Endoribonuclease YbeY Is Essential for RNA Processing and Virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
ABSTRACT: Posttranscriptional regulation plays an essential role in the quick adaptation of pathogenic bacteria to host environments, and RNases play key roles in this process by modifying small RNAs and mRNAs. We find that the Pseudomonas aeruginosa endonuclease YbeY is required for rRNA processing and the bacterial virulence in a murine acute pneumonia model. Transcriptomic analyses reveal that knocking out the ybeY gene results in downregulation of oxidative stress response genes, including the catalase genes katA and katB Consistently, the ybeY mutant is more susceptible to H2O2 and neutrophil-mediated killing. Overexpression of katA restores the bacterial tolerance to H2O2 and neutrophil killing as well as virulence. We further find that the downregulation of the oxidative stress response genes is due to defective expression of the stationary-phase sigma factor RpoS. We demonstrate an autoregulatory mechanism of RpoS and find that ybeY mutation increases the level of a small RNA, ReaL, which directly represses the translation of rpoS through the 5' UTR of its mRNA and subsequently reduces the expression of the oxidative stress response genes. In vitro assays demonstrate direct degradation of ReaL by YbeY. Deletion of reaL or overexpression of rpoS in the ybeY mutant restores the bacterial tolerance to oxidative stress and the virulence. We also demonstrate that YbeZ binds to YbeY and is involved in the 16S rRNA processing and regulation of reaL and rpoS as well as the bacterial virulence. Overall, our results reveal pleiotropic roles of YbeY and the YbeY-mediated regulation of rpoS through ReaL.IMPORTANCE The increasing bacterial antibiotic resistance imposes a severe threat to human health. For the development of effective treatment and prevention strategies, it is critical to understand the mechanisms employed by bacteria to grow in the human body. Posttranscriptional regulation plays an important role in bacterial adaptation to environmental changes. RNases and small RNAs are key players in this regulation. In this study, we demonstrate critical roles of the RNase YbeY in the virulence of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa We further identify the small RNA ReaL as the direct target of YbeY and elucidate the YbeY-regulated pathway on the expression of bacterial virulence factors. Our results shed light on the complex regulatory network of P. aeruginosa and indicate that inference with the YbeY-mediated regulatory pathway might be a valid strategy for the development of a novel treatment strategy.
Project description:YbeY is a highly conserved RNase in bacteria and plays essential roles in the maturation of 16S rRNA, regulation of small RNAs (sRNAs) and bacterial responses to environmental stresses. Previously, we verified the role of YbeY in rRNA processing and ribosome maturation in <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> and demonstrated YbeY-mediated regulation of <i>rpoS</i> through a sRNA ReaL. In this study, we demonstrate that mutation of the <i>ybeY</i> gene results in upregulation of the type III secretion system (T3SS) genes as well as downregulation of the type VI secretion system (T6SS) genes and reduction of biofilm formation. By examining the expression of the known sRNAs in <i>P. aeruginosa</i>, we found that mutation of the <i>ybeY</i> gene leads to downregulation of the small RNAs RsmY/Z that control the T3SS, the T6SS and biofilm formation. Further studies revealed that the reduced levels of RsmY/Z are due to upregulation of <i>retS</i> Taken together, our results reveal the pleiotropic functions of YbeY and provide detailed mechanisms of YbeY-mediated regulation in <i>P. aeruginosa</i> <b>IMPORTANCE</b> <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> causes a variety of acute and chronic infections in humans. The type III secretion system (T3SS) plays an important role in acute infection and the type VI secretion system (T6SS) and biofilm formation are associated with chronic infections. Understanding of the mechanisms that control the virulence determinants involved in acute and chronic infections will provide clues for the development of effective treatment strategies. Our results reveal a novel RNase mediated regulation on the T3SS, T6SS and biofilm formation in <i>P. aeruginosa</i>.
