ABSTRACT: The G6PC1, G6PC2 and G6PC3 genes encode distinct glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6PC) isoforms. In mice, germline deletion of G6pc2 lowers fasting blood glucose (FBG) without affecting fasting plasma insulin (FPI) while, in isolated islets, glucose-6-phosphatase activity and glucose cycling are abolished and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) is enhanced at submaximal but not high glucose. These observations are all consistent with a model in which G6PC2 regulates the sensitivity of GSIS to glucose by opposing the action of glucokinase. G6PC2 is highly expressed in human and mouse islet beta cells however, various studies have shown trace G6PC2 expression in multiple tissues raising the possibility that G6PC2 also affects FBG through non-islet cell actions. Using real-time PCR we show here that expression of G6pc1 and/or G6pc3 are much greater than G6pc2 in peripheral tissues, whereas G6pc2 expression is much higher than G6pc3 in both pancreas and islets with G6pc1 expression not detected. In adult mice, beta cell-specific deletion of G6pc2 was sufficient to reduce FBG without changing FPI. In addition, electronic health record-derived phenotype analyses showed no association between G6PC2 expression and phenotypes clearly unrelated to islet function in humans. Finally, we show that germline G6pc2 deletion enhances glycolysis in mouse islets and that glucose cycling can also be detected in human islets. These observations are all consistent with a mechanism by which G6PC2 action in islets is sufficient to regulate the sensitivity of GSIS to glucose and hence influence FBG without affecting FPI.
Project description:Elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG) has been associated with increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in G6PC2 are the most important common determinants of variations in FBG in humans. Studies using G6pc2 knockout mice suggest that G6pc2 regulates the glucose sensitivity of insulin secretion. G6PC2 and the related G6PC1 and G6PC3 genes encode glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunits. This study describes a functional analysis of 22 non-synonymous G6PC2 SNPs, that alter amino acids that are conserved in human G6PC1, mouse G6pc1 and mouse G6pc2, with the goal of identifying variants that potentially affect G6PC2 activity/expression. Published data suggest strong conservation of catalytically important amino acids between all four proteins and the related G6PC3 isoform. Because human G6PC2 has very low glucose-6-phosphatase activity we used an indirect approach, examining the effect of these SNPs on mouse G6pc1 activity. Using a novel in situ functional assay for glucose-6-phosphatase activity we demonstrate that the amino acid changes associated with the human G6PC2 rs144254880 (Arg79Gln), rs149663725 (Gly114Arg) and rs2232326 (Ser324Pro) SNPs reduce mouse G6pc1 enzyme activity without affecting protein expression. The Arg79Gln variant alters an amino acid mutation of which, in G6PC1, has previously been shown to cause glycogen storage disease type 1a. We also demonstrate that the rs368382511 (Gly8Glu), rs138726309 (His177Tyr), rs2232323 (Tyr207Ser) rs374055555 (Arg293Trp), rs2232326 (Ser324Pro), rs137857125 (Pro313Leu) and rs2232327 (Pro340Leu) SNPs confer decreased G6PC2 protein expression. In summary, these studies identify multiple G6PC2 variants that have the potential to be associated with altered FBG in humans.
