Ion-Pairing with Triethylammonium Acetate Improves Solid-Phase Extraction of ADP-Ribosylated Peptides.
ABSTRACT: ADP-ribosylation refers to the post-translational modification of protein substrates with monomers or polymers of the small molecule ADP-ribose. ADP-ribosylation is enzymatically regulated and plays roles in cellular processes including DNA repair, nucleic acid metabolism, cell death, cellular stress responses, and antiviral immunity. Recent advances in the field of ADP-ribosylation have led to the development of proteomics approaches to enrich and identify endogenous ADP-ribosylated peptides by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A number of these methods rely on reverse-phase solid-phase extraction as a critical step in preparing cellular peptides for further enrichment steps in proteomics workflows. The anionic ion-pairing reagent trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is typically used during reverse-phase solid-phase extraction to promote retention of tryptic peptides. Here we report that TFA and other carboxylate ion-pairing reagents are inefficient for reverse-phase solid-phase extraction of ADP-ribosylated peptides. Substitution of TFA with cationic ion-pairing reagents, such as triethylammonium acetate (TEAA), improves recovery of ADP-ribosylated peptides. We further demonstrate that substitution of TFA with TEAA in a proteomics workflow specific for identifying ADP-ribosylated peptides increases identification rates of ADP-ribosylated peptides by LC-MS/MS.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation is a widespread post-translational modification (PTM) with crucial functions in many cellular processes. Here, we describe an in-depth ADP-ribosylome using our Af1521-based proteomics methodology for comprehensive profiling of ADP-ribosylation sites, by systematically assessing complementary proteolytic digestions and precursor fragmentation through application of electron-transfer higher-energy collisional dissociation (EThcD) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD), respectively. Although ETD spectra yielded higher identification scores, EThcD generally proved superior to ETD in identification and localization of ADP-ribosylation sites regardless of protease employed. Notwithstanding, the propensities of complementary proteases and fragmentation methods expanded the detectable repertoire of ADP-ribosylation to an unprecedented depth. This system-wide profiling of the ADP-ribosylome in HeLa cells subjected to DNA damage uncovered >11,000 unique ADP-ribosylated peptides mapping to >7,000 ADP-ribosylation sites, in total modifying over one-third of the human nuclear proteome and highlighting the vast scope of this PTM. High-resolution MS/MS spectra enabled identification of dozens of proteins concomitantly modified by ADP-ribosylation and phosphorylation, revealing a considerable degree of crosstalk on histones. ADP-ribosylation was confidently localized to various amino acid residue types, including less abundantly modified residues, with hundreds of ADP-ribosylation sites pinpointed on histidine, arginine, and tyrosine residues. Functional enrichment analysis suggested modification of these specific residue types is directed in a spatial manner, with tyrosine ADP-ribosylation linked to the ribosome, arginine ADP-ribosylation linked to the endoplasmic reticulum, and histidine ADP-ribosylation linked to the mitochondrion.
Project description:Metadata and .raw files of LC-MS/MS files for analysis of phosphoribosylated (formerly ADP-ribosylated) peptides enriched from H2O2 induced HeLa cell proteomes solid phase extracted with TFA or TEAA
Project description:Oxidative stress is a potent inducer of protein ADP-ribosylation. Although individual oxidative stress-induced ADP-ribosylated proteins have been identified, it is so far not clear to which extent different degrees of stress severity quantitatively and qualitatively alter ADP-ribosylation. Here, we investigated both quantitative and qualitative changes of the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced ADP-ribosylome using a label-free shotgun quantification and a parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) mass spectrometry approach for a selected number of identified ADP-ribosylated peptides. Although the major part of the basal HeLa ADP-ribosylome remained unchanged upon all tested H2O2 concentrations, some selected peptides change the extent of ADP-ribosylation depending on the degree of the applied oxidative stress. Low oxidative stress (i.e. 4 ?m and 16 ?m H2O2) caused a reduction in ADP-ribosylation of modified proteins detected under untreated conditions. In contrast, mid to strong oxidative stress (62 ?m to 1 mm H2O2) induced a significant increase in ADP-ribosylation of oxidative stress-targeted proteins. The application of the PRM approach to SKOV3 and A2780, ovarian cancer cells displaying different sensitivities to PARP inhibitors, revealed that the basal and the H2O2-induced ADP-ribosylomes of SKOV3 and A2780 differed significantly and that the sensitivity to PARP inhibitors correlated with the level of ARTD1 expression in these cells. Overall, this new PRM-MS approach has proven to be sensitive in monitoring alterations of the ADP-ribosylome and has revealed unexpected alterations in proteins ADP-ribosylation depending on the degree of oxidative stress.
