Unveiling antimicrobial and anticancerous behavior of AuNPs and AgNPs moderated by rhizome extracts of Curcuma longa from diverse altitudes of Himalaya.
ABSTRACT: Conservative remedies have a gray history worldwide and these provide productive and pertinent tools to tackle ailments. Also, the high altitude areas of Indian Himalayas with their wealthy biodiversity anchorage around 2000 plant species. Ensuing study demonstrates the synthesis of Silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) and utilizes one of the medicaments Curcuma longa of Indian Himalayas collected from different altitudes. For the same, turmeric rhizome extracts have been prepared from the aforesaid medicament and its anticancer activity and antimicrobial potential have been evaluated. Formation of Ag and Au nanoparticles was realized via UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope (TEM) confirmed size of the NPs. Antibacterial activity has been checked against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. The anticancer prospective has been observed against A549 and PC3 cell lines of both Au and Ag NPs and the cytotoxicity on PC3 and A549 cell lines was assessed using MTT assay. Results revealed higher amount of biochemicals, antibacterial and anticancer activity in Ag and Au NPs synthesized from rhizome extract collected from highest altitude. For the first time impact of altitudinal variations on phytochemicals and nanoparticles has been reported which have significant effect on its antimicrobial and anticancerous activity.
Project description:The importance of biogenic silver/silver chloride nanoparticles has become increasing day by day. In the present study, silver/silver chloride nanoparticles (Ag/AgCl-NPs) were synthesized from Kaempferia rotunda tuberous rhizome extract to evaluate the antiproliferative activity against human glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) in vitro and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells in vivo in mice. Synthesis of nanoparticles was confirmed by colour change and UV-visible spectrum and characterized by TEM, XRD, TGA, AFM and FTIR. K rotunda and recently synthesized Zizyphus mauritiana fruit extract-mediated Ag/AgCl-NPs inhibited 77.2% and 71% of GSCs growth at 32 µg/mL concentration with the IC<sub>50</sub> values of 6.8 and 10.4 µg/mL, respectively. Cell morphological studies and caspase-3 immunofluorescence assay revealed that both biogenic nanoparticles induced apoptosis in GSCs. Expression levels of several genes were checked by real-time PCR after treatment with K rotunda tuberous rhizome-mediated Ag/AgCl-NPs. PARP, EGFR, NOTCH2 and STAT3 gene expression were decreased with the increase of NF?B, TLR9, IL1, TNF?, IKK and p21 gene that would be the cause of induction of apoptosis in GSCs. The cell cycle arrest at G<sub>2</sub> /M phase was confirmed by flow cytometric assay. Both nanoparticles were injected intraperitoneally to rapidly growing EAC cells for 5 consecutive days. Approximately, 32.3% and 55% EAC cells growth were inhibited by K rotunda tuberous rhizome-mediated Ag/AgCl-NPs at 6 and 12 mg/kg/day doses, respectively while only 20% cell growth inhibition was monitored at 12 mg/kg/day dose of Z mauritiana-mediated Ag/AgCl-NPs. From the above results, it can be concluded that presently synthesized nanoparticles would be a potent anticancer agent.
Project description:In this study, a simple one-pot method was proposed to synthesize water-soluble nucleoside-templated fluorescent silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). The nucleoside-templated fluorescent Ag NPs and Au NPs were further characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and fluorescence spectroscopy (FLS). The effects of the molar ratio of reactants, reaction environment, and nucleotides on the synthesis of Ag NPs and Au NPs were also discussed. The results showed that nucleoside and ascorbic acid acted as a stabilizer and reductant, respectively, in the synthesis of Ag NPs and Au NPs, while citrate buffer acted as both a pH regulator and reductant. The synthesized nucleoside-templated fluorescent Ag NPs and Au NPs have good fluorescence stability and easy water solubility. In this study, a simple one-pot method was proposed to synthesize water-soluble nucleoside-templated fluorescent silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs).
