Risk of Depression in the Adolescent and Adult Offspring of Mothers With Perinatal Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: Importance:Maternal depression during pregnancy is associated with emotional and behavioral difficulties of offspring during childhood that can increase the risk of depression in adolescence and adulthood. Objective:To investigate the association between perinatal maternal depression and an increased long-term risk of depression in their adolescent and adult offspring. Data Sources:A systematic search of the electronic databases of PubMed and PsycINFO was conducted from May 2019 to June 2019. Study Selection:A total of 6309 articles were identified, of which 88 articles were extracted for full-text review by 2 reviewers. Only articles reporting data from prospective longitudinal studies that assessed maternal depression during antenatal and/or postnatal periods and resulting offspring 12 years or older with measures of established psychometric properties were included. Exclusion criteria consisted of all other study designs, mothers with other medical and psychiatric comorbidities, and offspring younger than 12 years. Data Extraction and Synthesis:Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers, and discrepancies were mediated by an expert third reviewer. Meta-analysis was performed using Bayesian statistical inference and reported using Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guideline. The association of depression timing with the sex of offspring was explored using metaregression. Main Outcomes and Measures:Offspring depression was evaluated using standardized depression scales or clinical interviews. Results:Six studies with a total of 15?584 mother-child dyads were included in the meta-analysis, which found the offspring of mothers who experienced perinatal depression to have increased odds of depression (odds ratio [OR], 1.70; 95% credible interval [CrI], 1.60-2.65; posterior probability [PP] [OR >1], 98.6%). Although metaregression found no evidence for an overall association between perinatal depression timing and offspring depression (antenatal vs postnatal, PP [OR >1]?=?53.8%), subgroup analyses showed slightly higher pooled odds for the antenatal studies (OR, 1.78; 95% CrI, 0.93-3.33; PP [OR >1]?=?96.2%) than for the postnatal studies (OR, 1.66; 95% CrI, 0.65-3.84; PP [OR >1]?=?88.0%). Female adolescent offspring recorded higher rates of depression in metaregression analyses, such that a 1% increase in the percentage of female (relative to male) offspring was associated with a 6% increase in the odds of offspring depression (OR, 1.06; 95% CrI, 0.99-1.14; ?2?=?0.31). Conclusions and Relevance:In this study, maternal perinatal depression, especially antenatal depression, was associated with the risk of depression in adolescence and adulthood. More research into the mechanisms of depression risk transmission and assessments of postinterventional risk reduction could aid in the development of future strategies to tackle depressive disorders in pregnancy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Evidence exists that maternal depression in the perinatal period has an adverse effect on a range of early childhood outcomes and increases the risk of offspring depression during adolescence. However, the association between maternal depression during the perinatal period and offspring psychotic experiences has not been investigated. We aimed to investigate whether there is an association between maternal antenatal or postnatal depression and offspring psychotic experiences at 18 years of age. METHODS:This longitudinal study used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a prospective birth cohort, which recruited 14?541 pregnant women with an estimated delivery date between April 1, 1991, and Dec 31, 1992. Perinatal depression was measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS); offspring psychotic experiences at 18 years of age were measured using the Psychosis-Like Symptom Interview. Offspring of mothers with complete data on maternal perinatal depression measures, and complete data on outcome (psychotic experiences) and confounding variables were included in the main analysis. For the main analysis, we used logistic regression to examine the associations between maternal depression (antenatal and postnatal) and offspring psychotic experiences at the age of 18 years. We used biprobit regression to model the association between maternal antenatal depression and the two offspring outcomes (psychotic experiences and depression) at 18 years of age jointly. FINDINGS:3067 offspring for whom data were available on maternal perinatal depression and offspring psychotic experiences aged 18 years were included in analyses. Maternal antenatal depressive symptoms were associated with offspring psychotic experiences at 18 years of age, with an unadjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1·38 (95% CI 1·18-1·61, p=0·0001) and after adjustment for confounders, an OR of 1·26 (1·06-1·49, p=0·0074). Maternal antenatal depressive symptoms were associated with both offspring psychotic experiences at the age of 18 years (n=2830, OR for a 5-point increase in EPDS score: 1·32 [95% CI 1·16-1·51], p<0·0001) and offspring depression at 18 years (OR for a 5-point increase in EPDS score: 1·18 [1·03-1·34], p=0·016). From joint modelling, there was no evidence that the association between maternal antenatal depression and offspring psychotic experiences differed in strength compared with offspring depression (p=0·19). INTERPRETATION:The offspring of mothers who experience depression in the perinatal period are more likely to report psychotic experiences at 18 years of age. If the association is found to be causal, it would strengthen the case for identifying and treating maternal depression during and after pregnancy. FUNDING:UK Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust.
