Differential response from selection for high calving ease vs. low birth weight in American Simmental beef cattle.
ABSTRACT: Data on calving ease (CE) and birth, weaning weight (WW), and yearling weight (YW) were obtained from the American Simmental Association (ASA) and included pedigree and performance information on 11,640,735 animals. Our objective was to quantify differential response from selection for high CE vs. low birth weight (LBW) in first-calf Simmental heifers. We hypothesized that direct selection for CE should be used as the primary approach to reduce dystocia and mitigate losses in growth-related traits. WW and YW were adjusted to 205 and 365 d of age, respectively. Sire and maternal grandsire (co)variance components for CE, birth weight (BW), and 205-d weaning weight (205-d WW), and sire covariance components for 160-d postweaning gain (160-d gain) were estimated using a sire-maternal grandsire model. Direct and maternal expected progeny differences (EPD) for CE, BW, and 205-d WW and direct EPD for 160-d gain and 365-d yearling weight (365-d YW) for first-calf Simmental heifers population (465,710 animals) were estimated using a threshold-linear multivariate maternal animal model. This population was used to estimate genetic trends and as a selection pool (control) for various selection scenarios. Selection scenarios were high CE (HCE), LBW, the all-purpose selection index (API = -1.8 BW + 1.3 CE + 0.10 WW + 0.20 YW) of the ASA and its two derived subindices: (API1 = 1.3 CE + 0.20 YW) and (API2 = -1.8 BW + 0.20 YW), and lastly Dickerson's selection index (DSI = -3.2 BW + YW). Data for each selection scenario were created by selecting sires with EPD greater than or equal to the average along with the top 75% of dams. Comparison between selection scenarios involved evaluating the direct and maternal genetic trends from these scenarios. Direct heritabilities for CE, BW, 205-d WW, 160-d gain, and 365-d YW of Simmental cattle were 0.23, 0.52, 0.28, 0.21, and 0.33, respectively. The single trait, HCE, selection scenario, as opposed to LBW, increased the intercept for CE by 57.7% and the slopes (P < 0.001) for BW, 205-d WW, 160-d gain, and 365-d YW by 27.9%, 37.5%, 16%, and 28%, respectively. Comparisons of various selection scenarios revealed that the CE-based selection scenarios (HCE, API, and API1) had a greater response for CE and growth traits.
Project description:Improving the genetic process of growth traits is one of the major goals in the beef cattle industry, as it can increase meat production and reduce the cost of raising animals. Although several quantitative trait loci affecting growth traits in beef cattle have been identified, the genetic architecture of these economically important traits remains elusive. This study aims to map single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genes associated with birth weight (BW), yearling weight (YW), average daily gain from birth to yearling (BYADG), and body weight at the age of 18 months (18MW) in a Chinese Simmental beef cattle population using a weighted, single-step, genome-wide association study (wssGWAS). Phenotypic and pedigree data from 6022 animals and genotypes from 744 animals (596,297 SNPs) were used for an association analysis. The results showed that 66 genomic windows explained 1.01-20.15% of the genetic variance for the four examined traits, together with the genes near the top SNP within each window. Furthermore, the identified genomic windows (>1%) explained 50.56%, 57.71%, 61.78%, and 37.82% of the genetic variances for BW, YW, BYADG, and 18MW, respectively. Genes with potential functions in muscle development and regulation of cell growth were highlighted as candidates for growth traits in Simmental cattle (SQOR and TBCB for BW, MYH10 for YW, RLF for BYADG, and ARHGAP31 for 18MW). Moreover, we found 40 SNPs that had not previously been identified as being associated with growth traits in cattle. These findings will further advance our understanding of the genetic basis for growth traits and will be useful for the molecular breeding of BW, YW, BYADG, and 18MW in the context of genomic selection in beef cattle.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays have facilitated discovery of genetic markers associated with complex traits in domestic cattle; thereby enabling modern breeding and selection programs. Genome-wide association analyses (GWAA) for growth traits were conducted on 10,837 geographically diverse U.S. Gelbvieh cattle using a union set of 856,527 imputed SNPs. Birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), and yearling weight (YW) were analyzed using GEMMA and EMMAX (via imputed genotypes). Genotype-by-environment (GxE) interactions were also investigated.