Regulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation by dual-specificity phosphatase 3.
ABSTRACT: Since cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide, there is an urgent need to understand the mechanisms underlying cancer progression and the development of cancer inhibitors. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a major transcription factor that regulates the proliferation and survival of various cancer cells. Here, dual-specificity phosphatase 3 (DUSP3) was identified as a regulator of STAT3 based on an interaction screening performed using the protein tyrosine phosphatase library. DUSP3 interacted with the C-terminal domain of STAT3 and dephosphorylated p-Y705 of STAT3. In vitro dephosphorylation assay revealed that DUSP3 directly dephosphorylated p-STAT3. The suppressive effects of DUSP3 on STAT3 were evaluated by a decreased STAT3-specific promoter activity, which in turn reduced the expression of the downstream target genes of STAT3. In summary, DUSP3 downregulated the transcriptional activity of STAT3 via dephosphorylation at Y705 and also suppressed the migratory activity of cancer cells. This study demonstrated that DUSP3 inhibits interleukin 6 (IL-6)/STAT3 signaling and is expected to regulate cancer development. Novel functions of DUSP3 discovered in IL-6/STAT3 signaling regulation would help expand the understanding of cancer development mechanisms. [BMB Reports 2020; 53(6): 335-340].
Project description:DNA damage-induced apoptosis suppressor (DDIAS) regulates cancer cell survival. Here we investigated the involvement of DDIAS in IL-6-mediated signaling to understand the mechanism underlying the role of DDIAS in lung cancer malignancy. We showed that DDIAS promotes tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is constitutively activated in malignant cancers. Interestingly, siRNA protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) library screening revealed protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor mu (PTPRM) as a novel STAT3 PTP. PTPRM knockdown rescued the DDIAS-knockdown-mediated decrease in STAT3 Y705 phosphorylation in the presence of IL-6. However, PTPRM overexpression decreased STAT3 Y705 phosphorylation. Moreover, endogenous PTPRM interacted with endogenous STAT3 for dephosphorylation at Y705 following IL-6 treatment. As expected, PTPRM bound to wild-type STAT3 but not the STAT3 Y705F mutant. PTPRM dephosphorylated STAT3 in the absence of DDIAS, suggesting that DDIAS hampers PTPRM/STAT3 interaction. In fact, DDIAS bound to the STAT3 transactivation domain (TAD), which competes with PTPRM to recruit STAT3 for dephosphorylation. Thus we show that DDIAS prevents PTPRM/STAT3 binding and blocks STAT3 Y705 dephosphorylation, thereby sustaining STAT3 activation in lung cancer. DDIAS expression strongly correlates with STAT3 phosphorylation in human lung cancer cell lines and tissues. Thus DDIAS may be considered as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in malignant lung cancer cells with aberrant STAT3 activation.
Project description:The aberrant activation of STAT3 occurs in many human cancers and promotes tumor progression. Phosphorylation of a tyrosine at amino acid Y705 is essential for the function of STAT3. Synthesized carbazole derived with fluorophore compound 12 was discovered to target STAT3 phosphorylation. Compound 12 was found to inhibit STAT3-mediated transcription as well as to reduce IL-6 induced STAT3 phosphorylation in cancer cell lines expressing both elevated and low levels of phospho-STAT3 (Y705). Compound 12 potently induced apoptosis in a broad number of TNBC cancer cell lines in vitro and was effective at inhibiting the in vivo growth of human TNBC xenograft tumors (SUM149) without any observed toxicity. Compound 12 also effectively inhibited the growth of human lung tumor xenografts (A549) harboring aberrantly active STAT3. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that the inhibitory effects of 12 on phospho-STAT3 were through up-regulation of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTPN6. Our present studies strongly support the continued preclinical evaluation of compound 12 as a potential chemotherapeutic agent for TNBC and cancers with constitutive STAT3 signaling.
Project description:Aberrantly activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is implicated in the development of various human cancers. Y705 phosphorylation is conventionally thought to be required for Stat3 signal-dependent activation and seems to play an essential role in some malignancies. Recently, it was shown that Stat3 is activated through novel and noncanonical mechanisms, including phosphorylation at S727. Here, we investigate S727 phosphorylation of Stat3 and its subsequent effects in prostate cancer development, independent of Y705 phosphorylation, using mutated Stat3 in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. We show mutation of S727 to the phosphomimetic residue Glu, and inactivation of Y705 (Y705F/S727E) resulted in a remarkable growth advantage in low-serum, enhanced anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, and increased tumorigenicity in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice, possibly by direct activation of downstream proto-oncogenes c-myc, mcl-1, and survivin. Y705F/S727E mutant cells were more invasive than Y705F/S727A (inactivation of Y705 and S727) mutant cells, and more Y705F/S727E mutant Stat3 was localized in the nuclei relative to Y705F/S727A mutant Stat3 at the steady state. Furthermore, the Y705F/S727E but not the Y705F/S727A mutant induced anchorage-independent growth of noncancerous prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1). We further show that Stat3 is phosphorylated at S727 in 65% of malignant prostate tissues (n = 20) relative to 25% of normal prostate tissues (n = 4). Moreover, there is a positive correlation between phosphoS727-Stat3 expression and Gleason score in these prostate cancer tissues (P = 0.05). Our data suggest for the first time that S727 phosphorylation is sufficient to activate Stat3, thereby driving prostate tumorigenesis independent of Y705 phosphorylation.
