New quantitative trait locus (QTLs) and candidate genes associated with the grape berry color trait identified based on a high-density genetic map.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Berry color is an important trait in grapes and is mainly determined by the anthocyanin content and composition. To further explore the coloring mechanism of grape berries, the F1 population of Vitis vinifera 'Red Globe'?×?'Muscat Hamburg' was used to map the color locus, and transcriptome analysis was performed to assist in screening candidate genes. RESULTS:A total of 438,407 high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were obtained from whole-genome resequencing (WGS) of the population, and 27,454 SNPs were selected to construct a high-density genetic map. The selected SNPs were clustered into 19 linkage groups (LGs) spanning a genetic distance of 1442.638?cM. Berry color was evaluated by color grade, chromatic aberration, total anthocyanin content and anthocyanin composition. The Pearson correlation coefficients of these phenotypes in 2017 and 2018 were significant at the 0.01 level. The major color locus of MYBA1 and MYBA2 on LG2 was identified, explaining between 26 and 63.6% of all phenotypic variance. Furthermore, 9 additional QTLs with smaller effects were detected on Chr2, Chr4, Chr6, Chr11 and Chr17. Combined with the gene annotation and RNA-seq data, multiple new candidate genes were selected from the above QTLs. CONCLUSION:These results indicated that grape berry color is a quantitative trait controlled by a major color locus and multiple minor loci. Though the major color locus was consistent with previous studies, several minor QTLs and candidate genes associated with grape berry color and anthocyanin accumulation were identified in this study. And the specific regulatory mechanism still needs to be further explored.
Project description:The skin color of grape berry is very important in the wine industry. The red color results from the synthesis and accumulation of anthocyanins, which is regulated by transcription factors belonging to the MYB family. The transcription factors that activate the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes have been isolated in model plants. However, the genetic basis of color variation is species-specific and its understanding is relevant in many crop species. This study reports the isolation of MybA1, and MYBCS-1 genes from muscadine grapes for the first time. They are designated as VrMybA1 (GenBank Accession No. KJ513437), and VrMYBCS1 (VrMYB5a) (GenBank Accession No. KJ513438). The findings in this study indicate that, the deduced VrMybA1 and VrMYBCS1 protein structures share extensive sequence similarity with previously characterized plant MYBs, while phylogenetic analysis confirms that they are members of the plant MYB super-family. The expressions of MybA1, and MYBCS1 (VrMYB5a) gene sequences were investigated by quantitative real-time PCR using in vitro cell cultures, and berry skin samples at different developmental stages. Results showed that MybA1, and MYBCS1 genes were up-regulated in the veràison and physiologically mature red berry skins during fruit development, as well as in in vitro red cell cultures. This study also found that in ripening berries, the transcription of VrMybA1, and VrMYBCS1 in the berry skin was positively correlated with anthocyanin accumulation. Therefore, the upregulation of VrMybA1, and VrMYBCS1 results in the accumulation and regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in berry development of muscadine grapes. This work greatly enhances the understanding of anthocyanin biosynthesis in muscadine grapes and will facilitate future genetic modification of the antioxidants in V. rotundifolia.
Project description:We report here that pink grape berries were obtained by a short insertion in the intron of the MybA1 gene, a gene that regulates grape berry color. Genetic variation was detected among the MybA1 genes from grapes cultivated worldwide. PCR analysis of the MybA1 gene demonstrated that the size of the MybA1 gene in the red allele differs among grapes. Oriental V. vinifera bearing pink berries has the longest MybA1 gene among grapes, whereas the shortest MybA1 gene was detected in occidental V. vinifera grapes. The nucleotide sequences of the MybA1 genes demonstrated that oriental V. vinifera has two additional gene fragments (44 bp and 111 bp) in the promoter region of the MybA1 gene in the red allele and another 33 bp fragment in the second intron of the MybA1 gene in the red allele. The short insertion in the intron decreased the transcription activity in the model system and retained MybA1 transcripts with unspliced intron in the total RNA. From the experiments using deletion mutants of the 33 bp short insertion, 16 bp of the 3' end in the insertion is a key structure for a defect in splicing of MybA1 transcripts. Thus, a weakly colored grape berry might be a result of the short insertion in the intron of a color regulatory gene. This is new evidence concerning the molecular mechanism of the fate of grape berry color. These findings are expected to contribute to the further understanding of the color variation in grape berries, which is correlated with the evolutional events occurring in the MybA1 gene of grapes.
