedback loops that orchestrate the expression of a range of downstream genes, driving circadian patterns of behavior. Cognitive dysfunction, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse disorders have been associated with disruptions in circadian rhythm and circadian clock genes, but the causal relationship of these associations is still poorly understood. In the present study, we investigate the effect of genetic disruption of the circadian clock, through deletion of both paralogs of the core gene cryptochrome (Cry1 and Cry2). Mice lacking Cry1 and Cry2 (Cry1(-/-)Cry2(-/-) ) displayed attenuated dark phase and novelty-induced locomotor activity. Moreover, they showed impaired recognition memory but intact fear memory. Depression-related behaviors in the forced swim test or sucrose preference tests were unaffected but Cry1(-/-)Cry2(-/-) mice displayed increased anxiety in the open field and elevated plus maze tests. Finally, hyperlocomotion and striatal phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) induced by a single cocaine administration are strongly reduced in Cry1(-/-)Cry2(-/-) mice. Interestingly, only some behavioral measures were affected in mice lacking either Cry1 or Cry2. Notably, recognition memory was impaired in both Cry1(-/-)Cry2(+/+) and Cry1(+/+)Cry2(-/-) mice. Moreover, we further observed elevated anxiety in Cry1(-/-)Cry2(+/+) and Cry1(+/+)Cry2(-/-) mice. Our data indicate that beyond their role in the control of circadian rhythm, cryptochrome genes have a direct influence in cognitive function, anxiety-related behaviors and sensitivity to psychostimulant drugs.
Project description:An interlocked transcriptional-translational feedback loop (TTFL) is thought to generate the mammalian circadian clockwork in both the central pacemaker residing in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei and in peripheral tissues. The core circadian genes, including Period1 and Period2 (Per1 and Per2), Cryptochrome1 and Cryptochrome2 (Cry1 and Cry2), Bmal1, and Clock are indispensable components of this biological clockwork. The cycling of the PER and CRY clock proteins has been thought to be necessary to keep the mammalian clock ticking.We provide a novel cell-permeant protein approach for manipulating cryptochrome protein levels to evaluate the current transcription and translation feedback model of the circadian clockwork. Cell-permeant cryptochrome proteins appear to be functional on the basis of several criteria, including the abilities to (1) rescue circadian properties in Cry1(-/-)Cry2(-/-) mouse fibroblasts, (2) act as transcriptional repressors, and (3) phase shift the circadian oscillator in Rat-1 fibroblasts. By using cell-permeant cryptochrome proteins, we demonstrate that cycling of CRY1, CRY2, and BMAL1 is not necessary for circadian-clock function in fibroblasts.These results are not supportive of the current version of the transcription and translation feedback-loop model of the mammalian clock mechanism, in which cycling of the essential clock proteins CRY1 and CRY2 is thought to be necessary.