Genome-Wide Analysis of Serine Carboxypeptidase-Like Acyltransferase Gene Family for Evolution and Characterization of Enzymes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Galloylated Catechins in the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis).
ABSTRACT: Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) leaves synthesize and concentrate a vast array of galloylated catechins (e.g., EGCG and ECG) and non-galloylated catechins (e.g., EGC, catechin, and epicatechin), together constituting 8%-24% of the dry leaf mass. Galloylated catechins account for a major portion of soluble catechins in tea leaves (up to 75%) and make a major contribution to the astringency and bitter taste of the green tea, and their pharmacological activity for human health. However, the catechin galloylation mechanism in tea plants is largely unknown at molecular levels. Previous studies indicated that glucosyltransferases and serine carboxypeptidase-like acyltransferases (SCPL) might be involved in the process. However, details about the roles of SCPLs in the biosynthesis of galloylated catechins remain to be elucidated. Here, we performed the genome-wide identification of SCPL genes in the tea plant genome. Several SCPLs were grouped into clade IA, which encompasses previously characterized SCPL-IA enzymes with an acylation function. Twenty-eight tea genes in this clade were differentially expressed in young leaves and vegetative buds. We characterized three SCPL-IA enzymes (CsSCPL11-IA, CsSCPL13-IA, CsSCPL14-IA) with galloylation activity toward epicatechins using recombinant enzymes. Not only the expression levels of these SCPLIA genes coincide with the accumulation of galloylated catechins in tea plants, but their recombinant enzymes also displayed ?-glucogallin:catechin galloyl acyltransferase activity. These findings provide the first insights into the identities of genes encoding glucogallin:catechin galloyl acyltransferases with an active role in the biosynthesis of galloylated catechins in tea plants.
Project description:Epidemiological and laboratory studies have shown that green tea and green tea catechins exert beneficial effects on a variety of diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, infectious diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. In most cases, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has been shown to play a central role in these effects by green tea. Catechins from other plant sources have also shown health benefits. Many studies have revealed that the binding of EGCG and other catechins to proteins is involved in its action mechanism. Computational docking analysis (CMDA) and X-ray crystallographic analysis (XCA) have provided detailed information on catechin-protein interactions. Several of these studies have revealed that the galloyl moiety anchors it to the cleft of proteins through interactions with its hydroxyl groups, explaining the higher activity of galloylated catechins such as EGCG and epicatechin gallate than non-galloylated catechins. In this paper, we review the results of CMDA and XCA of EGCG and other plant catechins to understand catechin-protein interactions with the expectation of developing new drugs with health-promoting properties.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Catechins are the main polyphenol compounds in tea (Camellia sinensis). To understand the relationship between gene expression and product accumulation, the levels of catechins and relative expressions of key genes in tea leaves of different developmental stages were analyzed. RESULTS:The amounts of catechins differed significantly in leaves of different stages, except for gallocatechin gallate. Close correlations between the expression of synthesis genes and the accumulation of catechins were identified. Correlation analysis showed that the expressions of chalcone synthase 1, chalcone synthase 3, anthocyanidin reductase 1, anthocyanidin reductase 2 and leucoanthocyanidin reductase genes were significantly and positively correlated with total catechin contents, suggesting their expression may largely affect total catechin accumulation. Anthocyanidin synthase was significantly correlated with catechin. While both ANRs and LAR were significantly and positively correlated with the contents of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and (-)-epicatechin gallate. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest synergistic changes between the expression of synthetic genes and the accumulation of catechins. Based on our findings, anthocyanidin synthase may regulate earlier steps in the conversion of catechin, while the anthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase genes may both play important roles in the biosynthesis of galloylated catechins.