Project description:Climate change is a major concern in grape production worldwide. Nights have been warming much faster than the days, raising attention on the effect of night temperatures on grape and wine composition. In this study we evaluated the effect of night temperatures on grape coloration in the cv. Corvina (Vitis vinifera L.). In 2015 and 2016 potted plants were cooled overnight (10-11?°C) during two berry ripening phases, veraison (TV) or post-veraison (TPV), and compared to control vines (C) grown at ambient night temperature (15-20?°C on average). Cooling treatment around veraison (TV) hastened berry anthocyanin accumulation, while the same treatment applied after veraison (TPV) was ineffective. Molecular analysis revealed an increased transcription of four key genes in anthocyanin biosynthesis (CHS3, F3H1, MYBA1 and UFGT) in TV treatment. These results suggest that the anthocyanin biosynthesis capacity was enhanced by cool nights during veraison. However, since the gene expression was not always temporally correlated to the increase in anthocyanin concentration, we speculate on the presence of mechanisms, such as enzymatic regulation or anthocyanin transport, which may contribute in determining the anthocyanin accumulation under low night temperatures.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Proanthocyanidins (PAs), or condensed tannins, are flavonoid polymers, widespread throughout the plant kingdom, which provide protection against herbivores while conferring organoleptic and nutritive values to plant-derived foods, such as wine. However, the genetic basis of qualitative and quantitative PA composition variation is still poorly understood. To elucidate the genetic architecture of the complex grape PA composition, we first carried out quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis on a 191-individual pseudo-F1 progeny. Three categories of PA variables were assessed: total content, percentages of constitutive subunits and composite ratio variables. For nine functional candidate genes, among which eight co-located with QTLs, we performed association analyses using a diversity panel of 141 grapevine cultivars in order to identify causal SNPs. RESULTS: Multiple QTL analysis revealed a total of 103 and 43 QTLs, respectively for seed and skin PA variables. Loci were mainly of additive effect while some loci were primarily of dominant effect. Results also showed a large involvement of pairwise epistatic interactions in shaping PA composition. QTLs for PA variables in skin and seeds differed in number, position, involvement of epistatic interaction and allelic effect, thus revealing different genetic determinisms for grape PA composition in seeds and skin. Association results were consistent with QTL analyses in most cases: four out of nine tested candidate genes (VvLAR1, VvMYBPA2, VvCHI1, VvMYBPA1) showed at least one significant association with PA variables, especially VvLAR1 revealed as of great interest for further functional investigation. Some SNP-phenotype associations were observed only in the diversity panel. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents the first QTL analysis on grape berry PA composition with a comparison between skin and seeds, together with an association study. Our results suggest a complex genetic control for PA traits and different genetic architectures for grape PA composition between berry skin and seeds. This work also uncovers novel genomic regions for further investigation in order to increase our knowledge of the genetic basis of PA composition.
