Lactobacillus fermentum JX306 Restrain D-galactose-induced Oxidative Stress of Mice through its Antioxidant Activity.
ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress-induced series of related degenerative diseases have received widespread attention. To screen new lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains to resist oxidative stress, traditional Chinese fermented vegetables were used as a resource library to screen of LAB. The Lactobacillus fermentum JX306 strain, which showed high scavenging activity of DPPH free radical and hydrogen radical, and a strong lipid peroxidation inhibition rate in vitro was selected. L. fermentum JX306 was also examined for its antioxidant capacity in D-galactose-induced aging mice. The results showed that L. fermentum JX306 could significantly decrease malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and improve the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total antioxygenic capacity (TOC) in the serum, kidney, and liver. Meanwhile, the strain could remarkably upregulate the transcriptional level of the antioxidant-related enzyme genes, such as peroxiredoxin1 (Prdx1), glutathione reductase (Gsr), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx1), and thioredoxin reductase (TR3) encoding genes in the liver. Besides, histopathological observation proves that this probiotic strain could effectively inhibit oxidative damage to the liver and kidney in aging mice. Therefore, this unique antioxidant strain may have a high application value in the functional food industry and medicine industry.Oxidative stress-induced series of related degenerative diseases have received widespread attention. To screen new lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains to resist oxidative stress, traditional Chinese fermented vegetables were used as a resource library to screen of LAB. The Lactobacillus fermentum JX306 strain, which showed high scavenging activity of DPPH free radical and hydrogen radical, and a strong lipid peroxidation inhibition rate in vitro was selected. L. fermentum JX306 was also examined for its antioxidant capacity in D-galactose-induced aging mice. The results showed that L. fermentum JX306 could significantly decrease malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and improve the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total antioxygenic capacity (TOC) in the serum, kidney, and liver. Meanwhile, the strain could remarkably upregulate the transcriptional level of the antioxidant-related enzyme genes, such as peroxiredoxin1 (Prdx1), glutathione reductase (Gsr), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx1), and thioredoxin reductase (TR3) encoding genes in the liver. Besides, histopathological observation proves that this probiotic strain could effectively inhibit oxidative damage to the liver and kidney in aging mice. Therefore, this unique antioxidant strain may have a high application value in the functional food industry and medicine industry.
Project description:Natural antioxidant products are increasingly being used to treat various pathological liver conditions considering the role of oxidative stress in their pathogenesis. Rosemary essential oil has already being used as a preservative in food industry due to its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, but it was shown to possess additional health benefits. The aim of our study was to evaluate the protective effect of rosemary essential oil on carbon tetrachloride - induced liver injury in rats and to explore whether its mechanism of action is associated with modulation of hepatic oxidative status.Chemical composition of isolated rosemary essential oil was determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Antioxidant activity was determined in vitro using DPPH assay. Activities of enzyme markers of hepatocellular damage in serum and antioxidant enzymes in the liver homogenates were measured using the kinetic spectrophotometric methods.In this research, we identified 29 chemical compounds of the studied rosemary essential oil, and the main constituents were 1,8-cineole (43.77%), camphor (12.53%), and ?-pinene (11.51%). Investigated essential oil was found to exert hepatoprotective effects in the doses of 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg by diminishing AST and ALT activities up to 2-fold in serum of rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage. Rosemary essential oil prevented carbon tetrachloride-induced increase of lipid peroxidation in liver homogenates. Furthermore, pre-treatment with studied essential oil during 7 days significantly reversed the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in liver homogenates, especially in the dose of 10 mg/kg.Our results demonstrate that rosemary essential oil, beside exhibiting free radical scavenging activity determined by DPPH assay, mediates its hepatoprotective effects also through activation of physiological defense mechanisms.
Project description:Ferulic acid (FA) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) are main phenolic compounds accumulated in rhizosphere of continuously cropped cucumber, causing stress in plants. Microbial degradation of a mixture of FA and PHBA is not well understood in soil. We isolated a strain CSY-P13 of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, inoculated it into soil to protect cucumber from FA and PHBA stress, and explored a mechanism underlying the protection. CSY-P13 effectively degraded a mixture of FA and PHBA in culture solution under conditions of 39.37°C, pH 6.97, and 21.59 g L-1 potassium dihydrogen phosphate, giving rise to 4-vinyl guaiacol, vanillin, vanillic acid, and protocatechuic acid. During FA and PHBA degradation, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and dehydroascorbate reductase in CSY-P13 were induced. Inoculated into cucumber-planted soil containing 220 ?g g-1 mixture of FA and PHBA, CSY-P13 degraded FA and PHBA in soil, increased plant height, and decreased malonaldehyde, superoxide radical, and hydrogen peroxide levels in leaves. CSY-P13 also enhanced SOD, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase activities; increased ascorbate and glutathione contents; and elevated transcript levels of copper/zinc SOD, manganese SOD, and catalase in leaves under FA and PHBA. Moreover, CSY-P13 increased phosphatase, catalase, urease, and sucrase activities and changed bacterial richness, diversity, and community composition by high throughput sequencing in cucumber-planted soil supplemented with the mixture of FA and PHBA. So CSY-P13 degrades the mixture of FA and PHBA in soil and mitigates stress from the two phenolic compounds in cucumber by activating antioxidant enzymes, changing soil bacterial community, and inducing soil enzymes.
