U-Omp19 from Brucella abortus increases dmLT immunogenicity and improves protection against Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT) oral challenge.
ABSTRACT: Acute diarrhea disease caused by bacterial infections is a major global health problem. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the top causes of diarrhea-associated morbidity and mortality in young children and travelers to low-income countries. There are currently no licensed vaccines for ETEC. Induction of immunity at the site of entry of the bacteria is key to prevent infection. Current approaches to ETEC vaccines include a less toxic mutant form of E. coli heat-labile toxin (double-mutant heat-labile enterotoxin -dmLT-) with both antigenic and immunostimulatory properties. U-Omp19 is a protease inhibitor from Brucella spp. with immunostimulatory properties that has been used as oral adjuvant. In this work, we use U-Omp19 as adjuvant in an oral vaccine formulation against ETEC containing dmLT in outbred and inbred mice. To evaluate antigen dose sparing by U-Omp19 three different immunization protocols with three different doses of dmLT were evaluated. We demonstrated that U-Omp19 co-delivery increases anti-LT IgA in feces using a mid-dose of dmLT following a prime-boost protocol (after one or two boosts). Oral immunization with U-Omp19 induced protection against LT challenge when co-formulated with dmLT in CD-1 and BALB/c mice. Indeed, there was a significant increase in anti-LT IgG and IgA avidity after a single oral administration of dmLT plus U-Omp19 in comparison with dmLT delivered alone. Interestingly, sera from dmLT plus U-Omp19 vaccinated mice significantly neutralize LT effect on intestine inflammation in vivo compared with sera from the group immunized with dmLT alone. These results demonstrate the adjuvant capacity of U-Omp19 to increase dmLT immunogenicity by the oral route and support its use in an oral subunit vaccine formulation against ETEC.
Project description:Most pathogens infect through mucosal surfaces, and parenteral immunization typically fails to induce effective immune responses at these sites. Development of oral-administered vaccines capable of inducing mucosal as well as systemic immunity while bypassing the issues of antigen degradation and immune tolerance could be crucial for the control of enteropathogens. This study demonstrates that U-Omp19, a bacterial protease inhibitor with immunostimulatory features, coadministered with Salmonella antigens by the oral route, enhances mucosal and systemic immune responses in mice. U-Omp19 was able to increase antigen-specific production of IFN-? and IL-17 and mucosal (IgA) antibody response. Finally, oral vaccination with U-Omp19 plus Salmonella antigens conferred protection against virulent challenge with Salmonella Typhimurium, with a significant reduction in bacterial loads. These findings prove the efficacy of this novel adjuvant in the Salmonella infection model and support the potential of U-Omp19 as a suitable adjuvant in oral vaccine formulations against mucosal pathogens requiring T helper (Th)1-Th17 protective immune responses.
Project description:Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a common cause of diarrhea. Extraordinary antigenic diversity has prompted a search for conserved antigens to complement canonical approaches to ETEC vaccine development. EtpA, an immunogenic extracellular ETEC adhesin relatively conserved in the ETEC pathovar, has previously been shown to be a protective antigen following intranasal immunization. These studies were undertaken to explore alternative routes of EtpA vaccination that would permit use of a double mutant (R192G L211A) heat-labile toxin (dmLT) adjuvant. Here, oral vaccination with EtpA adjuvanted with dmLT afforded significant protection against small intestinal colonization, and the degree of protection correlated with fecal IgG, IgA, or total fecal antibody responses to EtpA. Sublingual vaccination yielded compartmentalized mucosal immune responses with significant increases in anti-EtpA fecal IgG and IgA, and mice vaccinated via this route were also protected against colonization. In contrast, while intradermal (i.d.) vaccination achieved high levels of both serum and fecal antibodies against both EtpA and dmLT, mice vaccinated via the i.d. route were not protected against subsequent colonization and the avidity of serum IgG and IgA EtpA-specific antibodies was significantly lower after i.d. immunization compared to other routes. Finally, we demonstrate that antiserum from vaccinated mice significantly impairs binding of LT to cognate GM1 receptors and shows near complete neutralization of toxin delivery by ETEC in vitro Collectively, these data provide further evidence that EtpA could complement future vaccine strategies but also suggest that additional effort will be required to optimize its use as a protective immunogen.