Project description:Elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG) is associated with increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular-associated mortality. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have linked polymorphisms in G6PC2 with variations in FBG and body fat, although not insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance. G6PC2 encodes an islet-specific, endoplasmic reticulum-resident glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit. A combination of in situ perfused pancreas, in vitro isolated islet, and in vivo analyses were used to explore the function of G6pc2 in mice. G6pc2 deletion had little effect on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, whereas body fat was reduced in female G6pc2 knockout (KO) mice on both a chow and high-fat diet, observations that are all consistent with human GWAS data. G6pc2 deletion resulted in a leftward shift in the dose-response curve for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). As a consequence, under fasting conditions in which plasma insulin levels were identical, blood glucose levels were reduced in G6pc2 KO mice, again consistent with human GWAS data. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity was reduced, whereas basal cytoplasmic calcium levels were elevated in islets isolated from G6pc2 KO mice. These data suggest that G6pc2 represents a novel, negative regulator of basal GSIS that acts by hydrolyzing glucose-6-phosphate, thereby reducing glycolytic flux.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:G6PC2 is predominantly expressed in pancreatic islet beta cells. G6PC2 hydrolyzes glucose-6-phosphate to glucose and inorganic phosphate, thereby creating a futile substrate cycle that opposes the action of glucokinase. This substrate cycle determines the sensitivity of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion to glucose and hence regulates fasting blood glucose (FBG) but not fasting plasma insulin (FPI) levels. Our objective was to explore the physiological benefit this cycle confers. METHODS:We investigated the response of wild type (WT) and G6pc2 knockout (KO) mice to changes in nutrition. RESULTS:Pancreatic G6pc2 expression was little changed by ketogenic diet feeding but was inhibited by 24 hr fasting and strongly induced by high fat feeding. When challenged with either a ketogenic diet or 24 hr fasting, blood glucose fell to 70 mg/dl or less in G6pc2 KO but not WT mice, suggesting that G6PC2 may have evolved, in part, to prevent hypoglycemia. Prolonged ketogenic diet feeding reduced the effect of G6pc2 deletion on FBG. The hyperglycemia associated with high fat feeding was partially blunted in G6pc2 KO mice, suggesting that under these conditions the presence of G6PC2 is detrimental. As expected, FPI changed but did not differ between WT and KO mice in response to fasting, ketogenic and high fat feeding. CONCLUSIONS:Since elevated FBG levels are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular-associated mortality (CAM), these studies suggest that, while G6PC2 inhibitors would be useful for lowering FBG and the risk of CAM, partial inhibition will be important to avoid the risk of hypoglycemia.
Project description:The glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic 2 (G6PC2) gene is expressed specifically in pancreatic islet beta cells. Genome-wide association studies have shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms in the G6PC2 gene are associated with variations in fasting blood glucose (FBG) but not fasting plasma insulin. Molecular analyses examining the functional effects of these single nucleotide polymorphisms demonstrate that elevated G6PC2 expression is associated with elevated FBG. Studies in mice complement these genome-wide association data and show that deletion of the G6pc2 gene lowers FBG without affecting fasting plasma insulin. This suggests that, together with glucokinase, G6PC2 forms a substrate cycle that determines the glucose sensitivity of insulin secretion. Because genome-wide association studies and mouse studies demonstrate that elevated G6PC2 expression raises FBG and because chronically elevated FBG is detrimental to human health, increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes, it is unclear why G6PC2 evolved. We show here that the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone strongly induces human G6PC2 promoter activity and endogenous G6PC2 expression in isolated human islets. Acute treatment with dexamethasone selectively induces endogenous G6pc2 expression in 129SvEv but not C57BL/6J mouse pancreas and isolated islets. The difference is due to a single nucleotide polymorphism in the C57BL/6J G6pc2 promoter that abolishes glucocorticoid receptor binding. In 6-hour fasted, nonstressed 129SvEv mice, deletion of G6pc2 lowers FBG. In response to the stress of repeated physical restraint, which is associated with elevated plasma glucocorticoid levels, G6pc2 gene expression is induced and the difference in FBG between wild-type and knockout mice is enhanced. These data suggest that G6PC2 may have evolved to modulate FBG in response to stress.