Project description:The ?-type ADP-ribosylated peptides represent a class of important molecular tools in the field of protein ADP-ribosylation, however, they are difficult to access because of their inherent complicated structures and the lack of effective synthetic tools. In this paper, we present a biomimetic ?-selective ribosylation reaction to synthesize a key intermediate, ?-ADP-ribosyl azide, directly from native ?-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in a clean ionic liquid system. This reaction in tandem with click chemistry then offers a two-step modular synthesis of ?-ADP-ribosylated peptides. These syntheses can be performed open air in eppendorf tubes, without the need for specialized instruments or training. Importantly, we demonstrate that the synthesized ?-ADP-ribosylated peptides show high binding affinity and desirable stability for enriching protein partners, and reactivity in post-stage poly ADP-ribosylations. Owing to their simple chemistry and multidimensional bio-applications, the presented methods may provide a powerful platform to produce general molecular tools for the study of protein ADP-ribosylation.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification that, until recently, has remained elusive to study at the cellular level. Previously dependent on radioactive tracers to identify ADP-ribosylation targets, several advances in mass spectrometric workflows now permit global identification of ADP-ribosylated substrates. In this study, we capitalized on two ADP-ribosylation enrichment strategies, and multiple activation methods performed on the Orbitrap Fusion Lumos, to identify IFN-?-induced ADP-ribosylation substrates in macrophages. The ADP-ribosyl binding protein, Af1521, was used to enrich ADP-ribosylated peptides, and the antipoly-ADP-ribosyl antibody, 10H, was used to enrich ADP-ribosylated proteins. ADP-ribosyl-specific mass spectra were further enriched by an ADP-ribose product ion triggered EThcD and HCD activation strategy, in combination with multiple acquisitions that segmented the survey scan into smaller ranges. HCD and EThcD resulted in overlapping and unique ADP-ribosyl peptide identifications, with HCD providing more peptide identifications but EThcD providing more reliable ADP-ribosyl acceptor sites. Our acquisition strategies also resulted in the first ever characterization of ADP-ribosyl on three poly-ADP-ribose polymerases, ARTD9/PARP9, ARTD10/PARP10, and ARTD8/PARP14. IFN-? increased the ADP-ribosylation status of ARTD9/PARP9, ARTD8/PARP14, and proteins involved in RNA processes. This study therefore summarizes specific molecular pathways at the intersection of IFN-? and ADP-ribosylation signaling pathways.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation is an important post-translational modification involved in processes including cellular replication, DNA repair, and cell death. Despite these roles, the functions of ADP-ribosylation, in particular mono-ADP-ribosylation, remain poorly understood. The development of a technique to generate large amounts of site-specific, ADP-ribosylated peptides would provide a useful tool for deconvoluting the biochemical roles of ADP-ribosylation. Here we demonstrate that synthetic histone H2B tail peptides, incorporating aminooxy or N-methyl aminooxy functionalized amino acids, can be site-specifically conjugated to ADP-ribose. These peptides are recognized as substrates by the ADP-ribosylation biochemical machinery (PARP1), can interact with the ADP-ribose binding proteins macroH2A1.1 and PARP9, and demonstrate superior enzymatic and chemical stability when compared to ester-linked ADP-ribose. In addition, the incorporation of benzophenone photo-cross-linkers into these peptides is demonstrated to provide a means to probe for and enrich ADP-ribose binding proteins.