Project description:Double-mutant heat-labile toxin (dmLT, LT<sub>R192G/L211A</sub>) of enterotoxigenic <i>Escherichia coli</i> (ETEC) is an effective mucosal adjuvant. Recent studies have shown that dmLT also exhibits adjuvanticity for antigens administered parenterally. In this study, we subcutaneously (SC) immunized mice with the ETEC adhesin-based vaccine, CFA/I/II/IV MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen), adjuvanted with dmLT and examined the impact of dmLT on antibody responses specific to the seven adhesins in the vaccine construction [CFA/I, CFA/II (CS1, CS2, CS3) and CFA/IV (CS4, CS5, CS6)]. Mice were immunized with a fixed dose of CFA/I/II/IV MEFA and ascending doses of dmLT adjuvant (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 µg) to assess the potential dmLT dose response relationship. Data showed that dmLT enhanced systemic antibody responses to all seven antigens (CFA/I, CS1-CS6) targeted by MEFA in a dose-dependent way. The adjuvant effect of dmLT on the MEFA construct plateaued at a dose of 0.1 µg. Results also indicated that dmLT is an effective parenteral adjuvant when given by the SC route with the ETEC adhesin MEFA vaccine and that antibody enhancement was achieved with relatively low doses. These observations suggest the potential usefulness of dmLT for parenteral ETEC vaccine candidates and also perhaps for vaccines against other pathogens.
Project description:Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of infectious diarrhea in children, travelers, and deployed military personnel. As such, development of a vaccine would be advantageous for public health. One strategy is to use subunits of colonization factors combined with antigen/adjuvant toxoids as an ETEC vaccine. Here, we investigated the intradermal (i.d.) or sublingual (s.l.) delivery of CFA/I fimbrial antigens, including CfaEB and a CfaE-heat-labile toxin B subunit (LTB) chimera admixed with double mutant heat-labile toxin (LT) LT-R192G/L211A (dmLT). In addition, we compared dmLT with other LT proteins to better understand the generation of adjuvanted fimbrial and toxoid immunity as well as the influence on any local skin reactogenicity. We demonstrate that immunization with dmLT admixed with CfaEB induces robust serum and fecal antibody responses to CFA/I fimbriae and LT but that i.d. formulations are not optimal for s.l. delivery. Improved s.l. vaccination outcomes were observed when higher doses of dmLT (1 to 5??g) were admixed with CfaEB or, even better, when a CfaE-LTB chimera antigen was used instead. Serum anti-CFA/I total antibodies, detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were the best predictor of functional antibodies, based on the inhibition of red blood cell agglutination by ETEC. Immunization with other LT proteins or formulations with altered B-subunit binding during i.d. immunization (e.g., by addition of 5% lactose, LTA1, or LT-G33D) minimally altered the development of antibody responses and cytokine recall responses but reduced skin reactogenicity at the injection site. These results reveal how formulations and delivery parameters shape the adaptive immune responses to a toxoid and fimbria-derived subunit vaccine against ETEC.