Project description:The glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit 2 (G6PC2) gene encodes an islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit. G6PC2 forms a substrate cycle with glucokinase that determines the glucose sensitivity of insulin secretion. Consequently, deletion of G6pc2 lowers fasting blood glucose (FBG) without affecting fasting plasma insulin. Although chronic elevation of FBG is detrimental to health, glucocorticoids induce G6PC2 expression, suggesting that G6PC2 evolved to transiently modulate FBG under conditions of glucocorticoid-related stress. We show, using competition and mutagenesis experiments, that the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) induces G6PC2 promoter activity through a mechanism involving displacement of the islet-enriched transcription factor MafA by the glucocorticoid receptor. The induction of G6PC2 promoter activity by Dex is modulated by a single nucleotide polymorphism, previously linked to altered FBG in humans, that affects FOXA2 binding. A 5-day repeated injection paradigm was used to examine the chronic effect of Dex on FBG and glucose tolerance in wild-type (WT) and G6pc2 knockout mice. Acute Dex treatment only induces G6pc2 expression in 129SvEv but not C57BL/6J mice, but this chronic treatment induced G6pc2 expression in both. In 6-hour fasted C57BL/6J WT mice, Dex treatment lowered FBG and improved glucose tolerance, with G6pc2 deletion exacerbating the decrease in FBG and enhancing the improvement in glucose tolerance. In contrast, in 24-hour fasted C57BL/6J WT mice, Dex treatment raised FBG but still improved glucose tolerance, with G6pc2 deletion limiting the increase in FBG and enhancing the improvement in glucose tolerance. These observations demonstrate that G6pc2 modulates the complex effects of Dex on both FBG and glucose tolerance.
Project description:Genome-wide association study (GWAS) data have linked the G6PC2 gene to variations in fasting blood glucose (FBG). G6PC2 encodes an islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit that forms a substrate cycle with the beta cell glucose sensor glucokinase. This cycle modulates the glucose sensitivity of insulin secretion and hence FBG. GWAS data have not linked G6PC2 to variations in body weight but we previously reported that female C57BL/6J G6pc2-knockout (KO) mice were lighter than wild-type littermates on both a chow and high-fat diet. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of G6pc2 deletion on FBG and body weight in both chow-fed and high-fat-fed mice on two other genetic backgrounds. FBG was reduced in G6pc2 KO mice largely independent of gender, genetic background or diet. In contrast, the effect of G6pc2 deletion on body weight was markedly influenced by these variables. Deletion of G6pc2 conferred a marked protection against diet-induced obesity in male mixed genetic background mice, whereas in 129SvEv mice deletion of G6pc2 had no effect on body weight. G6pc2 deletion also reduced plasma cholesterol levels in a manner dependent on gender, genetic background and diet. An association between G6PC2 and plasma cholesterol was also observed in humans through electronic health record-derived phenotype analyses. These observations suggest that the action of G6PC2 on FBG is largely independent of the influences of environment, modifier genes or epigenetic events, whereas the action of G6PC2 on body weight and cholesterol are influenced by unknown variables.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The SLC30A8 gene encodes the islet-specific transporter ZnT-8, which is hypothesized to provide zinc for insulin-crystal formation. A polymorphic variant in SLC30A8 is associated with altered susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. Several groups have examined the effect of global Slc30a8 gene deletion but the results have been highly variable, perhaps due to the mixed 129SvEv/C57BL/6J genetic background of the mice studied. We therefore sought to remove the conflicting effect of 129SvEv-specific modifier genes.<h4>Methods</h4>The impact of Slc30a8 deletion was examined in the context of the pure C57BL/6J genetic background.<h4>Results</h4>Male C57BL/6J Slc30a8 knockout (KO) mice had normal fasting insulin levels and no change in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from isolated islets in marked contrast to the ?50% and ?35% decrease, respectively, in both parameters observed in male mixed genetic background Slc30a8 KO mice. This observation suggests that 129SvEv-specific modifier genes modulate the impact of Slc30a8 deletion. In contrast, female C57BL/6J Slc30a8 KO mice had reduced (?20%) fasting insulin levels, though this was not associated with a change in fasting blood glucose (FBG), or GSIS from isolated islets. This observation indicates that gender also modulates the impact of Slc30a8 deletion, though the physiological explanation as to why impaired insulin secretion is not accompanied by elevated FBG is unclear. Neither male nor female C57BL/6J Slc30a8 KO mice showed impaired glucose tolerance.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our data suggest that, despite a marked reduction in islet zinc content, the absence of ZnT-8 does not have a substantial impact on mouse physiology.
