Epidemiology of Pediatric NMOSD in Germany and Austria.
ABSTRACT: Background: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are severe inflammatory demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system mainly characterized by recurrent episodes of uni- or bilateral optic neuritis (ON), transverse myelitis (TM) and brainstem syndromes (BS). The majority of adult patients has serum antibodies directed against the water channel protein aquaporin 4 (AQP4-abs). In pediatric patients, AQP4-abs are less, while antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-abs) are more frequently detectable than in adults. Some children with NMOSD have neither AQP4- nor MOG-ab (double-seronegative). Objective: Evaluation of epidemiological data regarding incidence and prevalence of pediatric NMOSD in Germany and Austria. Methods: We recruited pediatric NMOSD patients between 1 March 2017 and 28 February 2019 with five different tools: (1) ESPED (Surveillance Unit for Rare Pediatric Disorders in Germany), (2) ESNEK (Surveillance for Rare Neurological Disorders during Childhood), (3) pediatric neurology working group within the Austrian Society of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, (4) BIOMARKER Study and (5) NEMOS (Neuromyelitis optica Study Group). We requested data regarding clinical symptoms, antibody status, therapy regimen and response via a standardized questionnaire. Results: During the 2-year recruitment period, 46 (both incidental and prevalent) patients with a suspected diagnosis of NMOSD were brought to our attention. Twenty-two of these patients did not fulfill the inclusion criteria. Of the remaining 24 children, 22 had a median age at onset of 11 (range 3-17) years and 16/22 were female (72.7%) (no data in two patients). Sixteen of 24 patients were AQP4-ab positive (67%), 4/24 MOG-ab positive (16.7%), three children were double-seronegative and in one patient no antibody testing was done. We calculated an incidence rate of 0.022 per 100,000 person-years for Germany, while there was no incidental case in Austria during the recruitment period. The prevalence rate was 0.147 and 0.267 per 100,000 persons in Germany and Austria, respectively. Conclusion: Pediatric NMOSD, with and without associated antibodies, are very rare even considering the different limitations of our study. An unexpected finding was that a considerable proportion of patients was tested neither for AQP4- nor MOG-abs during diagnostic work-up, which should prompt to establish and disseminate appropriate guidelines.
Project description:Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are autoantibody mediated chronic inflammatory diseases. Serum antibodies (Abs) against the aquaporin-4 water channel lead to recurrent attacks of optic neuritis, myelitis and/or brainstem syndromes. In some patients with symptoms of NMOSD, no AQP4-Abs but Abs against myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein (MOG) are detectable. These clinical syndromes are now frequently referred to as "MOG-encephalomyelitis" (MOG-EM). Here we give an overview on current recommendations concerning diagnosis of NMOSD and MOG-EM. These include antibody and further laboratory testing, MR imaging and optical coherence tomography. We discuss therapeutic options of acute attacks as well as longterm immunosuppressive treatment, including azathioprine, rituximab, and immunoglobulins.
Project description:Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily, is a myelin protein solely expressed at the outermost surface of myelin sheaths and oligodendrocyte membranes. This makes MOG a potential target of cellular and humoral immune responses in inflammatory demyelinating diseases. Due to its late postnatal developmental expression, MOG is an important marker for oligodendrocyte maturation. Discovered about 30?years ago, it is one of the best-studied autoantigens for experimental autoimmune models for multiple sclerosis (MS). Human studies, however, have yielded controversial results on the role of MOG, especially MOG antibodies (Abs), as a biomarker in MS. But with improved detection methods using different expression systems to detect Abs in patients' samples, this is meanwhile no longer the case. Using cell-based assays with recombinant full-length, conformationally intact MOG, several recent studies have revealed that MOG Abs can be found in a subset of predominantly pediatric patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), aquaporin-4 (AQP4) seronegative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), monophasic or recurrent isolated optic neuritis (ON), or transverse myelitis, in atypical MS and in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-encephalitis with overlapping demyelinating syndromes. Whereas MOG Abs are only transiently observed in monophasic diseases such as ADEM and their decline is associated with a favorable outcome, they are persistent in multiphasic ADEM, NMOSD, recurrent ON, or myelitis. Due to distinct clinical features within these diseases it is controversially disputed to classify MOG Ab-positive cases as a new disease entity. Neuropathologically, the presence of MOG Abs is characterized by MS-typical demyelination and oligodendrocyte pathology associated with Abs and complement. However, it remains unclear whether MOG Abs are a mere inflammatory bystander effect or truly pathogenetic. This article provides deeper insight into recent developments, the clinical relevance of MOG Abs and their role in the immunpathogenesis of inflammatory demyelinating disorders.