Project description:The safety and immunogenicity of the second generation oral enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) vaccine ETVAX, consisting of inactivated recombinant E. coli strains over-expressing the colonization factors (CFs) CFA/I, CS3, CS5 and CS6 and the heat labile toxoid LCTBA, were evaluated in Bangladeshi volunteers. To enable analysis of antibody responses against multiple vaccine antigens for subsequent use in small sample volumes from children, a sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay for analysis of intestine-derived antibody-secreting cell responses using the antibodies in lymphocyte secretions (ALS) assay was established using Meso Scale Discovery technology. Three groups of Bangladeshi adults (n?=?15 per group) received two oral doses of ETVAX with or without double mutant LT (dmLT) adjuvant or placebo in the initial part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, age-descending, dose-escalation trial. CF- and LTB-specific ALS and plasma IgA responses were analyzed by ECL and/or ELISA. ETVAX was safe and well tolerated in the adults. Magnitudes of IgA ALS responses determined by ECL and ELISA correlated well (r?=?0.85 to 0.98 for the five primary antigens, P?<?0.001) and ECL was selected as the ALS readout method. ALS IgA responses against each of the primary antigens were detected in 87-100% of vaccinees after the first and in 100% after the second vaccine dose. Plasma IgA responses against different CFs and LTB were observed in 62-93% and 100% of vaccinees, respectively. No statistically significant adjuvant effect of dmLT on antibody responses to any antigen was detected, but the overall antigenic breadth of the plasma IgA response tended to favor the adjuvanted vaccine when responses to 4 or more or 5 vaccine antigens were considered. Responses in placebo recipients were infrequent and mainly detected against single antigens. The promising results in adults supported testing ETVAX in descending age groups of children. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02531802.
Project description:The development of an effective subunit vaccine is frequently complicated by the difficulty of eliciting protective immune responses, often requiring the co-administration of an adjuvant. Heat-labile toxin (LT), an enterotoxin expressed by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) with an AB5 structure similar to cholera toxin, is a strong adjuvant. While the mucosa represents the natural route of exposure to LT and related toxins, the clinical utility of LT and similar adjuvants given by mucosal routes has been limited by toxicity, as well as the association between intranasal delivery of LT and Bell's palsy. Single and double amino acid mutants of LT, LT(R192G)/mLT and LT(R192G/L211A)/dmLT respectively, have been proposed as alternatives to reduce the toxicity associated with the holotoxin. In the present study, we compared mLT and dmLT given via a non-mucosal route (i.e. intradermally) to investigate their adjuvanticity when co-administrated with an enterotoxigenic E. coli vaccine candidate, CfaEB. Antigenicity (i.e. ability to elicit response against LT) and reactogenicity at the injection site were also evaluated. BALB/c mice were immunized by the intradermal route with CfaEB plus increasing doses of either mLT or dmLT (0.01 to 2.5 ?g). Both adjuvants induced dose-dependent skin reactogenicity, with dmLT being less reactogenic than mLT. Both adjuvants significantly boosted the anti-CfaE IgG and functional hemagglutination inhibiting (HAI) antibody responses, compared to the antigen alone. In addition to inducing anti-LT responses, even at the lowest dose tested (0.01 ?g), the adjuvants also prompted in vitro cytokine responses (IFN-?, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-17) that followed different patterns, depending on the protein used for stimulation (CfaE or LTB) and/or the dose used for immunization. The two LT mutants evaluated here, mLT and dmLT, are potent adjuvants for intradermal immunization and should be further investigated for the intradermal delivery of subunit ETEC vaccines.
Project description:Despite the fact that the adjuvant properties of the heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli (LT) and Vibrio cholerae (CT) have been known for more than 20 years, there are no available oral vaccines containing these molecules as adjuvants, primarily because they are both very potent enterotoxins. A number of attempts with various degrees of success have been made to reduce or eliminate the enterotoxicity of LT and CT so they can safely be used as oral adjuvants or immunogens. In this report we characterize the structural, enzymatic, enterotoxic, and adjuvant properties of a novel mutant of LT, designated LT(R192G/L211A), or dmLT. dmLT was not sensitive to trypsin activation, had reduced enzymatic activity for induction of cyclic AMP in Caco-2 cells, and exhibited no enterotoxicity in the patent mouse assay. Importantly, dmLT retained the ability to function as an oral adjuvant for a coadministered antigen (tetanus toxoid) and to elicit anti-LT antibodies. In vitro and in vivo data suggest that the reduced enterotoxicity of this molecule compared to native LT or the single mutant, LT(R192G), is a consequence of increased sensitivity to proteolysis and rapid intracellular degradation in mammalian cells. In conclusion, dmLT is a safe and powerful detoxified enterotoxin with the potential to function as a mucosal adjuvant for coadministered antigens and to elicit anti-LT antibodies without undesirable side effects.