Project description:Hippocalcin (HPCA) is a calcium-binding protein that is restricted to nervous tissue and contributes to neuronal activity. Here we report that, in addition to inducing neurogenesis, HPCA inhibits astrocytic differentiation of neural stem cells. It promotes neurogenesis by regulating protein kinase C? (PKC?) activation by translocating to the membrane and binding to phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1), which induces PKC? phosphorylation. We also found that phospholipase D1 (PLD1) is implicated in the HPCA-mediated neurogenesis pathway; this enzyme promotes dephosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3[Y705]), which is necessary for astrocytic differentiation. Moreover, we found that the SH2-domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) acts upstream of STAT3. Importantly, this SHP-1-dependent STAT3-inhibitory mechanism is closely involved in neurogenesis and suppression of gliogenesis by HPCA. Taken together, these observations suggest that HPCA promotes neuronal differentiation through activation of the PKC?/PLD1 cascade followed by activation of SHP-1, which dephosphorylates STAT3(Y705), leading to inhibition of astrocytic differentiation.
Project description:The Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway is one of the key signaling cascades in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells, mediating their resistance to apoptosis. Our aim was to ascertain if sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, may also inhibit JAK/STAT signaling and, therefore, be efficacious for CCA. Sorafenib treatment of three human CCA cell lines resulted in Tyr(705) phospho-STAT3 dephosphorylation. Similar results were obtained with the Raf-kinase inhibitor ZM336372, suggesting sorafenib promotes Tyr(705) phospho-STAT3 dephosphorylation by inhibiting Raf-kinase activity. Sorafenib treatment enhanced an activating phosphorylation of the phosphatase SHP2. Consistent with this observation, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of phosphatase shatterproof 2 (SHP2) inhibited sorafenib-induced Tyr(705) phospho-STAT3 dephosphorylation. Sorafenib treatment also decreased the expression of Mcl-1 messenger RNA and protein, a STAT3 transcriptional target, as well as sensitizing CCA cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis. In an orthotopic, syngeneic CCA model in rats, sorafenib displayed significant tumor suppression resulting in a survival benefit for treated animals. In this in vivo model, sorafenib also decreased tumor Tyr(705) STAT3 phosphorylation and increased tumor cell apoptosis.Sorafenib accelerates STAT3 dephosphorylation by stimulating phosphatase SHP2 activity, sensitizes CCA cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, and is therapeutic in a syngeneic rat, orthotopic CCA model that mimics human disease.
Project description:Protein tyrosine phosphatases dephosphorylate tyrosine residues of proteins, whereas, dual specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) are a subgroup of protein tyrosine phosphatases that dephosphorylate not only Tyr(P) residue, but also the Ser(P) and Thr(P) residues of proteins. The DUSPs are linked to the regulation of many cellular functions and signaling pathways. Though many cellular targets of DUSPs are known, the relationship between catalytic activity and substrate specificity is poorly defined. We investigated the interactions of peptide substrates with select DUSPs of four types: MAP kinases (DUSP1 and DUSP7), atypical (DUSP3, DUSP14, DUSP22 and DUSP27), viral (variola VH1), and Cdc25 (A-C). Phosphatase recognition sites were experimentally determined by measuring dephosphorylation of 6,218 microarrayed Tyr(P) peptides representing confirmed and theoretical phosphorylation motifs from the cellular proteome. A broad continuum of dephosphorylation was observed across the microarrayed peptide substrates for all phosphatases, suggesting a complex relationship between substrate sequence recognition and optimal activity. Further analysis of peptide dephosphorylation by hierarchical clustering indicated that DUSPs could be organized by substrate sequence motifs, and peptide-specificities by phylogenetic relationships among the catalytic domains. The most highly dephosphorylated peptides represented proteins from 29 cell-signaling pathways, greatly expanding the list of potential targets of DUSPs. These newly identified DUSP substrates will be important for examining structure-activity relationships with physiologically relevant targets.
Project description:Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-type ? (PTPRD) is frequently inactivated in human cancers. This study investigated the role of PTPRD in the regulation of stemness, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and migration and invasion in breast cancer cells. In vitro, PTPRD silencing using siRNA enhanced the stem cell-like properties of breast cancer cells, including their mammosphere- and holoclone-forming abilities, and it promoted tumorigenicity in vivo. PTPRD knockdown also increased the CD44+/CD24- breast cancer stem cell (BCSC) population and the expression of the stem cell markers ALDH1 and OCT4. It also promoted migration and invasion by breast cancer cell, EMT, and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). BCSCs expressed low levels of PTPRD, displayed mesenchymal phenotypes, and were more sensitive to IL-6-mediated STAT3 activation than non-BCSCs. PTPRD expression was upregulated by IL-6 in breast cancer cells, thereby establishing a negative feedback circuit by which IL-6 induced canonical STAT3 phosphorylation and transiently upregulated PTPRD, which in turn dephosphorylated STAT3 and prevented downstream signaling via the IL-6/STAT3 cascade. These data suggest that therapies aimed at restoring or enhancing PTPRD expression may be effective in controlling breast cancer progression and metastasis.
