The saprotrophic Pleurotus ostreatus species complex: late Eocene origin in East Asia, multiple dispersal, and complex speciation.
ABSTRACT: The Pleurotus ostreatus species complex is saprotrophic and of significant economic and ecological importance. However, species delimitation has long been problematic because of phenotypic plasticity and morphological stasis. In addition, the evolutionary history is poorly understood due to limited sampling and insufficient gene fragments employed for phylogenetic analyses. Comprehensive sampling from Asia, Europe, North and South America and Africa was used to run phylogenetic analyses of the P. ostreatus species complex based on 40 nuclear single-copy orthologous genes using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses. Here, we present a robust phylogeny of the P. ostreatus species complex, fully resolved from the deepest nodes to species level. The P. ostreatus species complex was strongly supported as monophyletic, and 20 phylogenetic species were recognized, with seven putatively new species. Data from our molecular clock analyses suggested that divergence of the genus Pleurotus probably occurred in the late Jurassic, while the most recent common ancestor of the P. ostreatus species complex diversified about 39?Ma in East Asia. Species of the P. ostreatus complex might migrate from the East Asia into North America across the North Atlantic Land Bridge or the Bering Land Bridge at different times during the late Oligocene, late Miocene and late Pliocene, and then diversified in the Old and New Worlds simultaneously through multiple dispersal and vicariance events. The dispersal from East Asia to South America in the middle Oligocene was probably achieved by a long-distance dispersal event. Intensification of aridity and climate cooling events in the late Miocene and Quaternary glacial cycling probably had a significant influence on diversification patterns of the complex. The disjunctions among East Asia, Europe, North America and Africa within Clade IIc are hypothesized to be a result of allopatric speciation. Substrate transitions to Apiaceae probably occurred no earlier than 6?Ma. Biogeographic analyses suggested that the global cooling of the late Eocene, intensification of aridity caused by rapid uplift of the QTP and retreat of the Tethys Sea in the late Miocene, climate cooling events in Quaternary glacial cycling, and substrate transitions have contributed jointly to diversification of the species complex.
Project description:Intercontinental floristic disjunction between East Asia and North America in the Northern Hemisphere has received much attention during the past decades, but few studies have focused on the family level. Melanthiaceae, containing 196 species and 17 genera circumscribed in five tribes, is disjunctly distributed in Eurasia and North America. It is one of the foremost models for studying the evolution of biogeographic patterns in this region. Here, we present a fossil-calibrated, molecular phylogeny of Melanthiaceae based on two chloroplast DNA datasets: one dataset includes extensive sampling (94 species representing all 17 genera of Melanthiaceae) of four chloroplast DNA regions (atpB, rbcL, matK, and ndhF) and the other includes six species representing all tribes of the family for 78 coding genes of the chloroplast genome. Within this framework, we infer the historical biogeography of Melanthiaceae. Both datasets produce well-resolved phylogenies of Melanthiaceae showing the monophyly of the family and the relationships among the five tribes. Melanthieae is found to be sister to the rest of the tribes of the family and the remaining taxa are divided into two major clades consisting of the Chionographideae + Heloniadeae clade and the Parideae + Xerophylleae clade. The molecular dating and the ancestral area analyses suggest that Melanthiaceae most likely originated in North America with its crown group dated at 92.1 mya in the late Cretaceous. The favored ancestral areas at the crown lineages of tribes are also in North America. In the family, seven independent migrations into East Asia from North America are inferred to have occurred in the Oligocene and the Miocene-Pliocene via historical paleo-land bridge connections. Cooling trends during the Oligocene resulted in the present East Asia-North America disjunct distribution, while the warm period during the middle Miocene and habitat heterogeneity stimulated diversification in East Asia. Our study provides the phylogenetic and biogeographical history of the Melanthiaceae and adds an example of "out of North America" migration in the biogeographic history of the Northern Hemisphere.