Project description:Livotrit®, a polyherbal formulation (Zandu, India) is commonly prescribed for liver health. The present study was undertaken to elucidate possible mechanism of antioxidant potential of Livotrit®. Livotrit® exhibited concentration dependent radical scavenging activity, inhibition of lipid peroxidation as well as activation and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. Interestingly, lower concentration of Livotrit® (0.05%) significantly increased activities and gene expression of catalase, Glutathione reductase (GR) and Gluthathione peroxidase (GPx), while higher concentration of Livotrit® (0.5%) significantly increased antioxidant enzyme Heme-oxygenase 1(HO-1) and not catalase (CAT), GR and GPx. Transcription factor, Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) required for expression of catalase, GR, GPx and HO-1 was efficiently translocated into the nucleus at both concentrations. Inspite of this, concentration dependent activation of these enzymes was found to be mediated through miRNAs involved in regulation of their gene expression.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Sida cordata, a member of Family Malvaceae is used in folk medicine for various ailments including liver diseases. In this study we investigated, its flavonoid constituents, in vitro antioxidant potential against different free radicals and hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rat. METHODS: Dried powder of S. cordata whole plant was extracted with methanol and the resultant (SCME) obtained was fractionated with escalating polarity to obtain n-hexane fraction (SCHE), ethyl acetate fraction (SCEE), n-butanol fraction (SCBE) and the remaining soluble portion as aqueous fraction (SCAE). Diverse in vitro antioxidants assays such as DPPH, H2O2, •OH, ABTS, ?-carotene bleaching assay, superoxide radical, lipid peroxidation, reducing power, and total antioxidant capacity were studied to assess scavenging potential of methanol extract and its derived fractions. On account of marked scavenging activity SCEE was selected to investigate the hepatoprotective potential against CCl4 induced toxicity in Sprague-Dawley male rats by assessing the level of serum markers (alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin, and ?-glutamyltransferase) and of liver antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione-S-transfers (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Histology of the liver was performed to study alteration in histoarchitecture. Existence of active flavonoids was established by thin layer chromatographic studies. RESULTS: Considerable amount of flavonoid and phenolic contents were recorded in the methanol extract and its derived fractions. Although the extract and all its derived fractions exhibited good antioxidant activities however, the most distinguished scavenging potential was observed for SCEE. Treatment of SCEE decreased the elevated level of serum marker enzymes induced with CCl4 administration whereas increased the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, POD, GST, GSR and GSH-Px). Hepatic concentration of GSH was increased while lipid peroxidation was decreased with SCEE administration in CCl4 intoxicated rats. Presence of apigenin with some unknown compounds was observed in SCEE by using thin layer chromatography. CONCLUSIONS: These results revealed the presence of some bioactive compound in the ethyl acetate fraction, confirming the utility of S. cordata against liver diseases in folk medicine.
Project description:An herbal preparation called "holy basil plus herbal powder" (HBPP) containing Ocimum santum, Withania somnifera, Pongamia pinnata, Plumbago indica, Emblica officinalis and Curcuma longa was investigated as an antioxidant and hepatoprotective agent. The antioxidant activity of HBPP was investigated in rats with liver injury induced by oral administration of carbon tetrachloride:olive oil (1:1). HBPP was administered orally at 500 mg/kg daily for 7 days before. HBPP exhibited statistically significant antioxidant activity, as shown by increased levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GRD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and decreased level of lipid peroxidation (LPO). HBPP performed equally well as silymarin, a well-established antioxidant preparation used to protect against liver injury.
Project description:Correlation between intensity of free radical processes estimated by biochemiluminesce parameters, content of lipoperoxidation products, and changes of glutathione peroxidase (GP, EC 220.127.116.11) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 18.104.22.168) activities at rats liver injury, after 12, 36, 70, 96, 110, and 125 hours & tetrachloromethane administration have been investigated. The histological examination of the liver sections of rats showed that prominent hepatocytes with marked vacuolisation and inflammatory cells which were arranged around the necrotic tissue are more at 96?h after exposure to CCl4. Moreover maximum increase in GR and GP activities, 2.1 and 2.5 times, respectively, was observed at 96?h after exposure to CCl4, what coincided with the maximum of free radical oxidation processes. Using a combination of reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction, expression of the glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase genes (Gpx1 and Gsr) was analyzed by the determination of their respective mRNAs in the rat liver tissue under toxic hepatitis conditions. The analyses of Gpx1 and Gsr expression revealed that the transcript levels increased in 2.5- and 3.0-folds, respectively. Western blot analysis revealed that the amounts of hepatic Gpx1 and Gsr proteins increased considerably after CCl4 administration. It can be proposed that the overexpression of these enzymes could be a mechanism of enhancement of hepatocytes tolerance to oxidative stress.