Project description:Deciphering the genetic control of grape berry traits is crucial for optimizing yield, fruit quality, and consumer acceptability. In this study, an association panel of 179 grape genotypes comprising a mixture of ancient cultivars, landraces, and modern varieties collected worldwide were genotyped with genotyping-by-sequencing using a genome-wide association approach based on 32,311 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Genome-wide efficient mixed-model association was selected as the optimal statistical model based on the results of known control loci of grape berry color traits. Many of the associated SNPs identified in this study were in accordance with the previous QTL analyses using biparental mapping. The grape skin color locus was found to be associated with a mybA transcription factor on chromosome 2. Two strong and distinct association signals associated with berry development periods were found on chromosome 16. Most candidate genes of the interval were highlighted as receptor-like protein kinase. For berry weight, significant association loci were identified on chromosome 18, as previously known, and on chromosome 19 and chromosome 17, as newly mapped. Berry flesh texture was newly located on chromosome 16; candidate genes in the interval were related to calcium. Berry flavor was determined on chromosome 5. Genomic regions were further investigated to reveal candidate genes. In this work, we identified interesting genetic determinants of grape berry-related traits. The identification of the markers closely associated with these berry traits may be useful for grape molecular breeding.
Project description:Yan73, a teinturier (dyer) grape variety in China, is one of the few Vitis vinifera cultivars with red-coloured berry flesh. To examine the tissue-specific expression of genes associated with berry colour in Yan73, we analysed the differential accumulation of anthocyanins in the skin and flesh tissues of two red-skinned grape varieties with either red (Yan73) or white flesh (Muscat Hamburg) based on HPLC-MS analysis, as well as the differential expression of 18 anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in both varieties by quantitative RT-PCR. The results revealed that the transcripts of GST, OMT, AM3, CHS3, UFGT, MYBA1, F3'5'H, F3H1 and LDOX were barely detectable in the white flesh of Muscat Hamburg. In particular, GST, OMT, AM3, CHS3 and F3H1 showed approximately 50-fold downregulation in the white flesh of Muscat Hamburg compared to the red flesh of Yan73. A correlation analysis between the accumulation of different types of anthocyanins and gene expression indicated that the cumulative expression of GST, F3'5'H, LDOX and MYBA1 was more closely associated with the acylated anthocyanins and the 3'5'-OH anthocyanins, while OMT and AM3 were more closely associated with the total anthocyanins and methoxylated anthocyanins. Therefore, the transcripts of OMT, AM3, GST, F3'5'H, LDOX and MYBA1 explained most of the variation in the amount and composition of anthocyanins in skin and flesh of Yan73. The data suggest that the specific localization of anthocyanins in the flesh tissue of Yan73 is most likely due to the tissue-specific expression of OMT, AM3, GST, F3'5'H, LDOX and MYBA1 in the flesh.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Plant color variation is due not only to the global pigment concentration but also to the proportion of different types of pigment. Variation in the color spectrum may arise from secondary modifications, such as hydroxylation and methylation, affecting the chromatic properties of pigments. In grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), the level of methylation modifies the stability and reactivity of anthocyanin, which directly influence the color of the berry. Anthocyanin methylation, as a complex trait, is controlled by multiple molecular factors likely to involve multiple regulatory steps. RESULTS: In a Syrah × Grenache progeny, two QTLs were detected for variation in level of anthocyanin methylation. The first one, explaining up to 27% of variance, colocalized with a cluster of Myb-type transcription factor genes. The second one, explaining up to 20% of variance, colocalized with a cluster of O-methyltransferase coding genes (AOMT). In a collection of 32 unrelated cultivars, MybA and AOMT expression profiles correlated with the level of methylated anthocyanin. In addition, the newly characterized AOMT2 gene presented two SNPs associated with methylation level. These mutations, probably leading to a structural change of the AOMT2 protein significantly affected the enzyme specific catalytic efficiency for the 3'-O-methylation of delphinidin 3-glucoside. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that variation in methylated anthocyanin accumulation is susceptible to involve both transcriptional regulation and structural variation. We report here the identification of novel AOMT variants likely to cause methylated anthocyanin variation. The integration of QTL mapping and molecular approaches enabled a better understanding of how variation in gene expression and catalytic efficiency of the resulting enzyme may influence the grape anthocyanin profile.