<h4>Results</h4>GEMMA and EMMAX produced moderate marker-based heritability estimates that were similar for BW (0.36-0.37, SE?=?0.02-0.06), WW (0.27-0.29, SE?=?0.01), and YW (0.39-0.41, SE?=?0.01-0.02). GWAA using 856K imputed SNPs (GEMMA; EMMAX) revealed common positional candidate genes underlying pleiotropic QTL for Gelbvieh growth traits on BTA6, BTA7, BTA14, and BTA20. The estimated proportion of phenotypic variance explained (PVE) by the lead SNP defining these QTL (EMMAX) was larger and most similar for BW and YW, and smaller for WW. Collectively, GWAAs (GEMMA; EMMAX) produced a highly concordant set of BW, WW, and YW QTL that met a nominal significance level (P???1e-05), with prioritization of common positional candidate genes; including genes previously associated with stature, feed efficiency, and growth traits (i.e., PLAG1, NCAPG, LCORL, ARRDC3, STC2). Genotype-by-environment QTL were not consistent among traits at the nominal significance threshold (P???1e-05); although some shared QTL were apparent at less stringent significance thresholds (i.e., P???2e-05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Pleiotropic QTL for growth traits were detected on BTA6, BTA7, BTA14, and BTA20 for U.S. Gelbvieh beef cattle. Seven QTL detected for Gelbvieh growth traits were also recently detected for feed efficiency and growth traits in U.S. Angus, SimAngus, and Hereford cattle. Marker-based heritability estimates and the detection of pleiotropic QTL segregating in multiple breeds support the implementation of multiple-breed genomic selection.
Project description:<b>Objective:</b> Body weight is an important economic trait for a goat, which greatly affects animal growth and survival. The purpose of this study was to identify genes associated with birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), and yearling weight (YW). <b>Materials and Methods:</b> In this study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BW, WW, and YW was determined using the GGP_Goat_70K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip in 1,920 Inner Mongolia cashmere goats. <b>Results:</b> We discovered that 21 SNPs were significantly associated with BW on the genome-wide levels. These SNPs were located in 10 genes, e.g., Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 (<i>MAPK3</i>), LIM domain binding 2 (<i>LDB2</i>), and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1B (<i>LRP1B</i>), which may be related to muscle growth and development in Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis revealed that these genes were significantly enriched in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton and phospholipase D signaling pathway etc. <b>Conclusion:</b> In summary, this study will improve the marker-assisted breeding of Inner Mongolia cashmere goats and the molecular mechanisms of important economic traits.
Project description:In recent decades, global warming has become an indisputable fact on the Tibetan Plateau. Alpine ecosystems are very sensitive to global warming, and the impact may depend on the degree of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. The previous studies have paid more attention to year-round warming, but the effect of winter warming has been unstudied. In this study, a manipulative experiment was conducted, consisting of warming and N addition. It was carried out since 2010 in an alpine meadow, and three types of warming treatments were set up: no warming (NW), year-round (YW), and winter warming (WW). Warming significantly increased air and soil temperature, but decreased soil moisture. Under no N addition, YW showed significantly decreased ecosystem respiration (Reco) in 2012, and WW decreased Reco in 2014. Under N addition, neither YW nor WW had significant effects on Reco, indicating that N addition compensated the negative effect of warming on Reco. Annually, YW and WW decreased ecosystem carbon (C) emissions, and the extent of the reduction was even larger under WW. Under no N addition, both YW and WW significantly decreased aboveground biomass. Moreover, especially under no N, YW and WW significantly decreased soil inorganic N. WW also had negative effects on soil microbial biomass C. Structure equation modeling showed that soil moisture was the most important factors controlling Reco, and soil inorganic N content and microbial biomass C could explain 46.6% and 16.8% of the variation of Reco. The findings indicate that soil property changes under warming had substantial effects on ecosystem C efflux. The inhibitory effects of winter warming on ecosystem C efflux were mainly attributed to the decline of soil N and microbial biomass. Thus, the effects of winter warming on ecosystem C emissions in this semiarid alpine meadow are not as serious as expected and largely depend on N deposition.