Project description:1. Changes in liver glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities in relation to age and sex of rats were measured. Oxidation of GSH was correlated with glutathione peroxidase activity. 2. Glutathione reductase activity in foetal rat liver was about 65% of the adult value. It increased to a value slightly higher than the adult one at about 2-3 days, decreased until about 16 days and then rose after weaning to a maximum at about 31 days, finally reaching adult values at about 45 days old. 3. Weaning rats on to an artificial rat-milk diet prevented the rise in glutathione reductase activity associated with weaning on to the usual diet high in carbohydrate. 4. In male rats glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver increased steadily up to adult values. There were no differences between male and female rats until sexual maturity, when, in females, the activity increased abruptly to an adult value that was about 80% higher than that in males. 5. The rate of GSH oxidation in rat liver homogenates increased steadily from 3 days until maturity, when the rate of oxidation was about 50% higher in female than in male liver. 6. In the liver a positive correlation between glutathione peroxidase activity and GSH oxidation was found. 7. It is suggested that the coupled oxidation-reduction through glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase is important for determining the redox state of glutathione and of NADP, and also for controlling the degradation of hydroperoxides. 8. Changes in glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities are discussed in relation to the redox state of glutathione and NADP and to their effects on the concentration of free CoA in rat liver and its possible action on ketogenesis and lipogenesis.
Project description:The present study was aimed to investigate the ability of quercetin (QE) to ameliorate adverse effects of cisplatin (Cis.) on the renal tissue antioxidants by investigating the kidney antioxidant gene expression and the antioxidant enzymes activity. Forty rats divided into. Control rats. QE treated rats were orally administered 100 mg QE/kg for successive 30 days. Cis. injected rats were administered i.p. Cis. (12 mg/kg b.w.) for 5 mutual days. Cis. + QE rats were administered Cis. i.p. (12 mg/kg) and orally administered 100 mg QE/kg for consecutive 30 days. The obtained results indicated that Cis. induced oxidative stress in the renal tissue. That was through induction of free radical production, inhibition of the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) as well their genes expression. At the same time, vitamin E, vitamin C and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were decreased. QE had the ability to overcome cisplatin-induced oxidative stress through the reduction of free radical levels. The antioxidant genes expression and antioxidant enzymes activity were induced. Finally the vitamin E, vitamin C and GSH levels were increased. Our work, proved the renoprotective effects of QE against oxidative stress induced by cisplatin.
Project description:The concentration of lipoperoxides (estimated as thiobarbituric acid-reactive material) and some components of the antioxidant defence system have been compared in various tissues of lean and congenitally obese mice. NADPH-stimulated lipoperoxide generation in vitro was significantly higher in microsomes (microsomal fractions) prepared from obese hepatic tissue than lean. Plasma, liver and brain lipoperoxide concentration was significantly higher in obese mice. In blood derived from obese mice the concentration of non-enzymic antioxidants including caeruloplasmin and vitamin A was higher, but hepatic retinol concentration was lower in these animals. In all the tissues assayed the glutathione peroxidase activity against H2O2 was less than its activity against cumene hydroperoxide. Assayed with either substrate, glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in the brain and blood of obese mice than their lean counterparts. Conversely, liver glutathione peroxidase was decreased in obese animals, representing 43% of the activity of the lean-mouse liver enzyme against H2O2 and 81% of the cumene hydroperoxide-reducing activity. The liver of obese mice had significantly less, and the kidneys more, oxidized glutathione than the corresponding tissues of lean mice. Further investigations on hepatic tissue indicated that glutathione reductase activity was lower in the obese animals, but there was no significant difference between glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in obese and lean mice.
Project description:The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Bauhinia hookeri ethanol extract (BHE) against CCl4-induced liver injury was investigated in mice. BHE was administered (500 and 1000 mg/kg/day) along with CCl4 for 6 weeks. The hepatic marker enzymes: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in the serum. The antioxidant parameters: glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione transferase (GST), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were estimated in the liver homogenate. BHE treatment significantly inhibited the CCl4-induced increase in ALT (44 and 64%), AST (36 and 46%), ALP (28 and 42%), and MDA (39 and 51%) levels at the tested doses, respectively. Moreover, BHE treatment markedly increased the activity of antioxidant parameters GSH, GPx, GR, GST, and SOD. Histological observations confirmed the strong hepatoprotective activity. These results suggest that a dietary supplement of BHE could exert a beneficial effect against oxidative stress and various liver diseases by enhancing the antioxidant defense status, reducing lipid peroxidation, and protecting against the pathological changes of the liver. The hepatoprotective activity of BHE is mediated, at least in part, by the antioxidant effect of its constituents. The active constituents of BHE were identified by HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS/MS.