Project description:Investigating the biogeographical disjunction of East Asian and North American flora is key to understanding the formation and dynamics of biodiversity in the Northern Hemisphere. The small Cupressaceae genus Thuja, comprising five species, exhibits a typical disjunct distribution in East Asia and North America. Owing to obscure relationships, the biogeographical history of the genus remains controversial. Here, complete plastomes were employed to investigate the plastome evolution, phylogenetic relationships, and biogeographic history of Thuja. All plastomes of Thuja share the same gene content arranged in the same order. The loss of an IR was evident in all Thuja plastomes, and the B-arrangement as previously recognized was detected. Phylogenomic analyses resolved two sister pairs, T. standishii-T. koraiensis and T. occidentalis-T. sutchuenensis, with T. plicata sister to T. occidentalis-T. sutchuenensis. Molecular dating and biogeographic results suggest the diversification of Thuja occurred in the Middle Miocene, and the ancestral area of extant species was located in northern East Asia. Incorporating the fossil record, we inferred that Thuja likely originated from the high-latitude areas of North America in the Paleocene with a second diversification center in northern East Asia. The current geographical distribution of Thuja was likely shaped by dispersal events attributed to the Bering Land Bridge in the Miocene and subsequent vicariance events accompanying climate cooling. The potential effect of extinction may have profound influence on the biogeographical history of Thuja.
Project description:Theories of late Cenozoic climate cooling assume that central Asian aridification and high dust accumulation rates in the Chinese Loess Plateau and the North Pacific Ocean are genetically related. On the basis of detailed sediment provenance analysis, we show that high dust accumulation rates in the Chinese Loess Plateau and the North Pacific Ocean during the late Miocene-Pliocene were mainly caused by increased erosion in the Qilian Mountains and low-elevation eastern Asia areas, driven by the effects of East Asian summer monsoon intensification. We conclude that precipitation-driven erosion increased dust input to the North Pacific Ocean and may have played a pivotal role in late Cenozoic climate cooling.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:In the Northern Hemisphere, Tertiary relict disjunctions involve older groups of warm affinity and wide disjunctions, whereas circumboreal distributions in Arctic-Alpine taxa tend to be younger. Arctic-Alpine species are occasionally derived from Tertiary relict groups, but Pyrola species, in particular, are exceptional and they might have occurred multiple times. The aim of this study was to reconstruct the biogeographic history of Pyrola based on a clear phylogenetic analysis and to explore how the genus attained its circumboreal distribution. METHODS:Estimates of divergence times and ancestral geographical distributions based on neutrally evolving DNA sequence variation were used to develop a spatio-temporal model of colonization patterns for Pyrola. KEY RESULTS:Pyrola originated and most diversification occurred in Asia; North America was reached first by series Scotophyllae in the late Miocene, then by sub-clades of series Pyrola and Ellipticae around the Pliocene. The three circumboreal taxa, P. minor, P. chlorantha and the P. rotundifolia complex, originated independently of one another, with the last two originating in Asia. CONCLUSIONS:Three circumboreal Pyrola lineages have arisen independently and at least two of these appear to have originated in Asia. The cool, high-altitude habitats of many Pyrola species and the fact that diversification in the genus coincided with global cooling from the late Miocene onwards fits a hypothesis of pre-adaptation to become circumboreal within this group.
Project description:Elsholtzia and its allied genera such as Collinsonia and Perilla (tribe Elsholtzieae, Lamiaceae) are an ecologically and economically important plant group consisting of ~71 species, with most species distributed in East and Southeast Asia, and several species in North America. Their phylogeny and historical biogeography resulting in a distant intercontinental disjunction are poorly understood. Here we use two nuclear (ETS, ITS) and five chloroplast (rbcL, matK, trnL-F, ycf1, ycf1-rps15) fragments to reconstruct the phylogeny, biogeographic history, and patterns of diversification of Elsholtzieae. The tribe Elsholtzieae is monophyletic and divided into five clades. The woody Elsholtzia species are nested within herbaceous ones and are inferred to have evolved from herbaceous ancestors. Molecular dating shows that the five major clades were established during the Eocene period, but most of the modern diversity did not originate until the Miocene. The divergence between the New World Collinsonia and the Old World Mosla-Keiskea-Perilla clade was dated to the mid-Miocene. Ancestral area reconstructions suggest that the tribe originated in East Asia, and then dispersed to Southeast Asia and North America. Overall, our findings highlight the important roles of the uplifts of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and climate changes from Middle Miocene onwards in promoting species diversification of Elsholtzieae.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Numerous studies have favored dispersal (colonization) over vicariance (past fragmentation) events to explain eastern Asian-North American distribution patterns. In plants, however the disjunction between eastern Asia and western North America has been rarely examined using the integration of phylogenetic, molecular dating, and biogeographical methods. Meanwhile, the biogeographic patterns within eastern Asia remain poorly understood. The goldthread genus Coptis Salisb. includes 15 species disjunctly distributed in North America, Japan, mainland China, and Taiwan. We present a dated phylogeny for Coptis under the optimal clock model and infer its historical biogeography by comparing different biogeographic models. RESULTS:The split of Coptis and Xanthorhiza Marshall occurred in the middle Miocene (ca. 15.47 Ma). Coptis started their diversification in the early late Miocene (ca. 9.55 Ma). A late Miocene vicariance event resulted in the eastern Asian and western North American disjunction in the genus. Within eastern Asia, dispersals from mainland Asia to Japan and from Japan to Taiwan occurred at ca. 4.85 Ma and at ca. 1.34 Ma, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Our analyses provide evidence that both vicariance and dispersal events have played important roles in shaping the current distribution and endemism of Coptis, likely resulting from eustatic sea-level changes, mountain formation processes and an increasing drier and cooler climate from the middle Miocene onwards.