Project description:Stat3 is initially dephosphorylated in murine keratinocytes in response to UVB irradiation. Treatment with Na(3)VO(4) desensitized keratinocytes to UVB-induced apoptosis with the recovery of phosphorylated Stat3 protein levels, implying that a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) is involved in this mechanism. In the current work, we report that three PTPs including TC45 (the nuclear form of TC-PTP), SHP1, and SHP2 are involved in this rapid dephosphorylation of Stat3 in keratinocytes induced by UVB irradiation. Dephosphorylation of Stat3 was increased rapidly after UVB irradiation of cultured keratinocytes. Knockdown of TC-PTP, SHP1, or SHP2 using RNAi showed that these PTPs are likely responsible for most of the rapid Stat3 dephosphorylation observed following UVB irradiation. The level of phosphorylated Stat3 was significantly higher in keratinocytes transfected with TC-PTP, SHP1, or SHP2 siRNA in the presence or absence of UVB compared with keratinocytes transfected with control siRNA. TC45 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes and translocated from cytoplasm to nucleus upon UVB irradiation. Stat3 dephosphorylation was associated with nuclear translocation of TC45. Further studies revealed that knockdown of all three phosphatases, using RNAi, prevented the rapid dephosphorylation of Stat3 following UVB irradiation. In mouse epidermis, the level of phosphorylated Stat3 was initially decreased, followed by a significant increase at later time points after UVB exposure. The levels of Stat3 target genes, such as cyclin D1 and c-Myc, followed the changes in activated Stat3 in response to UVB irradiation. Collectively, these results suggest that three phosphatases, TC45, SHP1, and SHP2, are primarily responsible for UVB-mediated Stat3 dephosphorylation and may serve as part of an initial protective mechanism against UV skin carcinogenesis.
Project description:Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. PCa progression can be associated with obesity. Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) plays a crucial role in PCa growth. However, whether STAT3 plays a role in high-fat diet (HFD)-associated PCa growth is unknown. Our data show that HFD feeding increases tumor size, STAT3 phosphorylation, and palmitic acid (PA) level in the xenograft tissues of the PCa-bearing xenograft mouse model. In vitro studies show that PA increases STAT3 expression and phosphorylation (STAT3-Y705) in PCa. Computational modeling suggests strong and stable binding between PA and unphosphorylated STAT3 at R593 and N538. The binding changes STAT3 structure and activity. Functional studies show that both STAT3 mutants (R583A and N538A) and STAT3 dominant negative significantly reduce PA-enhanced STAT3 phosphorylation, PA-increased PCa cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. In the xenograft mouse models, the HFD-increased tumor growth and STAT3 phosphorylation in tumors are reversed by STAT3 inhibition. Our study not only demonstrates the regulatory role of PA/STAT3 axis in HFD-associated PCa growth but also suggests a novel mechanism of how STAT3 is activated by PA. Our data suggest STAT3 as a therapeutic target for the treatment of HFD-associated PCa.
Project description:DUSP3 phosphatase, also known as Vaccinia-H1 Related (VHR) phosphatase, encoded by DUSP3/Dusp3 gene, is a relatively small member of the dual-specificity protein phosphatases. In vitro studies showed that DUSP3 is a negative regulator of ERK and JNK pathways in several cell lines. On the other hand, DUSP3 is implicated in human cancer. It has been alternatively described as having tumor suppressive and oncogenic properties. Thus, the available data suggest that DUSP3 plays complex and contradictory roles in tumorigenesis that could be cell type-dependent. Since most of these studies were performed using recombinant proteins or in cell-transfection based assays, the physiological function of DUSP3 has remained elusive.Using immunohistochemistry on human cervical sections, we observed a strong expression of DUSP3 in endothelial cells (EC) suggesting a contribution for this phosphatase to EC functions. DUSP3 downregulation, using RNA interference, in human EC reduced significantly in vitro tube formation on Matrigel and spheroid angiogenic sprouting. However, this defect was not associated with an altered phosphorylation of the documented in vitro DUSP3 substrates, ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and EGFR but was associated with an increased PKC phosphorylation. To investigate the physiological function of DUSP3, we generated Dusp3-deficient mice by homologous recombination. The obtained DUSP3-/- mice were healthy, fertile, with no spontaneous phenotype and no vascular defect. However, DUSP3 deficiency prevented neo-vascularization of transplanted b-FGF containing Matrigel and LLC xenograft tumors as evidenced by hemoglobin (Hb) and FITC-dextran quantifications. Furthermore, we found that DUSP3 is required for b-FGF-induced microvessel outgrowth in the aortic ring assay.All together, our data identify DUSP3 as a new important player in angiogenesis.