Project description:Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) such as silver (Ag) and gold (Au) have unique plasmonic properties that give rise to surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Generally, Ag NPs have much stronger plasmonic properties and, hence, provide stronger SERS signals than Au NPs. However, Ag NPs lack the chemical stability and biocompatibility of comparable Au NPs and typically exhibit the most intense plasmonic resonance at wavelengths much shorter than the optimal spectral region for many biomedical applications. To overcome these issues, various experimental efforts have been devoted to the synthesis of Ag/Au hybrid NPs for the purpose of SERS detections. However, a complete understanding on how the SERS enhancement depends on the chemical composition and structure of these nanoparticles has not been achieved. In this study, Mie theory and the discrete dipole approximation have been used to calculate the plasmonic spectra and near-field electromagnetic enhancements of Ag/Au hybrid NPs. In particular, we discuss how the electromagnetic enhancement depends on the mole fraction of Au in Ag/Au alloy NPs and how one may use extinction spectra to distinguish between Ag/Au alloyed NPs and Ag-Au core-shell NPs. We also show that for incident laser wavelengths between ∼410 nm and 520 nm, Ag/Au alloyed NPs provide better electromagnetic enhancement than pure Ag, pure Au, or Ag-Au core-shell structured NPs. Finally, we show that silica-core Ag/Au alloy shelled NPs provide even better performance than pure Ag/Au alloy or pure solid Ag and pure solid Au NPs. The theoretical results presented will be beneficial to the experimental efforts in optimizing the design of Ag/Au hybrid NPs for SERS-based detection methods.
Project description:Plant extract of Pulicaria undulata (L.) was used as both reducing agent and stabilizing ligand for the rapid and green synthesis of gold (Au), silver (Ag), and gold-silver (Au-Ag) bimetallic (phase segregated/alloy) nanoparticles (NPs). These nanoparticles with different morphologies were prepared in two hours by stirring corresponding metal precursors in the aqueous solution of the plant extracts at ambient temperature. To infer the role of concentration of plant extract on the composition and morphology of NPs, we designed two different sets of experiments, namely (i) low concentration (LC) and (ii) high concentration (HC) of plant extract. In the case of using low concentration of the plant extract, irregular shaped Au, Ag, or phase segregated Au-Ag bimetallic NPs were obtained, whereas the use of higher concentrations of the plant extract resulted in the formation of spherical Au, Ag, and Au-Ag alloy NPs. The as-prepared Au, Ag, and Au-Ag bimetallic NPs showed morphology and composition dependent catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NPh) to 4-aminophenol (4-APh) in the presence of NaBH4. The bimetallic Au-Ag alloy NPs showed the highest catalytic activity compared to all other NPs.
Project description:The probe materials play a significant role in improving the detection efficiency and sensitivity of lateral-flow immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS). Unlike conventional ICTS assay usually uses single-component, solid gold nanoparticles as labeled probes, in our present study, a bimetallic, hollow Au-Ag nanoparticles (NPs) labeled ICTS was successfully developed for the detection of clenbuterol (CLE). The hollow Au-Ag NPs with different Au/Ag mole ratio and tunable size were synthesized by varying the volume ratio of [HAuCl4]:[Ag NPs] via the galvanic replacement reaction. The surface of hollow Ag-Au NPs was functionalized with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) for further covalently bonded with anti-CLE monoclonal antibody. Overall size of the Au-Ag NPs, size of the holes within individual NPs and also Au/Ag mole ratio have been systematically optimized to amplify both the visual inspection signals and the quantitative data. The sensitivity of optimized hollow Au-Ag NPs probes has been achieved even as low as 2?ppb in a short time (within 15?min), which is superior over the detection performance of conventional test strip using Au NPs. The optimized hollow Au-Ag NPs labeled test strip can be used as an ideal candidate for the rapid screening of CLE in food samples.
Project description:Advances in nanotechnology provide opportunities for the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease. While physicochemical properties of Ag containing nanoparticles (NPs) are known to influence the magnitude of their toxicity, it is thought that nanosilver can be made less toxic to eukaryotes by passivation of the NPs with a benign metal. Moreover, the addition of other noble metals to silver nanoparticles, in the alloy formulation, is known to alter the silver dissolution behavior. Thus, we synthesized glutathione capped Ag/Au alloy bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) via the galvanic replacement reaction between maltose coated Ag NPs and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) in 5% aqueous triblock F127 copolymer solution. We then compared the antibacterial activity of the Ag/Au NPs to pure Ag NPs on Porphyromonas gingivalis W83, a key pathogen in the development of periodontal disease. Only partially oxidized glutathione capped Ag and Ag/Au (Au:Ag?0.2) NPs inhibited the planktonic growth of P. gingivalis W83. This effect was enhanced in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which simulates the oxidative stress environment in the periodontal pocket during chronic inflammation.