Project description:Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) is a leading cause of moderate-to-severe diarrhoea. ETEC colonizes the intestine through fimbrial tip adhesin colonization factors and produces heat-stable and/or heat-labile (LT) toxins, stimulating fluid and electrolyte release leading to watery diarrhoea. We reported that a vaccine containing recombinant colonization factor antigen (CfaEB) targeting fimbrial tip adhesin of the colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) and an attenuated LT toxoid (dmLT) elicited mucosal and systemic immune responses against both targets. Additionally, the toll-like receptor 4 ligand second-generation lipid adjuvant (TLR4-SLA) induced a potent mucosal response, dependent on adjuvant formulation. However, a combination of vaccine components at their respective individual optimal doses may not achieve the optimal immune profile. We studied a subunit ETEC vaccine prototype in mice using a response surface design of experiments (DoE), consisting of 64 vaccine dose-combinations of CfaEB, dmLT and SLA in four formulations (aqueous, aluminium oxyhydroxide, squalene-in-water stable nanoemulsion [SE] or liposomes containing the saponin Quillaja saponaria-21 [LSQ]). Nine readouts focusing on antibody functionality and plasma cell response were selected to profile the immune response of parenterally administered ETEC vaccine prototype. The data were integrated in a model to identify the optimal dosage of each vaccine component and best formulation. Compared to maximal doses used in mouse models (10?µg CfaEB, 1?µg dmLT and 5?µg SLA), a reduction in the vaccine components up to 37%, 60% and 88% for CfaEB, dmLT and SLA, respectively, maintained or even maximized immune responses, with SE and LSQ the best formulations. The DoE approach can help determine the best vaccine composition with a limited number of experiments and may accelerate development of multi-antigen/component ETEC vaccines.
Project description:Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a primary cause of traveler's diarrhea for which there is no licensed vaccine. This phase 1 trial determined the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinantly produced double mutant heat-labile enterotoxin (dmLT) of ETEC. It was administered as a single oral dose of dmLT in escalating doses of 5 ?g, 25 ?g, 50 ?g, and 100 ?g, followed by a 72-h inpatient observation, outpatient visits at 8, 14, and 28 days, and telephone calls at 2 and 6 months postvaccination. Safety was assessed by frequency of adverse events, and immune responses determined after immunization included dmLT-specific serum IgA and IgG, fecal IgA, antibody-secreting cells (ASC), and antibodies in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS) responses. All doses were well tolerated by the 36 healthy adults enrolled. Immune responses were limited in the 5- and 25-?g dose recipients. The 50-?g dose recipients trended toward stronger responses than the 100-?g dose recipients by serum IgA (67% versus 33%, P = 0.22), serum IgG (58% versus 33%, P = 0.41), and fecal IgA (58% versus 33%, P = 0.41). By day 14 postvaccination, there were significantly more positive responders (?4-fold increase from baseline) among the 50- versus 100-?g dose recipients for serum IgA (P = 0.036) but not serum IgG (P = 0.21). In conclusion, a single oral dose of dmLT was well tolerated and immunogenic, with immune responses plateauing at the 50-?g dose. (This clinical trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov, registration number NCT01147445.).
Project description:Perhaps the best-studied mucosal adjuvants are the bacterially derived ADP-ribosylating enterotoxins. This adjuvant family includes heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LT), cholera toxin (CT), and mutants or subunits of LT and CT. These proteins promote a multifaceted antigen-specific response, including inflammatory Th1, Th2, Th17, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), and antibodies. However, more uniquely among adjuvant classes, they induce antigen-specific IgA antibodies and long-lasting memory to coadministered antigens when delivered mucosally or even parenterally. The purpose of this minireview is to describe the general properties, history and creation, preclinical studies, clinical studies, mechanisms of action, and considerations for use of the most promising enterotoxin-based adjuvant to date, LT(R192G/L211A) or dmLT. This review is timely due to completed, ongoing, and planned clinical investigations of dmLT in multiple vaccine formulations by government, nonprofit, and industry groups in the United States and abroad.