Project description:Yunnan in southwestern China is renowned for its high plant diversity. To understand how this modern botanical richness formed, it is critical to investigate the past biodiversity throughout the geological time. In this review, we present a summary on plant diversity, floristics and climates in the Cenozoic of Yunnan and document their changes, by compiling published palaeobotanical sources. Our review demonstrates that thus far a total of 386 fossil species of ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms belonging to 170 genera within 66 families have been reported from the Cenozoic, particularly the Neogene, of Yunnan. Angiosperms display the highest richness represented by 353 species grouped into 155 genera within 60 families, with Fagaceae, Fabaceae, Lauraceae and Juglandaceae being the most diversified. Most of the families and genera recorded as fossils still occur in Yunnan, but seven genera have disappeared, including Berryophyllum, Cedrelospermum, Cedrus, Palaeocarya, Podocarpium, Sequoia and Wataria. The regional extinction of these genera is commonly referred to an aridification of the dry season associated with Asian monsoon development. Floristic analyses indicate that in the late Miocene, Yunnan had three floristic regions: a northern subtropical floristic region in the northeast, a subtropical floristic region in the east, and a tropical floristic region in the southwest. In the late Pliocene, Yunnan saw two kinds of floristic regions: a subalpine floristic region in the northwest, and two subtropical floristic regions separately in the southwest and the eastern center. These floristic concepts are verified by results from our areal type analyses which suggest that in the Miocene southwestern Yunnan supported the most Pantropic elements, while in the Pliocene southwestern Yunnan had abundant Tropical Asia (Indo-Malaysia) type and East Asia and North America disjunct type that were absent from northwestern Yunnan. From the late Miocene to late Pliocene through to the present, floristic composition and vegetation types changed markedly, presumably in response to altitude changes and coeval global cooling. An integration of palaeoclimate data suggests that during the Neogene Yunnan was warmer and wetter than today. Moreover, northern Yunnan witnessed a pronounced temperature decline, while southern Yunnan experienced only moderate temperature changes. Summer precipitation was consistently higher than winter precipitation, suggesting a rainfall seasonality. This summary on palaeoclimates helps us to understand under what conditions plant diversity occurred and evolved in Yunnan throughout the Cenozoic.
Project description:The Irano-Turanian (IT) floristic region is considered an important center of origin for many taxa. However, there is a lack of studies dealing with typical IT genera that also occur in neighboring areas. The species-rich monocot genus Gagea Salisb. shows a center of diversity in IT region and a distribution in adjacent regions, therefore representing a good study object to investigate spatial and temporal relationships among IT region and its neighboring areas (East Asia, Euro-Siberia, Himalaya, and Mediterranean). We aimed at (a) testing the origin of the genus and of its major lineages in the IT region, (b) reconstructing divergence times, and (c) reconstructing colonization events. To address these problems, sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 418 individuals and chloroplast intergenic spacers sequences (psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF) of 497 individuals, representing 116 species from all sections of the genus and nearly its entire distribution area were analyzed. Divergence times were estimated under a random molecular clock based on nrITS phylogeny, which was the most complete data set regarding the representation of species and distribution areas. Ancestral distribution ranges were estimated for the nrITS data set as well as for a combined data set, revealing that Gagea most likely originated in southwestern Asia. This genus first diversified there starting in the Early Miocene. In the Middle Miocene, Gagea migrated to the Mediterranean and to East Asia, while migration into Euro-Siberia took place in the Late Miocene. During the Pleistocene, the Arctic was colonized and Gagea serotina, the most widespread species, reached North America. The Mediterranean basin was colonized multiple times from southwestern Asia or Euro-Siberia. Most of the currently existing species originated during the last 3 Ma.