Project description:YbeY, a highly conserved protein, is an RNase in E. coli and plays key roles in both processing of the critical 3' end of 16 S rRNA and in 70 S ribosome quality control under stress. These central roles account for YbeY's inclusion in the postulated minimal bacterial genome. However, YbeY is not essential in E. coli although loss of ybeY severely sensitizes it to multiple physiological stresses. Here, we show that YbeY is an essential endoribonuclease in Vibrio cholerae and is crucial for virulence, stress regulation, RNA processing and ribosome quality control, and is part of a core set of RNases essential in most representative pathogens. To understand its function, we analyzed the rRNA and ribosome profiles of a V. cholerae strain partially depleted for YbeY and other RNase mutants associated with 16 S rRNA processing; our results demonstrate that YbeY is also crucial for 16 S rRNA 3' end maturation in V. cholerae and that its depletion impedes subunit assembly into 70 S ribosomes. YbeY's importance to V. cholerae pathogenesis was demonstrated by the complete loss of mice colonization and biofilm formation, reduced cholera toxin production, and altered expression levels of virulence-associated small RNAs of a V. cholerae strain partially depleted for YbeY. Notably, the ybeY genes of several distantly related pathogens can fully complement an E. coli ΔybeY strain under various stress conditions, demonstrating the high conservation of YbeY's activity in stress regulation. Taken together, this work provides the first comprehensive exploration of YbeY's physiological role in a human pathogen, showing its conserved function across species in essential cellular processes.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen and is intrinsically resistant to a variety of antibiotics. Oligoribonuclease (Orn) is a 3'-to-5' exonuclease that degrades nanoRNAs. The Orn controls biofilm formation by influencing the homeostasis of cyclic-di-GMP. Previously, we demonstrated that Orn contributes to the tolerance of P. aeruginosa to fluoroquinolone antibiotics by affecting the production of pyocins. In this study, we found that mutation in the orn gene reduces bacterial tolerance to aminoglycoside and ?-lactam antibiotics, which is mainly due to a defective response to oxidative stresses. The major catalase KatA is downregulated in the orn mutant, and overexpression of the katA gene restores the bacterial tolerance to oxidative stresses and the antibiotics. We further demonstrated that Orn influenced the translation of the katA mRNA and narrowed down the region in the katA mRNA that is involved in the regulation of its translation. Therefore, our results revealed a novel role of the Orn in bacterial tolerance to oxidative stresses as well as aminoglycoside and ?-lactam antibiotics.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a human opportunistic pathogen, possesses a number of antioxidant defense enzymes under the control of multiple regulatory systems. We recently reported that inactivation of the P. aeruginosa stringent response (SR), a starvation stress response controlled by the alarmone (p)ppGpp, caused impaired antioxidant defenses and antibiotic tolerance. Since catalases are key antioxidant enzymes in P. aeruginosa, we compared the levels of H2O2 susceptibility and catalase activity in P. aeruginosa wild-type and ?relA ?spoT (?SR) mutant cells. We found that the SR was required for optimal catalase activity and mediated H2O2 tolerance during both planktonic and biofilm growth. Upon amino acid starvation, induction of the SR upregulated catalase activity. Full expression of katA and katB also required the SR, and this regulation occurred through both RpoS-independent and RpoS-dependent mechanisms. Furthermore, overexpression of katA was sufficient to restore H2O2 tolerance and to partially rescue the antibiotic tolerance of ?SR cells. All together, these results suggest that the SR regulates catalases and that this is an important mechanism in protecting nutrient-starved and biofilm bacteria from H2O2- and antibiotic-mediated killing.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pae) is an opportunistic human pathogen, able to resist host defense mechanisms and antibiotic treatment. In Pae, the master regulator of stress responses RpoS (?S) is involved in the regulation of quorum sensing and several virulence genes. Here, we report that the sRNA ReaL translationally silences rpoS mRNA, which results in a decrease of the RpoS levels. Our studies indicated that ReaL base-pairs with the Shine-Dalgarno region of rpoS mRNA. These studies are underlined by a highly similar transcription profile of a rpoS deletion mutant and a reaL over-expressing strain.
Project description:<i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> is a Gram negative opportunistic pathogenic bacterium, which causes acute and chronic infections. Upon entering the host, bacteria alter global gene expression to adapt to host environment and avoid clearance by the host. Enolase is a glycolytic enzyme involved in carbon metabolism. It is also a component of RNA degradosome, which is involved in RNA processing and gene regulation. Here, we report that enolase is required for the virulence of <i>P. aeruginosa</i> in a murine acute pneumonia model. Mutation of enolase coding gene (<i>eno</i>) increased bacterial susceptibility to neutrophil mediated killing, which is due to reduced tolerance to oxidative stress. Catalases and alkyl hydroperoxide reductases play a major role in protecting the cell from oxidative damages. In the <i>eno</i> mutant, the expression levels of catalases (KatA and KatB) were similar as those in the wild type strain in the presence of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>, however, the expression levels of alkyl hydroperoxide reductases (AhpB and AhpC) were significantly reduced. Overexpression of <i>ahpB</i> but not <i>ahpC</i> in the <i>eno</i> mutant fully restored the bacterial resistance to H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> as well as neutrophil mediated killing, and partially restored bacterial virulence in the murine acute pneumonia model. Therefore, we have identified a novel role of enolase in the virulence of <i>P. aeruginosa</i>.
