Randomized, Double-Blind Assessment of LFP Versus SUA Guidance in STN-DBS Lead Implantation: A Pilot Study.
ABSTRACT: Background: The efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients is highly dependent on the precise localization of the target structures such as subthalamic nucleus (STN). Most commonly, microelectrode single unit activity (SUA) recordings are performed to refine the target. This process is heavily experience based and can be technically challenging. Local field potentials (LFPs), representing the activity of a population of neurons, can be obtained from the same microelectrodes used for SUA recordings and allow flexible online processing with less computational complexity due to lower sampling rate requirements. Although LFPs have been shown to contain biomarkers capable of predicting patients' symptoms and differentiating various structures, their use in the localization of the STN in the clinical practice is not prevalent. Methods: Here we present, for the first time, a randomized and double-blinded pilot study with intraoperative online LFP processing in which we compare the clinical benefit from SUA- versus LFP-based implantation. Ten PD patients referred for bilateral STN-DBS were randomly implanted using either SUA or LFP guided targeting in each hemisphere. Although both SUA and LFP were recorded for each STN, the electrophysiologist was blinded to one at a time. Three months postoperatively, the patients were evaluated by a neurologist blinded to the intraoperative recordings to assess the performance of each modality. While SUA-based decisions relied on the visual and auditory inspection of the raw traces, LFP-based decisions were given through an online signal processing and machine learning pipeline. Results: We found a dramatic agreement between LFP- and SUA-based localization (16/20 STNs) providing adequate clinical improvement (51.8% decrease in 3-month contralateral motor assessment scores), with LFP-guided implantation resulting in greater average improvement in the discordant cases (74.9%, n = 3 STNs). The selected tracks were characterized by higher activity in beta (11-32 Hz) and high-frequency (200-400 Hz) bands (p < 0.01) of LFPs and stronger non-linear coupling between these bands (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our pilot study shows equal or better clinical benefit with LFP-based targeting. Given the robustness of the electrode interface and lower computational cost, more centers can utilize LFP as a strategic feedback modality intraoperatively, in conjunction to the SUA-guided targeting.
Project description:Single cell neuronal activity (SUA) and local field potentials (LFP) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of unmedicated Parkinson's disease (PD) patients undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery have been well-characterized during microelectrode recordings (MER). However, there is limited knowledge about the changes in the firing patterns and oscillations above and within the territories of STN after the intake of dopaminergic medication. Here, for the first time, we report the STN single cell and oscillatory neural dynamics in a medicated patient with idiopathic PD using intraoperative MER. We recorded LFP and SUA with microelectrodes at various depths during bilateral STN-DBS electrode implantation. We isolated 26 neurons in total and observed that tonic and irregular firing patterns of individual neurons predominated throughout the territories of STN. While burst-type firings have been well-characterized in the dorsal territories of STN in unmedicated patients, interestingly, this activity was not observed in our medicated subject. LFP recordings lacked the excessive beta (8-30 Hz) activity, characteristic of the unmedicated state and signal energy was mainly dominated by slow oscillations below 8 Hz. We observed sharp gamma oscillations between 70 and 90 Hz within and above the STN. Despite the presence of a broadband high frequency activity in 200-400 Hz range, no cross-frequency interaction in the form of phase-amplitude coupling was noted between low and high frequency oscillations of LFPs. While our results are in agreement with the previously reported LFP recordings from the DBS lead in medicated PD patients, the sharp gamma peak present throughout the depth recordings and the lack of bursting firings after levodopa intake have not been reported before. The lack of bursting in SUA, the lack of excessive beta activity and cross frequency coupling between HFOs and lower rhythms further validate the link between bursting firing regime of neurons and pathological oscillatory neural activity in PD-STN. Overall, these observations not only validate the existing literature on the PD electrophysiology in healthy/medicated animal models but also provide insights regarding the underlying electro-pathophysiology of levodopa-induced dyskinesias in PD patients through demonstration of multiscale relationships between single cell firings and field potentials.