Project description:Some small studies suggest that maternal postnatal depression is a risk factor for offspring adolescent depression. However, to our knowledge, no large cohort studies have addressed this issue. Furthermore, only 1 small study has examined the association between antenatal depression and later offspring depression. Understanding these associations is important to inform prevention.To investigate the hypothesis that there are independent associations between antenatal and postnatal depression with offspring depression and that the risk pathways are different, such that the risk is moderated by disadvantage (low maternal education) with postnatal depression but not with antenatal depression.Prospective investigation of associations between symptoms of antenatal and postnatal parental depression with offspring depression at age 18 years in a UK community-based birth cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) with data from more than 4500 parents and their adolescent offspring.Diagnosis of offspring aged 18 years with major depression using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision.Antenatal depression was an independent risk factor. Offspring were 1.28 times (95% CI, 1.08-1.51; P = .003) more likely to have depression at age 18 years for each standard deviation increase in maternal depression score antenatally, independent of later maternal depression. Postnatal depression was also a risk factor for mothers with low education, with offspring 1.26 times (95% CI, 1.06-1.50; P = .01) more likely to have depression for each standard deviation increase in postnatal depression score. However, for more educated mothers, there was little association (odds ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.88-1.36; P = .42). Analyses found that maternal education moderated the effects of postnatal but not antenatal depression. Paternal depression antenatally was not associated with offspring depression, while postnatally, paternal depression showed a similar pattern to maternal depression.The findings suggest that treating maternal depression antenatally could prevent offspring depression during adulthood and that prioritizing less advantaged mothers postnatally may be most effective.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Perinatal depression and anxiety are increasingly recognized as important public health issues in low and middle-income countries such as Rwanda and may have negative consequences for both mothers and their infants. Maternal mental health may be particularly challenged in Rwanda because of the prevalence of risk factors such as poverty, low education levels, negative life events and marital problems. However, there are limited data about perinatal depression and anxiety symptoms in Rwanda. This study thus aimed to explore the prevalence of symptoms of perinatal depression and anxiety in Rwanda, and factors associated with them. METHODS:A sample of 165 women in the perinatal period (second and third trimester of pregnancy, up to 1 year postnatal) were interviewed individually over 1 month in October 2013. Women were interviewed at 5 of 14 health centres in the Eastern Province or the affiliated district hospital. Participants answered socio-demographic questions and scales measuring symptoms of perinatal depression (EPDS: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) and anxiety (SAS: Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale). RESULTS:Among women in the antenatal period (N?=?85), 37.6% had symptoms indicating possible depression (EPDS ?10) and 28.2% had symptoms associated with clinical levels of anxiety (SAS?>?45). Among women within the postnatal period (N?=?77), 63.6% had symptoms of possible depression, whereas 48,1% had symptoms of probable anxiety. Logistic regression showed that symptoms of postnatal depression were higher for respondents who had four or more living children relative to those having their first child (Odds Ratio: 0.07, C.I. = 0.01-0.42), and for those with a poor relationship with their partner (Odds Ratio: .09, C.I. =0.03-0.25). Any lifetime exposure to stressful events was the only predictor of symptoms of postnatal anxiety (Odds Ratio?=?0.20, C.I. = 0.09-0.44). CONCLUSIONS:Symptoms of postnatal depression and anxiety were prevalent in this Rwandan sample and most strongly predicted by interpersonal and social factors, suggesting that social interventions may be a successful strategy to protect against maternal mental health problems in the Rwandan context.