Project description:Galloylated catechins, as the main secondary metabolites in the tea plant, including (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, comprise approximately three-quarters of all the tea plant catechins and have stronger effects than non-galloylated catechins, both on the product quality in tea processing and the pharmacological efficacy to human beings. The subcellular localization of galloylated catechins has been the primary focus of studies that assess biosynthesis and physiological functions. Classical histochemical localization staining reagents can not specifically detect galloylated catechins; thus, their subcellular localization remains controversial. In the present study, we generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against galloylated catechins, which can be used for the subcellular localization of galloylated catechins in the tea plant by immunohistochemistry. Direct ELISA and ForteBio Octet Red 96 System assay indicated the mAb could recognize the galloylated catechins with high specificities and affinities. In addition, tea bud was ascertained as the optimal tissue for freezing microtomic sections for immunohistochemistry. What's more, the high quality mAbs which exhibited excellent binding capability to galloylated catechins were utilized for the visualization of them via immunohistochemistry. Our findings demonstrated that vacuoles were the primary sites of localization of galloylated catechins at the subcellular level.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Catechins, polyphenols derived from tea leaves, have been shown to have antibacterial properties, through direct killing of bacteria as well as through inhibition of bacterial toxin activity. In particular, certain catechins have been shown to have bactericidal effects on the oral bacterium, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, as well as the ability to inhibit a key virulence factor of this organism, leukotoxin (LtxA). The mechanism of catechin-mediated inhibition of LtxA has not been shown. METHODS:In this work, we studied the ability of six catechins to inhibit LtxA-mediated cytotoxicity in human white blood cells, using Trypan blue staining, and investigated the mechanism of action using a combination of techniques, including fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy, confocal microscopy, and surface plasmon resonance. RESULTS:We found that all the catechins except (-)-catechin inhibited the activity of this protein, with the galloylated catechins having the strongest effect. Pre-incubation of the toxin with the catechins increased the inhibitory action, indicating that the catechins act on the protein, rather than the cell. The secondary structure of LtxA was dramatically altered in the presence of catechin, which resulted in an inhibition of toxin binding to cholesterol, an important initial step in the cytotoxic mechanism of the toxin. CONCLUSIONS:These results demonstrate that the catechins inhibit LtxA activity by altering its structure to prevent interaction with specific molecules present on the host cell surface. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE:Galloylated catechins modify protein toxin structure, inhibiting the toxin from binding to the requisite molecules on the host cell surface.
Project description:The influenza A RNA polymerase possesses endonuclease activity to digest the host mRNA. Thus this endonuclease domain can be a target of anti-influenza A virus drug. Here we report that green tea catechins inhibit this viral endonuclease activity and that their galloyl group is important for their function. Docking simulations revealed that catechins with galloyl group fit well into the active pocket of the endonuclease domain to enable stable binding. Our results provide useful data that make it possible to refine and optimize catechin-based drug design more readily for stability.
Project description:Green tea and its major polyphenols constituents, tea catechins, have been shown to have many health benefits including cancer prevention. Tea catechins and tea catechin metabolites/catabolites are bioavailable in the systemic circulation after oral intake of green tea or green tea catechins. The metabolites/catabolites identified in humans include glucuronide/sulfate conjugates, methylated tea catechin conjugates, and microflora-mediated ring fission products and phenolic acid catabolites. Plasma levels of unchanged tea catechins in humans are mostly in the sub-?M or nM concentration range, which is much lower than the effective concentrations determined in most in vitro studies. However, some of the catechin metabolites/catabolites are present in the systemic circulation at levels much higher than those of the parent catechins. The contribution of catechin derived metabolites/catabolites to the biological effects associated with green tea is yet to be defined. A limited number of chemoprevention trials of green tea or green tea catechins have been conducted to date and have observed potential preventive activity for oral, prostate, and colorectal cancer. Emerging data from multiple ongoing intervention trials will further contribute to defining the cancer preventive activity of green tea or green tea catechins.