Project description:Local field potentials (LFPs) may afford insight into the mechanisms of action of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and potential feedback signals for adaptive DBS. In Parkinson's disease (PD) DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) suppresses spontaneous activity in the beta band and drives evoked resonant neural activity (ERNA). Here, we investigate how STN LFP activities change over time following the onset and offset of DBS. To this end we recorded LFPs from the STN in 14 PD patients during long (mean: 181.2 s) and short (14.2 s) blocks of continuous stimulation at 130 Hz. LFP activities were evaluated in the temporal and spectral domains. During long stimulation blocks, the frequency and amplitude of the ERNA decreased before reaching a steady state after ~70 s. Maximal ERNA amplitudes diminished over repeated stimulation blocks. Upon DBS cessation, the ERNA was revealed as an under-damped oscillation, and was more marked and lasted longer after short duration stimulation blocks. In contrast, activity in the beta band suppressed within 0.5 s of continuous DBS onset and drifted less over time. Spontaneous activity was also suppressed in the low gamma band, suggesting that the effects of high frequency stimulation on spontaneous oscillations may not be selective for pathological beta activity. High frequency oscillations were present in only six STN recordings before stimulation onset and their frequency was depressed by stimulation. The different dynamics of the ERNA and beta activity with stimulation imply different DBS mechanisms and may impact how these activities may be used in adaptive feedback.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Unilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) improves ipsilateral symptoms, but how this occurs is not well understood. We investigated whether unilateral STN DBS suppresses contralateral STN beta activity in the local field potential (LFP), since previous research has shown that activity in the beta band can correlate with the severity of contralateral clinical symptoms and is modulated by DBS. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We recorded STN LFPs from 14 patients who underwent bilateral STN DBS for PD. Following a baseline recording, unilateral STN stimulation was delivered at therapeutic parameters while LFPs were recorded from the contralateral (unstimulated) STN. RESULTS:Unilateral STN DBS suppressed contralateral beta power (p = 0.039, relative suppression = -5.7%?±?[SD] 16% when averaging across the highest beta peak channels; p = 0.033, relative suppression = -5.2%?±?13% when averaging across all channels). Unilateral STN DBS produced a 17% ipsilateral (p = 0.016) and 29% contralateral (p = 0.002) improvement in upper limb hemi-body bradykinesia-rigidity (UPDRS-III, items 3.3-3.6). The ipsilateral clinical improvement and the change in contralateral beta power were not significantly correlated. CONCLUSIONS:Unilateral STN DBS suppresses contralateral STN beta LFP. This indicates that unilateral STN DBS modulates bilateral basal ganglia networks. It remains unclear whether this mechanism accounts for the ipsilateral motor improvements.
Project description:Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Sleep disorders are common complications of PD and affected by subthalamic DBS treatment. To achieve more precise neuromodulation, chronicsleepmonitoringand closed-loop DBS toward sleep-wake cycles could potentially be utilized. Local field potential (LFP) signals that are sensed by the DBS electrode could be processed as primary feedback signals. This is the first study to systematically investigate the sleep-stage classification based on LFPs in subthalamic nucleus (STN). With our newly developed recording and transmission system, STN-LFPs were collected from 12 PD patients during wakefulness and nocturnal polysomnography sleep monitoring at one month after DBS implantation. Automatic sleep-stage classificationmodels were built with robust and interpretable machine learning methods (support vector machine and decision tree). The accuracy, sensitivity, selectivity, and specificity of the classification reached high values (above90% at most measures) at group and individual levels. Features extracted in alpha (8-13 Hz), beta (13-35 Hz), and gamma (35-50 Hz) bandswere found to contribute the most to the classification. These results will directly guide the engineering development of implantable sleepmonitoring and closed-loopDBS and pave the way for a better understanding of the STN-LFP sleep patterns.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Previous studies found subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) has clinical effect on Parkinson's disease, dystonia, and obsessive compulsive disorder. It is noteworthy that only a few studies report the STN-DBS for Tourette's syndrome (TS). Globus pallidus interna (GPi)-DBS is the one of the most common targets for TS. So, this paper aims to investigate the neural oscillations in STN and GPi as well as the DBS effect between these two targets in same patients. METHODS:The local field potentials (LFPs) were simultaneously recorded from the bilateral GPi and STN in four patients with TS. The LFPs were decomposed into neural oscillations, and the frequency and time-frequency characteristics of the neural oscillations were analyzed across the conditions of resting, poststimulation, and movement. RESULTS:No difference of resting LFP was found between the two targets. The poststimulation period spectral power revealed the high beta and gamma oscillations were recovered after GPi-DBS but remained attenuated after STN-DBS. The STN beta oscillation has fewer changes during tics than voluntary movement, and the gamma oscillation was elevated when the tics appeared. CONCLUSION:The high beta and gamma oscillations in GPi restored after GPi-DBS, but not STN-DBS. High beta and gamma oscillations may have physiological function in resisting tics in TS. The cortex compensation effect might be interfered by the STN-DBS due to the influence on the hyper-direct pathway but not GPi-DBS.
Project description:Background:Directional deep brain stimulation (DBS) technology aims to address the limitations, such as stimulation-induced side effects, by delivering selective, focal modulation via segmented contacts. However, DBS programming becomes more complex and time-consuming for clinical feasibility. Local field potentials (LFPs) might serve a functional role in guiding clinical programming. Objective:In this pilot study, we investigated the spectral dynamics of directional LFPs in subthalamic nucleus (STN) and their relationship to motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods:We recorded intraoperative STN-LFPs from 8-contact leads (Infinity-6172, Abbott Laboratories, Illinois, United States) in 8 PD patients at rest. Directional LFPs were referenced to their common average and time-frequency analysis was computed using a modified Welch periodogram method. The beta band (13-35 Hz) features were extracted and their correlation to preoperative UPDRS-III scores were assessed. Results:Normalized beta power (13-20 Hz) and normalized peak power (13-35 Hz) were found to be higher in anterior direction despite lack of statistical significance (p > 0.05). Results of the Spearman correlation analysis demonstrated positive trends with bradykinesia/rigidity in dorsoanterior direction (r = 0.659, p = 0.087) and with axial scores in the dorsomedial direction (r = 0.812, p = 0.072). Conclusion:Given that testing all possible combinations of contact pairs and stimulation parameters is not feasible in a single clinic visit, spatio-spectral LFP dynamics obtained from intraoperative recordings might be used as an initial marker to select optimal contact(s).