Project description:Morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies suggest that the pantropical genus Bauhinia L. s.l. (Bauhiniinae, Cercideae, Leguminosae) is paraphyletic and may as well be subdivided into nine genera, including Bauhinia L. s.s. and its allies. Their leaves are usually characteristic bilobate and are thus easily recognized in the fossil record. This provides the opportunity to understand the early evolution, diversification, and biogeographic history of orchid trees from an historical perspective under the framework of morphological and molecular studies.The taxonomy, distribution, and leaf architecture of Bauhinia and its allies across the world are summarized in detail, which formed the basis for classifying the bilobate leaf fossils and evaluating the fossil record and biogeography of Bauhinia. Two species of Bauhinia are described from the middle Miocene Fotan Group of Fujian Province, southeastern China. Bauhinia ungulatoides sp. nov. is characterized by shallowly to moderately bilobate, pulvinate leaves with shallowly cordate bases and acute apices on each lobe, as well as paracytic stomatal complexes. Bauhinia fotana F.M.B. Jacques et al. emend. possesses moderately bilobate, pulvinate leaves with moderately to deeply cordate bases and acute or slightly obtuse apices on each lobe.Bilobate leaf fossils Bauhinia ungulatoides and B. fotana together with other late Paleogene - early Neogene Chinese record of the genus suggest that Bauhinia had been diverse in South China by the late Paleogene. Their great similarities to some species from South America and South Asia respectively imply that Bauhinia might have undergone extensive dispersals and diversification during or before the Miocene. The fossil record, extant species diversity, as well as molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that the Bauhiniinae might have originated in the Paleogene of low-latitudes along the eastern Tethys Seaway. They dispersed southwards into Africa, migrated from Eurasia to North America via the North Atlantic Land Bridge or floating islands during the Oligocene. Then the genus spread into South America probably via the Isthmus of Panama since the Miocene onward, and underwent regional extinctions in the Boreotropics of mid-high-latitudes during the Neogene climatic cooling. Hence, Bauhinia presently exhibits a pantropical intercontinental disjunct distribution.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lethal amanitas (Amanita section Phalloideae) are a group of wild, fatal mushrooms causing many poisoning cases worldwide. However, the diversity and evolutionary history of these lethal mushrooms remain poorly known due to the limited sampling and insufficient gene fragments employed for phylogenetic analyses. In this study, five gene loci (nrLSU, ITS, rpb2, ef1-α and β-tubulin) with a widely geographic sampling from East and South Asia, Europe, North and Central America, South Africa and Australia were analysed with maximum-likelihood, maximum-parsimony and Bayesian inference methods. Biochemical analyses were also conducted with intention to detect amatoxins and phalloidin in 14 representative samples. RESULT:Lethal amanitas were robustly supported to be a monophyletic group after excluding five species that were provisionally defined as lethal amanitas based on morphological studies. In lethal amanitas, 28 phylogenetic species were recognised by integrating molecular phylogenetic analyses with morphological studies, and 14 of them represented putatively new species. The biochemical analyses indicated a single origin of cyclic peptide toxins (amatoxins and phalloidin) within Amanita and suggested that this kind of toxins seemed to be a synapomorphy of lethal amanitas. Molecular dating through BEAST and biogeographic analyses with LAGRANGE and RASP indicated that lethal amanitas most likely originated in the Palaeotropics with the present crown group dated around 64.92 Mya in the early Paleocene, and the East Asia-eastern North America or Eurasia-North America-Central America disjunct distribution patterns were primarily established during the middle Oligocene to Miocene. CONCLUSION:The cryptic diversity found in this study indicates that the species diversity of lethal amanitas is strongly underestimated under the current taxonomy. The intercontinental sister species or sister groups relationships among East Asia and eastern North America or Eurasia-North America-Central America within lethal amanitas are best explained by the diversification model of Palaeotropical origin, dispersal via the Bering Land Bridge, followed by regional vicariance speciation resulting from climate change during the middle Oligocene to the present. These findings indicate the importance of both dispersal and vicariance in shaping the intercontinental distributions of these ectomycorrhizal fungi.