Project description:There is no specific test for diagnosing neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), a disabling autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Instead, diagnosis relies on ruling out other related disorders with overlapping clinical symptoms. An urgency for NMOSD biomarker discovery is underscored by adverse responses to treatment following misdiagnosis and poor prognosis following the delayed onset of treatment. Pathogenic autoantibiotics that target the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) contribute to NMOSD pathology. The importance of early diagnosis between AQP4-Ab+ NMOSD, MOG-Ab+ NMOSD, AQP4-Ab- MOG-Ab- NMOSD, and related disorders cannot be overemphasized. Here, we provide a comprehensive data collection and analysis of the currently known metabolomic perturbations and related proteomic outcomes of NMOSD. We highlight short chain fatty acids, lipoproteins, amino acids, and lactate as candidate diagnostic biomarkers. Although the application of metabolomic profiling to individual NMOSD patient care shows promise, more research is needed.
Project description:To describe 16 patients with a coincidence of 2 rare diseases: aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab)-mediated neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (AQP4-NMOSD) and acetylcholine receptor antibody (AChR-Ab)-mediated myasthenia gravis (AChR-MG).The clinical details and antibody results of 16 patients with AChR-MG and AQP4-NMOSD were analyzed retrospectively.All had early-onset AChR-MG, the majority with mild generalized disease, and a high proportion achieved remission. Fifteen were female; 11 were Caucasian. In 14/16, the MG preceded NMOSD (median interval: 16 years) and 11 of these had had a thymectomy although 1 only after NMOSD onset. In 4/5 patients tested, AQP4-Abs were detectable between 4 and 16 years prior to disease onset, including 2 patients with detectable AQP4-Abs prior to thymectomy. AChR-Abs decreased and the AQP4-Ab levels increased over time in concordance with the relevant disease. AChR-Abs were detectable at NMOSD onset in the one sample available from 1 of the 2 patients with NMOSD before MG.Although both conditions are rare, the association of MG and NMOSD occurs much more frequently than by chance and the MG appears to follow a benign course. AChR-Abs or AQP4-Abs may be present years before onset of the relevant disease and the antibody titers against AQP4 and AChR tend to change in opposite directions. Although most cases had MG prior to NMOSD onset, and had undergone thymectomy, NMOSD can occur first and in patients who have not had their thymus removed.
Project description:Pain is a frequent symptom in aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin-G-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (AQP4-IgG-pos. NMOSD). Data on pain in myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-immunoglobulin-G autoimmunity with a clinical NMOSD phenotype (MOG-IgG-pos. NMOSD) are scarce.The objective of this paper is to investigate pain in MOG-IgG-pos. NMOSD, AQP4-IgG-pos. NMOSD and NMOSD without AQP4/MOG-IgG detection (AQP4/MOG-IgG-neg. NMOSD).Forty-nine MOG-IgG-pos. (n?=?14), AQP4-IgG-pos. (n?=?29) and AQP4/MOG-IgG-neg. (n?=?6) NMOSD patients were included in this cross-sectional baseline analysis from an ongoing observational study. We identified spinal cord lesions on magnetic resonance imaging, assessed pain by the painDETECT and McGill Pain questionnaires, quality of life by Short Form Health Survey, and depression by Beck Depression Inventory.Twelve MOG-IgG-pos. NMOSD patients (86%), 24 AQP4-IgG-pos. NMOSD patients (83%), and all AQP4/MOG-IgG-neg. NMOSD patients (100%) suffered from pain. MOG-IgG-pos. NMOSD patients had mostly neuropathic pain and headache; AQP4-IgG-pos. and AQP4/MOG-IgG-neg. NMOSD patients had mostly neuropathic pain. A history of myelitis was less frequent in MOG-IgG-pos. NMOSD than in AQP4-IgG-pos. NMOSD patients. Pain influenced quality of life in all patients. Thirty-six percent of patients with pain received pain medication; none of them were free of pain.Pain is a frequent symptom of patients with MOG-IgG-pos. NMOSD and is as important as in AQP4-IgG-pos. and AQP4/MOG-IgG-neg. NMOSD. Despite its impact on quality of life, pain is insufficiently alleviated by medication.