Project description:Polymorphisms in the SLC30A8 gene, which encodes the ZnT8 zinc transporter, are associated with altered susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D), and SLC30A8 haploinsufficiency is protective against the development of T2D in obese humans. SLC30A8 is predominantly expressed in pancreatic islet ?-cells, but surprisingly, multiple knockout mouse studies have shown little effect of Slc30a8 deletion on glucose tolerance or glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Multiple other Slc30a isoforms are expressed at low levels in pancreatic islets. We hypothesized that functional compensation by the Slc30a7 isoform, which encodes ZnT7, limits the impact of Slc30a8 deletion on islet function. We therefore analyzed the effect of Slc30a7 deletion alone or in combination with Slc30a8 on in vivo glucose metabolism and GSIS in isolated islets. Deletion of Slc30a7 alone had complex effects in vivo, impairing glucose tolerance and reducing the glucose-stimulated increase in plasma insulin levels, hepatic glycogen levels, and pancreatic insulin content. Slc30a7 deletion also affected islet morphology and increased the ratio of islet ?- to ?-cells. However, deletion of Slc30a7 alone had no effect on GSIS in isolated islets, whereas combined deletion of Slc30a7 and Slc30a8 abolished GSIS. These data demonstrate that the function of ZnT8 in islets can be unmasked by removal of ZnT7 and imply that ZnT8 may affect T2D susceptibility through actions in other tissues where it is expressed at low levels rather than through effects on pancreatic islet function.
Project description:Preserving ?-cell function during the development of obesity and insulin resistance would limit the worldwide epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium (Ca(2+)) depletion induced by saturated free fatty acids and cytokines causes ?-cell ER stress and apoptosis, but the molecular mechanisms behind these phenomena are still poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that palmitate-induced sorcin downregulation and subsequent increases in glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-2 (G6PC2) levels contribute to lipotoxicity. Sorcin is a calcium sensor protein involved in maintaining ER Ca(2+) by inhibiting ryanodine receptor activity and playing a role in terminating Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release. G6PC2, a genome-wide association study gene associated with fasting blood glucose, is a negative regulator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). High-fat feeding in mice and chronic exposure of human islets to palmitate decreases endogenous sorcin expression while levels of G6PC2 mRNA increase. Sorcin-null mice are glucose intolerant, with markedly impaired GSIS and increased expression of G6pc2 Under high-fat diet, mice overexpressing sorcin in the ?-cell display improved glucose tolerance, fasting blood glucose, and GSIS, whereas G6PC2 levels are decreased and cytosolic and ER Ca(2+) are increased in transgenic islets. Sorcin may thus provide a target for intervention in type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Excessive caloric intake leading to obesity is associated with insulin resistance and dysfunction of islet ? cells. High-fat feeding decreases desnutrin (also called ATGL/PNPLA2) levels in islets. Here we show that desnutrin ablation via RIP-Cre (?KO) or RIP-CreER results in hyperglycemia with impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Due to decreased lipolysis, islets have higher TAG content but lower free FA levels. ?KO islets exhibit impaired mitochondrial respiration and lower production of ATP required for GSIS, along with decreased expression of PPAR? target genes involved in mitochondrial oxidation. Furthermore, synthetic PPAR?, but not PPAR?, agonist restores GSIS and expression of mitochondrial oxidative genes in ?KO mice, revealing that desnutrin-catalyzed lipolysis generates PPAR? ligands. Finally, adenoviral expression of desnutrin in ?KO islets restores all defects of ?KO islet phenotype and function, including GSIS and mitochondrial defects, demonstrating the critical role of the desnutrin-PPAR?-mitochondrial oxidation axis in regulating islet ? cell GSIS.