Project description:As a result of selecting for increased litter size, newborn piglets are being born lighter and have a lower chance of survival. Raising fewer pigs to market weight would have a negative impact on the industry and farmer profitability; thus, understanding the genetics of individual growth performance traits will determine whether these traits will play an important role in pig breeding schemes. This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters for individual birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), and probe weight (PW) in Canadian-purebred Yorkshire and Landrace pigs. PW is a live weight taken at the time of the ultrasound measurements, when pigs weigh about 100 kg. Data were collected from 2 large and related breeding herds from 2003 to 2015. Four linear animal models were used, which included the following: Model 1-direct additive genetic effect; Model 2-direct additive genetic and maternal genetic effect; Model 3-direct additive genetic and common litter effect; and Model 4-direct additive genetic, maternal genetic, and common litter effect. The model which included all 3 random effects (Model 4) was determined to be the best fit to the data. Low to moderate direct heritability estimates were observed as follows: 0.15 ± 0.03 for BW, 0.04 ± 0.01 for WW, and 0.33 ± 0.03 for PW for the Yorkshire breed; and 0.05 ± 0.01 for BW, 0.01 ± 0.01 for WW, and 0.27 ± 0.03 for PW in the Landrace breed. As expected, the direct heritability estimates increased with age as a result of decreased maternal influence on the trait. Bivariate animal models were also used to estimate genetic and environmental correlations between traits. Strong direct genetic correlations were observed between BW and WW in both breeds. Based on the estimates of genetic parameters, individual BW could be evaluated and considered in breeding programs aiming to increase BW and improve subsequent performance. Different selection emphasis could also be applied on direct and maternal additive genetic effects on BW to optimize the breeding programs and improve selection efficiency.
Project description:Body weight (BW) is an important longitudinal trait that directly described the growth gain of bovine in production. However, previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) mainly focused on the single-record traits, with less attention paid to longitudinal traits. Compared with traditional GWAS models, the association studies based on the random regression model (GWAS-RRM) have better performance in the control of the false positive rate through considering time-stage effects. In this study, the BW trait data were collected from 808 Chinese Simmental beef cattle aged 0, 6, 12, and 18 months, then we performed a GWAS-RRM to fit the time-varied SNP effect. The results showed a total of 37 significant SNPs were associated with BW. Gene functional annotation and enrichment analysis indicated <i>FGF4</i>, <i>ANGPT4</i>, <i>PLA2G4A</i>, and <i>ITGA5</i> were promising candidate genes for BW. Moreover, these genes were significantly enriched in the signaling transduction pathway and lipid metabolism. These findings will provide prior molecular information for bovine gene-based selection, as well as facilitate the extensive application of GWAS-RRM in domestic animals.
Project description:Studies are being conducted on the applicability of genomic data to improve the accuracy of the selection process in livestock, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide valuable information to enhance the understanding on the genetics of complex traits. The aim of this study was to identify genomic regions and genes that play roles in birth weight (BW), weaning weight adjusted for 210 days of age (WW), and long-yearling weight adjusted for 420 days of age (LYW) in Canchim cattle. GWAS were performed by means of the Generalized Quasi-Likelihood Score (GQLS) method using genotypes from the BovineHD BeadChip and estimated breeding values for BW, WW, and LYW. Data consisted of 285 animals from the Canchim breed and 114 from the MA genetic group (derived from crossings between Charolais sires and ½ Canchim + ½ Zebu dams). After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 10% significance level, a total of 4, 12, and 10 SNPs were significantly associated with BW, WW, and LYW, respectively. These SNPs were surveyed to their corresponding genes or to surrounding genes within a distance of 250 kb. The genes DPP6 (dipeptidyl-peptidase 6) and CLEC3B (C-type lectin domain family 3 member B) were highlighted, considering its functions on the development of the brain and skeletal system, respectively. The GQLS method identified regions on chromosome associated with birth weight, weaning weight, and long-yearling weight in Canchim and MA animals. New candidate regions for body weight traits were detected and some of them have interesting biological functions, of which most have not been previously reported. The observation of QTL reports for body weight traits, covering areas surrounding the genes (SNPs) herein identified provides more evidence for these associations. Future studies targeting these areas could provide further knowledge to uncover the genetic architecture underlying growth traits in Canchim cattle.