Project description:Astrocytic impairment is a pathologic feature of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). S100B and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) are the two most commonly used astrocytic markers. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether CSF-S100B could serve as a marker of NMOSD. We enrolled 49 NMOSD patients [25 aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab)-positive, 8 myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG-Ab)-positive, and 16 seronegative patients], 12 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and 15 other noninflammatory neurological diseases (OND) patients. The CSF levels of S100B and GFAP were measured by ELISA. Both CSF-S100B and GFAP levels significantly discriminated NMOSD from MS [area under curve (AUC) = 0.839 and 0.850, respectively] and OND (AUC = 0.839 and 0.850, respectively). The CSF-S100B levels differentiated AQP4-Ab-positive NMOSD from MOG-Ab-positive NMOSD with higher accuracy than the CSF-GFAP levels (AUC=0.865 and 0.772, respectively). The CSF-S100B levels also significantly discriminated MOG-Ab-positive patients from seronegative patients (AUC = 0.848). Both CSF-S100B and GFAP levels were correlated with the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) during remission. Only the CSF-S100B levels were correlated with the CSF WBC count and the EDSS during attack. The levels of CSF-S100B seemed to have a longer lasting time than the levels of CSF-GFAP, which may benefit patients who present late. As a result, CSF-S100B might be a potential candidate biomarker for NMOSD in discriminating, evaluating severity, and predicting disability.
Project description:To optimize sensitivity and disease specificity of a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody assay.Consecutive sera (n = 1,109) sent for aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody testing were screened for MOG antibodies (Abs) by cell-based assays using either full-length human MOG (FL-MOG) or the short-length form (SL-MOG). The Abs were initially detected by Alexa Fluor goat anti-human IgG (H + L) and subsequently by Alexa Fluor mouse antibodies to human IgG1.When tested at 1:20 dilution, 40/1,109 sera were positive for AQP4-Abs, 21 for SL-MOG, and 180 for FL-MOG. Only one of the 40 AQP4-Ab-positive sera was positive for SL-MOG-Abs, but 10 (25%) were positive for FL-MOG-Abs (p = 0.0069). Of equal concern, 48% (42/88) of sera from controls (patients with epilepsy) were positive by FL-MOG assay. However, using an IgG1-specific secondary antibody, only 65/1,109 (5.8%) sera were positive on FL-MOG, and AQP4-Ab- positive and control sera were negative. IgM reactivity accounted for the remaining anti-human IgG (H + L) positivity toward FL-MOG. The clinical diagnoses were obtained in 33 FL-MOG-positive patients, blinded to the antibody data. IgG1-Abs to FL-MOG were associated with optic neuritis (n = 11), AQP4-seronegative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (n = 4), and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (n = 1). All 7 patients with probable multiple sclerosis (MS) were MOG-IgG1 negative.The limited disease specificity of FL-MOG-Abs identified using Alexa Fluor goat anti-human IgG (H + L) is due in part to detection of IgM-Abs. Use of the FL-MOG and restricting to IgG1-Abs substantially improves specificity for non-MS demyelinating diseases.This study provides Class II evidence that the presence of serum IgG1- MOG-Abs in AQP4-Ab-negative patients distinguishes non-MS CNS demyelinating disorders from MS (sensitivity 24%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9%-45%; specificity 100%, 95% CI 88%-100%).