Project description:YbeY is part of a core set of RNases in Escherichia coli and other bacteria. This highly conserved endoribonuclease has been implicated in several important processes such as 16S rRNA 3' end maturation, 70S ribosome quality control, and regulation of mRNAs and small noncoding RNAs, thereby affecting cellular viability, stress tolerance, and pathogenic and symbiotic behavior of bacteria. Thus, YbeY likely interacts with numerous protein or RNA partners that are involved in various aspects of cellular physiology. Using a bacterial two-hybrid system, we identified several proteins that interact with YbeY, including ribosomal protein S11, the ribosome-associated GTPases Era and Der, YbeZ, and SpoT. In particular, the interaction of YbeY with S11 and Era provides insight into YbeY's involvement in the 16S rRNA maturation process. The three-way association between YbeY, S11, and Era suggests that YbeY is recruited to the ribosome where it could cleave the 17S rRNA precursor endonucleolytically at or near the 3' end maturation site. Analysis of YbeY missense mutants shows that a highly conserved beta-sheet in YbeY-and not amino acids known to be important for YbeY's RNase activity-functions as the interface between YbeY and S11. This protein-interacting interface of YbeY is needed for correct rRNA maturation and stress regulation, as missense mutants show significant phenotypic defects. Additionally, structure-based in silico prediction of putative interactions between YbeY and the Era-30S complex through protein docking agrees well with the in vivo results. IMPORTANCE:Ribosomes are ribonucleoprotein complexes responsible for a key cellular function, protein synthesis. Their assembly is a highly coordinated process of RNA cleavage, RNA posttranscriptional modification, RNA conformational changes, and protein-binding events. Many open questions remain after almost 5 decades of study, including which RNase is responsible for final processing of the 16S rRNA 3' end. The highly conserved RNase YbeY, belonging to a core set of RNases essential in many bacteria, was previously shown to participate in 16S rRNA processing and ribosome quality control. However, detailed mechanistic insight into YbeY's ribosome-associated function has remained elusive. This work provides the first evidence that YbeY is recruited to the ribosome through interaction with proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis (i.e., ribosomal protein S11, Era). In addition, we identified key residues of YbeY involved in the interaction with S11 and propose a possible binding mode of YbeY to the ribosome using in silico docking.
Project description:BACKGROUND: RNA metabolism, including RNA synthesis and RNA degradation, is one of the most conserved biological systems and has been intensively studied; however, the degradation network of ribonucleases (RNases) and RNA substrates is not fully understood. RESULTS: The genome of the extreme thermophile, Thermus thermophilus HB8 includes 15 genes that encode RNases or putative RNases. Using DNA microarray analyses, we examined the effects of disruption of each RNase on mRNA abundance. Disruption of the genes encoding RNase J, RecJ-like protein and RNase P could not be isolated, indicating that these RNases are essential for cell viability. Disruption of the TTHA0252 gene, which was not previously considered to be involved in mRNA degradation, affected mRNA abundance, as did disruption of the putative RNases, YbeY and PhoH-like proteins, suggesting that they have RNase activity. The effects on mRNA abundance of disruption of several RNase genes were dependent on the phase of cell growth. Disruption of the RNase Y and RNase HII genes affected mRNA levels only during the log phase, whereas disruption of the PhoH-like gene affected mRNA levels only during the stationary phase. Moreover, disruption of the RNase R and PNPase genes had a greater impact on mRNA abundance during the stationary phase than the log phase, whereas the opposite was true for the TTHA0252 gene disruptant. Similar changes in mRNA levels were observed after disruption of YbeY or PhoH-like genes. The changes in mRNA levels in the bacterial Argonaute disruptant were similar to those in the RNase HI and RNase HII gene disruptants, suggesting that bacterial Argonaute is a functional homolog of RNase H. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that T. thermophilus HB8 has 13 functional RNases and that each RNase has a different function in the cell. The putative RNases, TTHA0252, YbeY and PhoH-like proteins, are suggested to have RNase activity and to be involved in mRNA degradation. In addition, PhoH-like and YbeY proteins may act cooperatively in the stationary phase. This study also suggests that endo-RNases function mainly during the log phase, whereas exo-RNases function mainly during the stationary phase. RNase HI and RNase HII may have similar substrate selectivity.