Project description:Perinatal distress and depression can have significant impacts on both the mother and baby. The present study investigated psychosocial and obstetric factors associated with perinatal distress and depressive symptoms among culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) Australian women in Sydney, New South Wales. The study used retrospectively linked maternal and child health data from two Local Health Districts in Australia (N = 25,407). Perinatal distress was measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS, scores of 10-12) and depressive symptoms, with EPDS scores of 13 or more. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between psychosocial and obstetric factors with perinatal distress and depressive symptoms. The prevalence of perinatal distress and depressive symptoms among CALD Australian women was 10.1% for antenatal distress; 7.3% for antenatal depressive symptoms; 6.2% for postnatal distress and 3.7% for postnatal depressive symptoms. Antenatal distress and depressive symptoms were associated with a lack of partner support, intimate partner violence, maternal history of childhood abuse and being known to child protection services. Antenatal distress and depressive symptoms were strongly associated with postnatal distress and depressive symptoms. Higher socioeconomic status had a protective effect on antenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms. Our study suggests that current perinatal mental health screening and referral for clinical assessment is essential, and also supports a re-examination of perinatal mental health policy to ensure access to culturally responsive mental health care that meets patients' needs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The sleep quality of pregnant women in the third trimester is related to mental health. However, there is still a lack of large-scale cohort research exploring this relationship in the second trimester. Thus, we assessed the associations of sleep quality during the second trimester with antenatal stress and antenatal and postnatal depression. METHODS:We examined 1152 pregnant women from a prospective cohort study in China to assess the associations of sleep quality in the second trimester with antenatal stress, antenatal depression, and postnatal depression. We used linear regression models and logistic regression models to examine the associations of sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]) during pregnancy with perinatal stress (Pregnancy Pressure Scale [PPS]) and depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale [EPDS]) status. We further assessed the relationship in groups divided according to maternal age. RESULTS:PSQI scores were positively associated with antenatal PPS scores (?: 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28, 1.76), antenatal EPDS scores (?: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.78), and postpartum EPDS scores (?: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.64). Poor sleep quality (PSQI scores ?5) was associated with antenatal stress status (odds ratio [OR]: 2.60, 95% CI: 1.79, 3.77), antenatal depression status (OR: 3.42, 95% CI: 2.48, 4.72), and postpartum depression status (OR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.58, 3.64) after adjusting maternal age, BMI, gestational age, smoking, educational level, annual household income and social support. The association of poor sleep quality (PSQI scores ?5) in the second trimester with postnatal depression status was significant among women more than or equal to 30?years old (OR: 4.12, 95% CI: 2.18, 7.78) but not among women less than 30?years old after adjusting covariates above. CONCLUSION:Poor sleep quality in the second trimester among Chinese pregnant women is associated with stress and depression symptoms. Strategies to boost sleep quality should be considered during prenatal health care to improve women's mental health status.
Project description:Maternal experience of childhood maltreatment and maternal antenatal depression are both associated with offspring childhood maltreatment and offspring adjustment problems. We have investigated the relative impact of maternal childhood maltreatment and exposure to depression in utero on offspring maltreatment and psychopathology.The sample included 125 families from the South London Child Development Study. A prospective longitudinal design was used. Data on maternal childhood maltreatment, maternal antenatal depression (36 weeks of pregnancy), offspring childhood maltreatment (age 11 years) and offspring adolescent antisocial behaviour and depression (ages 11 and 16 years) were obtained from parents and offspring through clinical interview.Mothers who experienced childhood maltreatment were significantly more likely to be depressed during pregnancy [odds ratio (OR) 10.00]. Offspring of mothers who experienced only childhood maltreatment or only antenatal depression were no more at risk of being maltreated or having psychopathology; however, offspring of mothers who experienced both maternal childhood maltreatment and antenatal depression were exposed to significantly greater levels of childhood maltreatment and exhibited significantly higher levels of adolescent antisocial behaviour compared with offspring not so exposed. Furthermore, maternal childhood maltreatment accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in offspring childhood maltreatment in only those offspring exposed to depression in utero.Maternal childhood maltreatment and maternal antenatal depression are highly associated. The co-occurrence of both insults significantly increases the risk of offspring adversity. The antenatal period is an optimum period to identify vulnerable women and to provide interventions.
Project description:Background:The most common mental disorders in women during the perinatal (antenatal and postnatal) period are depressive syndromes and anxiety syndromes. The global prevalence of maternal perinatal depression ranges from 10 to 20%, while the prevalence of perinatal anxiety ranges from 10 to 24%. The comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders in perinatal women is common, reaching 40%. In Italy, a few studies have been undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of perinatal depression and anxiety, and there is still a scarcity of research and intervention programs regarding primary prevention. Three of the main aims of this study are: (1) to evaluate the prevalence of maternal perinatal depression and anxiety in a large sample of women attending healthcare centers in Italy; (2) to investigate the psychosocial risks and protective factors associated with maternal perinatal depression and anxiety; (3) to evaluate the effectiveness of a manualized psychological intervention (Milgrom et al., 1999) to treat perinatal depression; (4) to evaluate the psychometric properties of both the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 in detecting perinatal depression; and (5) to evaluate the influence of maternal depression and anxiety on the development of infant temperament. Methods:This is a prospective cohort study, which merges an observational design and a pre-post intervention design. The study includes a 1-year recruitment period and a one-year follow-up period. The methodological strategy includes: (1) self-report questionnaires on maternal depression, anxiety, health status, quality of life and psychosocial risks; (2) a self-report questionnaire to measure the infant's temperament; (3) a clinical interview; (4) a structured diagnostic interview; and (5) a psychological intervention. Discussion:The results of this study may contribute to our knowledge about prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression and anxiety (during both the trimesters of pregnancy and the first six trimesters after birth) and about the effectiveness of early psychological intervention in the perinatal health services.