Project description:The basal ganglia are known to be involved in the planning, execution and control of gripping force and movement vigour. Here we aim to define the nature of the basal ganglia control signal for force and to decode gripping force based on local field potential (LFP) activities recorded from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes. We found that STN LFP activities in the gamma (55-90 Hz) and beta (13-30m Hz) bands were most informative about gripping force, and that a first order dynamic linear model with these STN LFP features as inputs can be used to decode the temporal profile of gripping force. Our results enhance the understanding of how the basal ganglia control gripping force, and also suggest that deep brain LFPs could potentially be used to decode movement parameters related to force and movement vigour for the development of advanced human-machine interfaces.
Project description:In the United States, the most commonly used surgical treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease is the implantation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes within the subthalamic nucleus. However, DBS device programming remains difficult and is a possible source of decreased efficacy.We investigated the relationship between local field potential (LFP) activities in the subthalamic nucleus and the therapeutic response to programming.We recorded LFPs with macroelectrodes placed unilaterally for DBS in 4 PD patients, 3 weeks after implantation, before the start of log-term DBS. Power-frequency spectra were calculated for each of 7 possible electrode contacts or contact pairs, over multiple 5- to 10-minute quiet waking epochs and over 30-second epochs during hand movements. Subsequently, DBS devices were programmed, with testing to determine which electrode contacts or contact pairs demonstrated optimal therapeutic efficacy.For each patient, the contact pair found to provide optimal efficacy was associated with the highest energy in the beta (13-32 Hz) and gamma (48-220 Hz) bands during postoperative LFP recordings at rest and during hand movements. Activities in other frequency bands did not show significant correlations between LFP power and optimal electrode contacts.Postoperative subband analysis of LFP recordings in beta and gamma frequency ranges may be used to select optimal electrode contacts. These results indicate that LFP recordings from implanted DBS electrodes can provide important clues to guide the optimization of DBS therapy in individual patients.
Project description:A prominent feature of motor cortex field potentials during movement is a distinctive low-frequency local field potential (lf-LFP) (<4 Hz), referred to as the movement event-related potential (mEP). The lf-LFP appears to be a global signal related to regional synaptic input, but its relationship to nearby output signaled by single unit spiking activity (SUA) or to movement remains to be established. Previous studies comparing information in primary motor cortex (MI) lf-LFPs and SUA in the context of planar reaching tasks concluded that lf-LFPs have more information than spikes about movement. However, the relative performance of these signals was based on a small number of simultaneously recorded channels and units, or for data averaged across sessions, which could miss information of larger-scale spiking populations. Here, we simultaneously recorded LFPs and SUA from two 96-microelectrode arrays implanted in two major motor cortical areas, MI and ventral premotor (PMv), while monkeys freely reached for and grasped objects swinging in front of them. We compared arm end point and grip aperture kinematics' decoding accuracy for lf-LFP and SUA ensembles. The results show that lf-LFPs provide enough information to reconstruct kinematics in both areas with little difference in decoding performance between MI and PMv. Individual lf-LFP channels often provided more accurate decoding of single kinematic variables than any one single unit. However, the decoding performance of the best single unit among the large population usually exceeded that of the best single lf-LFP channel. Furthermore, ensembles of SUA outperformed the pool of lf-LFP channels, in disagreement with the previously reported superiority of lf-LFP decoding. Decoding results suggest that information in lf-LFPs recorded from intracortical arrays may allow the reconstruction of reach and grasp for real-time neuroprosthetic applications, thus potentially supplementing the ability to decode these same features from spiking populations.
Project description:Subthalamic nucleus (STN) local field potentials (LFP) are neural signals that have been shown to reveal motor and language behavior, as well as pathological parkinsonian states. We use a research-grade implantable neurostimulator (INS) with data collection capabilities to record STN-LFP outside the operating room to determine the reliability of the signals over time and assess their dynamics with respect to behavior and dopaminergic medication. Seven subjects were implanted with the recording augmented deep brain stimulation (DBS) system, and bilateral STN-LFP recordings were collected in the clinic over twelve months. Subjects were cued to perform voluntary motor and language behaviors in on and off medication states. The STN-LFP recorded with the INS demonstrated behavior-modulated desynchronization of beta frequency (13-30 Hz) and synchronization of low gamma frequency (35-70 Hz) oscillations. Dopaminergic medication did not diminish the relative beta frequency oscillatory desynchronization with movement. However, movement-related gamma frequency oscillatory synchronization was only observed in the medication on state. We observed significant inter-subject variability, but observed consistent STN-LFP activity across recording systems and over a one-year period for each subject. These findings demonstrate that an INS system can provide robust STN-LFP recordings in ambulatory patients, allowing for these signals to be recorded in settings that better represent natural environments in which patients are in a variety of medication states.