Project description:Grape berry color is an economically important trait that is controlled by two major genes influencing anthocyanin synthesis in the skin. Color is often described qualitatively using six major categories; however, this is a subjective rating that often fails to describe variation within these six classes. To investigate minor genes influencing berry color, image analysis was used to quantify berry color using different color spaces. An image analysis pipeline was developed and utilized to quantify color in a segregating hybrid wine grape population across two years. Images were collected from grape clusters immediately after harvest and segmented by color to determine the red, green, and blue (RGB); hue, saturation, and intensity (HSI); and lightness, red-green, and blue-yellow values (L?a?b?) of berries. QTL analysis identified known major QTL for color on chromosome 2 along with several previously unreported smaller-effect QTL on chromosomes 1, 5, 6, 7, 10, 15, 18, and 19. This study demonstrated the ability of an image analysis phenotyping system to characterize berry color and to more effectively capture variability within a population and identify genetic regions of interest.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Somatic mutations occurring within meristems of vegetative propagation material have had a major role in increasing the genetic diversity of the domesticated grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera). The most well studied somatic variation in this species is the one affecting fruit pigmentation, leading to a plethora of different berry skin colors. Color depletion and reversion are often observed in the field. In this study we analyzed the origin of a novel white-to-red skin color reversion and studied its possible metabolic and transcriptomic consequences on cv. 'Muscat à Petits Grains Blancs' (synonym cv. 'Moscatel Galego Branco'), a member of the large family of Muscats. RESULTS:The mild red-skinned variant (cv. 'Muscat à Petits Grains Rouge', synonym cv. 'Moscatel Galego Roxo'), characterized by a preferential accumulation of di-hydroxylated anthocyanins, showed in heterozygosis a partially-excised Gret1 retrotransposon in the promoter region of the MYBA1 anthocyanin regulator, while MYBA2 was still in homozygosis for its non-functional allele. Through metabolic (anthocyanin, resveratrol and piceid quantifications) and transcriptomic (RNA-Seq) analyses, we show that within a near-isogenic background, the transcriptomic consequences of color reversion are largely associated to diminished light/UV-B responses probably as a consequence of the augment of metabolic sunscreens (i.e. anthocyanins). CONCLUSIONS:We propose that the reduced activity of the flavonoid tri-hydroxylated sub-branch and decreased anthocyanin synthesis and modification (e.g. methylation and acylation) are the potential causes for the mild red-skinned coloration in the pigmented revertant. The observed positive relation between anthocyanins and stilbenes could be attributable to an increased influx of phenylpropanoid intermediaries due to the replenished activity of MYBA1, an effect yet to be demonstrated in other somatic variants.
Project description:Anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols are the three major classes of flavonoid compounds found in grape berry tissues. Several viticultural practices increase flavonoid content in the fruit, but the underlying genetic mechanisms responsible for these changes have not been completely deciphered. The impact of post-veraison sunlight exposure on anthocyanin and flavonol accumulation in grape berry skin and its relation to the expression of different transcriptional regulators known to be involved in flavonoid synthesis was studied. Treatments consisting of removing or moving aside the basal leaves which shade berry clusters were applied. Shading did not affect sugar accumulation or gene expression of HEXOSE TRANSPORTER 1, although in the leaf removal treatment, these events were retarded during the first weeks of ripening. Flavonols were the most drastically reduced flavonoids following shading and leaf removal treatments, related to the reduced expression of FLAVONOL SYNTHASE 4 and its putative transcriptional regulator MYB12. Anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of CHS2, LDOX, OMT, UFGT, MYBA1, and MYB5a genes were also affected. Other regulatory genes were less affected or not affected at all by these treatments. Non-transcriptional control mechanisms for flavonoid synthesis are also suggested, especially during the initial stages of ripening. Although berries from the leaf removal treatment received more light than shaded fruits, malvidin-3-glucoside and total flavonol content was reduced compared with the treatment without leaf removal. This work reveals that flavonol-related gene expression responds rapidly to field changes in light levels, as shown by the treatment in which shaded fruits were exposed to light in the late stages of ripening. Taken together, this study establishes MYB-specific responsiveness for the effect of sun exposure and sugar transport on flavonoid synthesis.