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Antenatal maternal anxiety is a risk for offspring psychological and cognitive difficulties. The preschool years represent an important time for brain development, and so may be a window for intervention. However, electrophysiological investigations of maternal anxiety and preschoolers' brain functioning are lacking. We ask whether anxiety symptoms predict neurophysiology, and consider timing specificity (26-weeks antenatal or 24-months postnatal), form of insult (anxiety symptoms, per se, or also depression symptoms), and offspring gender. METHODS:The sample consisted of a subset of 71 mothers and their 3?year old children taking part in the prospective birth cohort, GUSTO. Mothers provided antenatal (26?weeks) and postnatal (2?years) anxiety and depressive symptomatology data, respectively via the "State Trait Anxiety Questionnaire" and the "Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale." Offspring provided electrophysiological data, obtained while they indicated the emotional expression of actors whose facial expressions remained consistent throughout a pre-switch block, but were reversed at "post-switch." RESULTS:Three electrophysiological components linked to different information processing stages were identified. The two earliest occurring components (i.e., the N1 and P2) differed across blocks. During post-switch, both were significantly predicted by maternal anxiety, after controlling for pre-switch neurophysiology. Similar results were observed with depression. Antenatal mental health remained a significant predictor after controlling for postnatal mental health. CONCLUSION:In combination with past work, these findings suggest the importance of reducing symptoms in women prior to and during pregnancy, and offering support to offspring early in development.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Elucidating risk pathways for under-achieving at school can inform strategies to reduce the number of adolescents leaving school without passing grades in core subjects. Maternal depression can compromise the quality of parental care and is associated with multiple negative child outcomes. However, only a few small studies have investigated the association between perinatal maternal depression and poor academic achievement in adolescence. The pathways to explain the risks are also unclear. METHOD:Prospective observational data from 5,801 parents and adolescents taking part in a large UK population cohort (Avon-Longitudinal-Study-of-Parents-and-Children) were used to test associations between maternal and paternal depression and anxiety in the perinatal period, executive function (EF) at age 8, and academic achievement at the end of compulsory school at age 16. RESULTS:Adolescents of postnatally depressed mothers were 1.5 times (1.19, 1.94, p = .001) as likely as adolescents of nondepressed mothers to fail to achieve a 'pass' grade in math; antenatal anxiety was also an independent predictor of poor math. Disruption in different components of EF explained small but significant proportions of these associations: attentional control explained 16% (4%, 27%, p < .001) of the association with postnatal depression, and working memory explained 17% (13%, 30%, p = .003) of the association with antenatal anxiety. A similar pattern was seen for language grades, but associations were confounded by maternal education. There was no evidence that paternal factors were independently associated with impaired child EF or adolescent exams. CONCLUSION:Maternal postnatal depression and antenatal anxiety are risk factors for adolescents underachieving in math. Preventing, identifying, and treating maternal mental health in the perinatal period could, therefore, potentially increase adolescents' academic achievement. Different aspects of EF partially mediated these associations. Further work is needed, but if these pathways are causal, improving EF could reduce underachievement in math.
Project description:BACKGROUND:By 2015, Malawi had not achieved Millennium Development Goal 4, reducing maternal mortality by about 35% from 675 to 439 deaths per 100,000 livebirths. Hypothesised reasons included low uptake of antenatal care (ANC), intrapartum care, and postnatal care. Involving community health workers (CHWs) in identification of pregnant women and linking them to perinatal services is a key strategy to reinforce uptake of perinatal care in Neno, Malawi. We evaluated changes in uptake after deployment of CHWs between March 2014 and June 2016. METHODS:A CHW intervention was implemented in Neno District, Malawi in a designated catchment area of about 3100 women of childbearing age. The pre-intervention period was March 2014 to February 2015, and the post-intervention period was March 2015 to June 2016. A 5-day maternal health training package was delivered to 211 paid and supervised CHWs. CHWs were deployed to identify pregnant women and escort them to perinatal care visits. A synthetic control method, in which a "counterfactual site" was created from six available control facilities in Neno District, was used to evaluate the intervention. Outcomes of interest included uptake of first-time ANC, ANC within the first trimester, four or more ANC visits, intrapartum care, and postnatal care follow-up. RESULTS:Women enrolled in ANC increased by 18% (95% Credible Interval (CrI): 8, 29%) from an average of 83 to 98 per month, the proportion of pregnant women starting ANC in the first trimester increased by 200% (95% CrI: 162, 234%) from 10 to 29% per month, the proportion of women completing four or more ANC visits increased by 37% (95% CrI: 31, 43%) from 28 to 39%, and monthly utilisation of intrapartum care increased by 20% (95% CrI: 13, 28%) from 85 to 102 women per month. There was little evidence that the CHW intervention changed utilisation of postnatal care (-?37, 95% CrI: -?224, 170%). CONCLUSIONS:In a rural district in Malawi, uptake of ANC and intrapartum care increased considerably following an intervention using CHWs to identify pregnant women and link them to care.