Project description:Sirtuins comprise a family of enzymes found in all organisms, where they play a role in diverse processes including transcriptional silencing, aging, regulation of transcription, and metabolism. The predominant reaction catalyzed by these enzymes is NAD(+)-dependent lysine deacetylation, although some sirtuins exhibit a weaker ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Although the Sir2 deacetylation mechanism is well established, much less is known about the Sir2 ADP-ribosylation reaction. We have studied the ADP-ribosylation activity of a bacterial sirtuin, Sir2Tm, and show that acetylated peptides containing arginine or lysine 2 residues C-terminal to the acetyl lysine, the +2 position, are preferentially ADP-ribosylated at the +2 residue. A structure of Sir2Tm bound to the acetylated +2 arginine peptide shows how this arginine could enter the active site and react with a deacetylation reaction intermediate to yield an ADP-ribosylated peptide. The new biochemical and structural studies presented here provide mechanistic insights into the Sir2 ADP-ribosylation reaction and will aid in identifying substrates of this reaction.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification that is known to be involved in cellular homeostasis and stress but has been challenging to analyze biochemically. To facilitate the detection of ADP-ribosylated proteins, we show that an alkyne-adenosine analog, N6-propargyl adenosine (N6pA), is metabolically incorporated in mammalian cells and enables fluorescence detection and proteomic analysis of ADP-ribosylated proteins. Notably, our analysis of N6pA-labeled proteins that are upregulated by oxidative stress revealed differential ADP-ribosylation of small GTPases. We discovered that oxidative stress induced ADP-ribosylation of Hras on Cys181 and Cys184 in the C-terminal hypervariable region, which are normally S-fatty-acylated. Downstream Hras signaling is impaired by ADP-ribosylation during oxidative stress, but is rescued by ADP-ribosyltransferase inhibitors. Our study demonstrates that ADP-ribosylation of small GTPases not only is mediated by bacterial toxins but is endogenously regulated in mammalian cells. N6pA provides a useful tool to characterize ADP-ribosylated proteins and their regulatory mechanisms in cells.
Project description:Here, we report the biochemical characterization of the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-<i>p</i>-dioxin poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (TIPARP/ARTD14/PARP7), which is known to repress aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-dependent transcription. We found that the nuclear localization of TIPARP was dependent on a short N-terminal sequence and its zinc finger domain. Deletion and <i>in vitro</i> ADP-ribosylation studies identified amino acids 400-657 as the minimum catalytically active region, which retained its ability to mono-ADP-ribosylate AHR. However, the ability of TIPARP to ADP-ribosylate and repress AHR in cells was dependent on both its catalytic activity and zinc finger domain. The catalytic activity of TIPARP was resistant to meta-iodobenzylguanidine but sensitive to iodoacetamide and hydroxylamine, implicating cysteines and acidic side chains as ADP-ribosylated target residues. Mass spectrometry identified multiple ADP-ribosylated peptides in TIPARP and AHR. Electron transfer dissociation analysis of the TIPARP peptide <sup>33</sup>ITPLKTCFK<sup>41</sup> revealed cysteine 39 as a site for mono-ADP-ribosylation. Mutation of cysteine 39 to alanine resulted in a small, but significant, reduction in TIPARP autoribosylation activity, suggesting that additional amino acid residues are modified, but loss of cysteine 39 did not prevent its ability to repress AHR. Our findings characterize the subcellular localization and mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of TIPARP, identify cysteine as a mono-ADP-ribosylated residue targeted by this enzyme, and confirm the TIPARP-dependent mono-ADP-ribosylation of other protein targets, such as AHR.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational modification generated by members of the superfamily of ADP-ribosyltransferases, known as the Parp enzymes. Depending on the superfamily member, Parp enzymes can mono- or poly-ADP-ribosylate a protein substrate. Parp superfamily members confer regulation to a variety of biological processes that include cell signaling, DNA repair, transcription, and stress responses. Here, we describe biochemical methods for detection of ADP-ribose conjugated to the androgen receptor (AR) using the archaeal macrodomain, AF1521, from Archaeoglobus fulgidus. The utility of AF1521 is based on its highly selective recognition of ADP-ribose conjugated to protein. AF1521 immobilized on beads can be used to enrich for ADP-ribosylated proteins, which in our application results in recovery of ADP-ribosylated AR from prostate cancer cell extracts. We engineered tandem AF1521 macrodomains and found this improves the recovery of ADP-ribosylated AR under native conditions, and it enabled development of an assay for detection of ADP-ribosylation on blots. Thus, AF1521 can be used to query ADP-ribosylation of protein under both native and denaturing conditions. Our assays should prove useful for understanding how ADP-ribosylation regulates AR function.