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni is a prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. The mechanism by which C. jejuni survives stomach acidity remains unknown. Herein, we have demonstrated that C. jejuni with a fur deletion was more sensitive to acid than the wild-type strain. Profiling the acid stimulon of the C. jejuni ∆fur mutant allowed us to uncover Fur-regulated genes under acidic conditions. The up-regulation of heat shock genes and the down-regulation of genes involved in flagellar and cell envelope biogenesis in the fur mutant highlight the importance of Fur in Campylobacter acid survival. Interestingly, prior acid exposure of C. jejuni cross-protected the bacterium against oxidative stress. Western-blot analysis and real-time qRT-PCR revealed an increased expression of the catalase KatA in acid-stressed C. jejuni relative to unstressed bacteria. The enhanced survival of C. jejuni to oxidative stress was shown to be Fur-dependent through the regulation of katA expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) demonstrated that the binding affinity between Fur and katA is reduced under low pH allowing for higher expression of katA and the defense against oxidative stress. Strikingly, the ∆fur mutant exhibited a reduced virulence capacity in both human epithelial cells and G. mellonella infection model as compared to C. jejuni wild-type. Altogether, this is the first study showing that in addition to its role in iron metabolism, Fur is an important regulator of C. jejuni acid response and cross-protection against other stresses. Moreover, our results clearly demonstrate that Fur plays a substantial role in C. jejuni host pathogenesis. Campylobacter jejuni is a prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. The mechanism by which C. jejuni survives stomach acidity remains unknown. Herein, we have demonstrated that C. jejuni with a fur deletion was more sensitive to acid than the wild-type strain. Profiling the acid stimulon of the C. jejuni ∆fur mutant allowed us to uncover Fur-regulated genes under acidic conditions. The up-regulation of heat shock genes and the down-regulation of genes involved in flagellar and cell envelope biogenesis in the fur mutant highlight the importance of Fur in Campylobacter acid survival. Interestingly, prior acid exposure of C. jejuni cross-protected the bacterium against oxidative stress. Western-blot analysis and real-time qRT-PCR revealed an increased expression of the catalase KatA in acid-stressed C. jejuni relative to unstressed bacteria. The enhanced survival of C. jejuni to oxidative stress was shown to be Fur-dependent through the regulation of katA expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) demonstrated that the binding affinity between Fur and katA is reduced under low pH allowing for higher expression of katA and the defense against oxidative stress. Strikingly, the ∆fur mutant exhibited a reduced virulence capacity in both human epithelial cells and G. mellonella infection model as compared to C. jejuni wild-type. Altogether, this is the first study showing that in addition to its role in iron metabolism, Fur is an important regulator of C. jejuni acid response and cross-protection against other stresses. Moreover, our results clearly demonstrate that Fur plays a substantial role in C. jejuni host pathogenesis. Overall design: Three biological with three technical replicates for both test and control samples at every pH condition
Project description:Cellular response to oxidative stress is a crucial mechanism that promotes the survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa during infection. However, the translational regulation of oxidative stress response remains largely unknown. Here, we reveal a tRNA modification-mediated translational response to H2O2 in P. aeruginosa. We demonstrated that the P. aeruginosa trmB gene encodes a tRNA guanine (46)-N7-methyltransferase that catalyzes the formation of m7G46 in the tRNA variable loop. Twenty-three tRNA substrates of TrmB with a guanosine residue at position 46 were identified, including 11 novel tRNA substrates. We showed that loss of trmB had a strong negative effect on the translation of Phe- and Asp-enriched mRNAs. The trmB-mediated m7G modification modulated the expression of the catalase genes katA and katB, which are enriched with Phe/Asp codons at the translational level. In response to H2O2 exposure, the level of m7G modification increased, consistent with the increased translation efficiency of Phe- and Asp-enriched mRNAs. Inactivation of trmB led to decreased KatA and KatB protein abundance and decreased catalase activity, resulting in H2O2-sensitive phenotype. Taken together, our observations reveal a novel role of m7G46 tRNA modification in oxidative stress response through translational regulation of Phe- and Asp-enriched genes, such as katA and katB.