Project description:Laser-produced nitrogen plasmas emitting radiation at 2.48 nm (Ly-α) and 2.88 nm (He-α) are considered potential efficient sources for water-window (WW) microscopy. The atomic and optical properties of nitrogen plasma and influence of the laser wavelength on the line emission in the WW range are investigated. It is found that the optimal temperatures for maximum emission from Ly-α and He-α spectral lines are 40-60 eV and 80-100 eV, respectively. The WW line emission and the conversion efficiency (CE) are estimated for three distinct Nd:YAG laser wavelengths (1064 nm, 532 nm, and 266 nm). The calculated CEs are compared with experimentally observed CE values. It is found that 1064 nm wavelength provides the highest CE from laser to Ly-α and He-α radiation.
Project description:Tyrosine-tryptophan (YW) dyads are ubiquitous structural motifs in enzymes and play roles in proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) and, possibly, protection from oxidative stress. Here, we describe the function of YW dyads in de novo designed 18-mer, ? hairpins. In Peptide M, a YW dyad is formed between W14 and Y5. A UV hypochromic effect and an excitonic Cotton signal are observed, in addition to singlet, excited state (W*) and fluorescence emission spectral shifts. In a second Peptide, Peptide MW, a Y5-W13 dyad is formed diagonally across the strand and distorts the backbone. On a picosecond timescale, the W* excited-state decay kinetics are similar in all peptides but are accelerated relative to amino acids in solution. In Peptide MW, the W* spectrum is consistent with increased conformational flexibility. In Peptide M and MW, the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra obtained after UV photolysis are characteristic of tyrosine and tryptophan radicals at 160 K. Notably, at pH 9, the radical photolysis yield is decreased in Peptide M and MW, compared to that in a tyrosine and tryptophan mixture. This protective effect is not observed at pH 11 and is not observed in peptides containing a tryptophan-histidine dyad or tryptophan alone. The YW dyad protective effect is attributed to an increase in the radical recombination rate. This increase in rate can be facilitated by hydrogen-bonding interactions, which lower the barrier for the PCET reaction at pH 9. These results suggest that the YW dyad structural motif promotes radical quenching under conditions of reactive oxygen stress.
Project description:To understand the contribution of animal- and human-derived fecal pollution sources in shaping integron prevalence and diversity in beach waters, 414 Escherichia coli strains were collected from beach waters (BW, n = 166), seagull feces (SF, n = 179), and wastewaters (WW, n = 69), on the World Biosphere Reserve of the Berlenga Island, Portugal. Statistical differences were found between the prevalence of integrons in BW (21%) and WW (10%), but not between BW and SF (19%). The majority of integrase-positive (intI (+))-strains affiliated to commensal phylogroups B1 (37%), A0 (24%), and A1 (20%). Eighteen different gene cassette arrays were detected, most of them coding for resistances to aminoglycosides, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, and quaternary ammonia compounds. Common arrays were found among strains from different sources. Multi-resistance to three or more different classes of antibiotics was observed in 89, 82, and 57% of intI (+)-strains from BW, SF and WW, respectively. Plasmids were detected in 79% of strains (60/76) revealing a high diversity of replicons in all sources, mostly belonging to IncF (Frep, FIA, and FIB subgroups), IncI1, IncN, IncY, and IncK incompatibility groups. In 20% (15/76) of strains, integrons were successfully mobilized through conjugation to E. coli CV601. Results obtained support the existence of a diverse integron pool in the E. coli strains from this coastal environment, associated with different resistance traits and plasmid incompatibility groups, mainly shaped by animal fecal pollution inputs. These findings underscore the role of wild life in dissemination of integrons and antibiotic resistance traits in natural environments.