Project description:Acacia hydaspica belongs to family leguminosae possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. During our search for antioxidant compounds from A. hydaspica, we carried out bioassay guided fractionation and obtained antioxidant compounds with free radical scavenging activity.The polyphenol compounds in the plant extract of A. hydaspica were isolated by combination of different chromatographic techniques involving vacuum liquid chromatography and medium pressure liquid chromatography. The structural heterogeneity of isolated compounds was characterized by high pressure liquid chromatography, MS-ESI and NMR spectroscopic analyses. The antioxidant potential of isolated compounds has been investigated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide scavenging potential, hydroxyl radical scavenging potential, ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) model systems and total antioxidant capacity measurement.The isolated compounds show the predominance of signals representative of 7-O-galloyl catechins, catechins and methyl gallate. Flash chromatographic separation gives 750 mg of 7-O galloyl catechin, 400 mg of catechin and 150 mg of methyl gallate from 4 g loaded fraction on ISCO. Results revealed that C1 was the most potent compound against DPPH (EC50 1.60 ± 0.035 µM), nitric oxide radical (EC50 6 ± 0.346 µM), showed highest antioxidant index (1.710 ± 0.04) and FRAP [649.5 ± 1.5 µM Fe(II)/g] potency at 12.5 µM dose compared to C2, C3 and standard reference, whereas C3 showed lower EC50 values (4.33 ± 0.618 µM) in OH radical scavenging assay.Present research reports for the first time the antioxidant activity of polyphenolic compounds of A. hydaspica. Result showed good resolution and separation from other constituents of extract and method was found to be simple and precise. The isolation of catechin from this new species could provide a varied opportunity to obtain large quantities of catechin and catechin isomers beside from green tea. Free radical scavenging properties of isolated catechin isomers from A. hydaspica merit further investigations for consumption of this plant in oxidative stress related disorders.
Project description:In the present study, proanthocyanidins were qualitatively and quantitatively identified using hydrolysis and thiolysis assays, NP-HPLC, HPLC-ESI-MS, MALDI-TOF-MS, (1)H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR techniques in different organs of tea plants. The results showed that in leaves, the tri-hydroxyl, cis- and galloylated flavan-3-ols were the main monomeric catechins units, and (epi)catechin was found to be the major unit of polymeric flavan-3-ols when the degree of polymerization was greater than five. In roots, the PAs were found to be abundant, and epicatechin formed the predominant extension unit of oligomeric and polymeric PAs. In order to understand the mechanism of proanthocyanidins polymerization, auto-condensation of the flavan-3-ols was investigated. The results showed that the same trimers (m/z 865) were detected in the extracts of tea plants and in the non-enzymatic in vitro assay, in weak acid as well as weak alkaline solutions at room temperature, when the substrates used were either procyanidin B2 and monomeric flavan-3-ols (epicatechin or catechin), or only procyanidin B2. This suggested that procyanidin B2 not only released carbocation as electrophilic upper units, but also could be used as nucleophilic lower units directly itself, to form the procyanidin trimer in vitro or in vivo.
Project description:This study aims to use a combination of biochemical and biophysical methods to derive greater mechanistic understanding of the interactions between tea polyphenols and porcine pancreatic ?-amylase (PPA).The interaction mechanism was studied through fluorescence quenching (FQ), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and compared with inhibition kinetics. The results showed that a higher quenching effect of polyphenols corresponded to a stronger inhibitory activity against PPA. The red-shift of maximum emission wavelength of PPA bound with some polyphenols indicated a potential structural unfolding of PPA. This was also suggested by the decreased thermostability of PPA with these polyphenols in DSC thermograms. Through thermodynamic binding analysis of ITC and inhibition kinetics, the equilibrium of competitive inhibition was shown to result from the binding of particularly galloylated polyphenols with specific sites on PPA. There were positive linear correlations between the reciprocal of competitive inhibition constant (1/Kic ), quenching constant (KFQ ) and binding constant (Kitc ).The combination of inhibition kinetics, FQ, DSC and ITC can reasonably characterize the interactions between tea polyphenols and PPA. The galloyl moiety is an important group in catechins and theaflavins in terms of binding with and inhibiting the activity of PPA.
Project description:Senescence is initiated immediately in harvested tea leaves, and leads to physiological and biochemical changes, and could affects the final tea products. In the present work, we investigated the relationship between hormones and critical components in harvested tea leaves before withering, changes in hormones including abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and critical components like catechins, theanine, and caffeine were analyzed. Significant changes in these substances were identified and ABA correlated with catechin in harvested tea leaves before withering. RNA-seq transcriptome analysis revealed dramatic differences between tea samples at 1 h and 2 h compared with those at 0 h. The patterns of these three critical components correlated with the expression profiles of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Weighted correlation network analysis of co-expressed genes revealed that genes in the mediumpurple2 module correlated with ABA and catechins. The results of this study suggest that harvested tea leaves before withering undergo significant hormonal changes (ABA, JA, and SA) and ABA may participate in regulating catechin biosynthesis. Overall design: mRNA profiles of tea leaves at 0, 1 and 2 hours after harvested