Project description:To evaluate the clinical relevance of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG-Ab) in a cohort of adults with inflammatory demyelinating disease (IDD) of the CNS.Live cell-based assays for MOG-Ab (IgG1 subset) and antibody to aquaporin-4 (AQP4-Ab) were performed in a cohort of 270 adult patients with IDD and 72 controls. Patients were first grouped by positive antibody result as MOG-Ab or AQP4-Ab, and the remainder were grouped by published diagnostic criteria.Seventeen patients with IDD (6.3%) had MOG-Abs and 49 patients (18.1%) had AQP4-Abs; none had both antibodies. The MOG-Ab patients predominantly manifested with isolated symptoms of optic neuritis (83%). One-third of these patients experienced relapses, which involved only the optic nerve, and all relapsed within 1 year of disease onset. At onset, MRI in the MOG-Ab group uniquely demonstrated perineural enhancement, extending to the soft tissues around the optic nerves (33%). Although about 30% of MOG-Ab patients had brain MRI lesions, they had fewer periventricular lesions than the 26 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS); none of these lesions were ovoid or perpendicular to the ventricle. Moreover, MOG-Ab patients did not meet the diagnostic criteria for definite neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and had less spinal cord involvement than the AQP4-Ab group. Four patients (23.5%) had poor visual outcomes (<0.2) or paraplegia.MOG-Abs may be a disease-specific biomarker in adult patients with IDD who have a disease distinct from NMO or MS. The radiologic as well as clinical manifestations of MOG-Ab patients can be useful in their differential diagnosis.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical features among patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) who have myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies, aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies, or seronegativity for both antibodies. METHODS: Sera from patients diagnosed with NMOSD in 1 of 3 centers (2 sites in Brazil and 1 site in Japan) were tested for MOG and AQP4 antibodies using cell-based assays with live transfected cells. RESULTS: Among the 215 patients with NMOSD, 7.4% (16/215) were positive for MOG antibodies and 64.7% (139/215) were positive for AQP4 antibodies. No patients were positive for both antibodies. Patients with MOG antibodies represented 21.1% (16/76) of the patients negative for AQP4 antibodies. Compared with patients with AQP4 antibodies or patients who were seronegative, patients with MOG antibodies were more frequently male, had a more restricted phenotype (optic nerve more than spinal cord), more frequently had bilateral simultaneous optic neuritis, more often had a single attack, had spinal cord lesions distributed in the lower portion of the spinal cord, and usually demonstrated better functional recovery after an attack. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with NMOSD with MOG antibodies have distinct clinical features, fewer attacks, and better recovery than patients with AQP4 antibodies or patients seronegative for both antibodies.
Project description:Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an autoimmune neuroinflammatory disease. In contrast to multiple sclerosis, autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expressed on astrocytic end-feet have been exclusively detected in sera of NMOSD patients. Several lines of evidence suggested that anti-AQP4 autoantibodies are pathogenic, but the mechanism triggering inflammation, impairment of astrocyte function, and the role of neutrophils presented in NMOSD cerebrospinal fluid remains unknown. In this study, we tested how human neutrophils affect astrocytes in the presence of anti-AQP4 Ab-positive serum derived from NMOSD patients. An in vitro model of inflammation consisted of human astrocyte line, NMOSD serum, and allogenic peripheral blood neutrophils from healthy individuals. We showed evidence of pathogenicity of NMOSD serum, which by consecutive action of anti-AQP4 Abs, complement system, and neutrophils affected astrocyte function. Anti-AQP4 Ab binding astrocytes initiated two parallel complementary reactions. The first one was dependent on the complement cytotoxicity via C5b-9 complex formation, and the second one on the reverse of astrocyte glutamate pump into extracellular space by C5a-preactivated neutrophils. As a consequence, astrocytes were partially destroyed; however, a major population of astrocytes polarized into proinflammatory cells which were characterized by pathological glutamate removal from extracellular space.