Project description:Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) has been widely applied in many research fields such as biological detection and chemical analysis. However, for the common Au nanoparticles, it's too hard to guarante the three aspects: the great enhanced effect, the controllable aggregation and the uniformity of nanoparticles, the environmental friendliness and biocompatibility of nanoparticles. In this paper, phytate acid (IP6)-coated Au nanoparticles (IP6@Au NPs) are more stable and have a higher enhancement factor than Au nanoparticles. In order to achieve the uniformity of the spherical IP6-coated@Au nanoparticles (IP6@Au NPs), IP6 was used as a soft template. In the presence of IP6, IP6@Ag nanoparticles were first synthesized by reducing AgNO3 with trisodium citrate, then IP6@Au NPs were obtained by reducing HAuCl4 with Ag nanoparticles. The IP6@Au NPs exhibit excellent Raman signal enhancement by using p-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) as the probe molecules. The effects of Fe3+ on the performance of IP6@Au NPs SERS substrates were also studied. The results show that SERS has the best enhancement effect when adding proper amount of Fe3+ (0.56 PPM), and the limit of detection was 10-7?M 4-ATP.
Project description:A distinctive synthetic method for the efficient synthesis of multifunctional bimetallic plasmonic Au@Ag core@shell nanoparticles (NPs) with tunable size, morphology, and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) using Triton X-100/hexanol-1/deionized water/cyclohexane-based water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion (ME) is described. The W/O ME acted as a "true nanoreactor" for the synthesis of Au@Ag core@shell NPs by providing a confined and controlled environment and suppressing the nucleation, growth, agglomeration, and aggregation of the NPs. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic analysis of the synthesized Au@Ag core@shell NPs revealed an "unusual core@shell" contrast, and the selected area electron diffraction and Moiré patterns showed that Au layers are paralleled to Ag layers, thus indicating the formation of Au@Ag core@shell NPs. Interestingly, the UV-visible spectrum of the Au@Ag core@shell NPs exhibited enthralling plasmonic properties by introducing a high-frequency quadrupolar LSPR mode originated from the isolated Au@Ag NPs along with a low-frequency dipolar LSPR mode originated from the coupled Au@Ag NPs. The effective plasmonic enhancement of the Au@Ag core@shell NPs is attributed to the extreme enhancement of the localized electromagnetic field by coupling of the localized surface plasmons of the Au core and Ag shell. The mechanisms for the nucleation and growth of Au@Ag core@shell NPs in W/O ME have been proposed. A unique electron transfer phenomenon between the Au core and Ag shell is elucidated for better understanding and manipulation of the electronic properties, which evinced the development of Au@Ag core@shell NPs through suppression of the galvanic replacement reaction.
Project description:In this study, we investigated the antibacterial activity of silver-coated gold nanoparticles (Au-Ag NPs) immobilized on cellulose paper. Ag NPs are known to have strong antibacterial properties, while Au NPs are biocompatible and relatively simple to prepare. We made the Au-Ag NPs using a facile process called Ag enhancement, in which Au NPs serve as the nuclei for precipitation of a Ag coating, the thickness of which can be easily controlled by varying the ratio of the reactants. After synthesis, electron microscopy showed that the Au-Ag NPs displayed a core-shell structure, and that they could be successfully immobilized onto a cellulose membrane by heat treatment. We then investigated the antibacterial properties of this NP-coated cellulose paper against E. coli JM109. The inhibition rate, growth curve, and AATCC 100 activity test showed that cellulose paper coated with 15?nm Au-Ag NPs possessed excellent antibacterial activity against E. coli JM109. These results suggest that Au-Ag NPs immobilized on cellulose paper could be a valuable antibacterial technology for applications such as food packaging, clothing, wound dressings, and other personal care products.
Project description:Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are uniquely suited for various biomedical applications due to the combination of their optical properties with their easily functionalized surfaces. The Au NP surface can be tailored to improve biocompatibility while also attaching targeting ligands or drugs. However, information on how these tailored surface chemistries may affect cell gene expression is scarce. Using two model human cells line, human dermal fibroblasts and prostate cancer cells, microarray experiments measured gene expression over 27,000 human genes. Each of the cell lines was exposed to four related types of surface-modified Au NPs at two different concentrations, and the microarray data was analyzed by weighted gene correlation network analysis and gene functional annotation. Au NPs were shown to affect genes associated with a variety of cellular functions, and surface charge and chemistry were linked with the types of parthways changed and the degree of which those changes occured. Nanoparticle induced gene expression in PC3 and HDF cells was measured after 24 hour exposure to nanoparticles of four different surface coating types. RNA from three separate culture samples were used for each nanoparticle-cell combinations, along with three control samples not exposed to nanoparticles at all.