The attitude of kidney transplant recipients towards elective arteriovenous fistula ligation.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) are a source of various complications. Among previously hemodialyzed kidney transplant recipients (KTxR), the AVF may persist over time. The patients' decisions whether to ligate the functioning AVF may be prompted by many factors. Our knowledge of benefits concerning the procedure as well as patients' attitude towards it is scarce. AIM:Evaluation of the patients' opinion on the persistent AVF ligation after a successful kidney transplantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS:An anonymous survey was carried out among 301 previously hemodialyzed KTxR. The patients were recruited during scheduled visits in the Transplantation Outpatient Unit. All subjects completed an anonymous questionnaire including questions about their attitude towards the matter in question. RESULTS:69 patients (22.9%) have considered AVF closure. The most common causes for such attitude were esthetic reasons (n = 29) and concerns about heart health (n = 13). Among those 69 subjects, 18 have presented with symptomatic AVF due to multiple symptoms. Symptomatic AVFs were localized on the forearm in 14 out of 18 cases. As many as 116 (38.5%) cases have never wanted to ligate the AVF and 116 (38.5%) subjects did not have a clear opinion. In our study we report 158 (52.5%) cases of non-functioning AVFs. The main reason for the above was spontaneous AVF thrombosis (121 cases). Only 24 subjects reported to rely on the physician-provided information about the AVF management. CONCLUSIONS:One fourth of KTRs have ever considered AVF ligation. There is a distinct need for educating patients on the possibilities of post-transplantation AVF management.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation is the preferred approach for hemodialysis access; however, the maturation of AVFs is known to be poor. We established a proactive early duplex ultrasound (DUS) surveillance protocol for evaluating AVFs before attempted access. This study determined the effect of this protocol related to improving AVF maturation. METHODS:From 2008 to 2013, 153 patients received new upper extremity AVFs and an early DUS surveillance protocol at a single academic institution. The protocol involved an early DUS evaluation before hemodialysis cannulation of the AVF at 4 to 8 weeks after AVF creation. A positive DUS result was identified as a peak systolic velocity of >375 cm/s or a >50% stenosis on gray scale imaging, along with decreased velocity in the outflow vein. Patients with positive DUS findings underwent prophylactic endovascular or open intervention to assist with AVF maturation. Nature of secondary interventions, as well as AVF patency and maturation, were assessed. Overall clinical outcomes and fistula patency were investigated. RESULTS:During the study period, 183 upper extremity AVFs were created in 153 patients, including 82 radiocephalic, 63 brachiocephalic, and 38 brachiobasilic AVFs. A mortality rate of 43% (n = 66) was observed in a median follow-up period of 34.5 months (interquartile range, 19.6-46.9). A total of 164 early DUS were performed at a median of 6 weeks (interquartile range, 3.4-9.6 weeks) after the initial creation. Early DUS showed nine AVFs were occluded and were excluded from further analysis. Hemodynamically significant lesions were found in 62 AVFs (40%); however, only 17 (11%) were associated with an abnormal physical examination. Positive DUS finding prompted a secondary intervention in 81% of the patients. Among those with positive early DUS findings, AVF maturation was 70% in those undergoing a secondary intervention compared with 25% in those not undergoing a prophylactic intervention (P = .011). Primary-assisted patency for AVFs with early positive and negative DUS findings were 83% and 96% at 6 months, 64% and 89% at 1 year, and 52% and 82% at 2 years, respectively (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS:Early DUS surveillance of AVFs before initial access is reasonable to identify problematic AVFs that may not be reliably detected on clinical examination. Although DUS criteria for AVFs have yet to be universally accepted, proactive early postoperative DUS interrogation assists in the early detection of dysfunctional AVFs and improvement of fistula maturation. Despite improved patency in those with positive DUS findings who undergo prophylactic secondary intervention, overall patency remains inferior to those without an abnormality detected on early DUS imaging.
Project description:Satisfactory vascular access flow (Qa) of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is necessary for haemodialysis (HD) adequacy. The aim of the present study was to further our understanding of haemodynamic modifications of the cardiovascular system of HD patients associated with an AVF. The main objective was to calculate using real data in what way an AVF influences the load of the left ventricle (LLV).All HD patients treated in our dialysis unit and bearing an AVF were enrolled into the present observational cross-sectional study. Fifty-six patients bore a lower arm AVF and 30 an upper arm AVF. Qa and cardiac output (CO) were measured by means of the ultrasound dilution Transonic Hemodialysis Monitor HD02. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was calculated; total peripheral vascular resistance (TPVR) was calculated as MAP/CO; resistance of AVF (AR) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) are connected in parallel and were respectively calculated as AR = MAP/Qa and SVR = MAP/(CO - Qa). LLV was calculated on the principle of a simple physical model: LLV (watt) = TPVR·CO(2). The latter was computationally divided into the part spent to run Qa through the AVF (LLVAVF) and that part ensuring the flow (CO - Qa) through the vascular system. The data from the 86 AVFs were analysed by categorizing them into lower and upper arm AVFs.Mean Qa, CO, MAP, TPVR, LLV and LLVAVF of the 86 AVFs were, respectively, 1.3 (0.6 SD) L/min, 6.3 (1.3) L/min, 92.7 (13.9) mmHg, 14.9 (3.9) mmHg·min/L, 1.3 (0.6) watt and 19.7 (3.1)% of LLV. A statistically significant increase of Qa, CO, LLV and LLVAVF and a statistically significant decrease of TPVR, AR and SVR of upper arm AVFs compared with lower arm AVFs was shown. A third-order polynomial regression model best fitted the relationship between Qa and LLV for the entire cohort (R (2) = 0.546; P < 0.0001) and for both lower (R (2) = 0.181; P < 0.01) and upper arm AVFs (R (2) = 0.663; P < 0.0001). LLVAVF calculated as % of LLV rose with increasing Qa according to a quadratic polynomial regression model, but only in lower arm AVFs. On the contrary, no statistically significant relationship was found between the two parameters in upper arm AVFs, even if mean LLVAVF was statistically significantly higher in upper arm AVFs (P < 0.0001).Our observational cross-sectional study describes statistically significant haemodynamic modifications of the CV system associated to an AVF. Moreover, a quadratic polynomial regression model best fits the relationship between LLVAVF and Qa, but only in lower arm AVFs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are the preferred form of hemodialysis vascular access, but maturation failures occur frequently, often resulting in prolonged catheter use. We sought to characterize AVF maturation in a national sample of prevalent hemodialysis patients in the United States. STUDY DESIGN:Nonconcurrent observational cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:Prevalent hemodialysis patients having had at least 1 new AVF placed during 2013, as identified using Medicare claims data in the US Renal Data System. PREDICTORS:Demographics, geographic location, dialysis vintage, comorbid conditions. OUTCOMES:Successful maturation following placement defined by subsequent use identified using monthly CROWNWeb data. MEASUREMENTS:AVF maturation rates were compared across strata of predictors. Patients were followed up until the earliest evidence of death, AVF maturation, or the end of 2014. RESULTS:In the study period, 45,087 new AVFs were placed in 39,820 prevalent hemodialysis patients. No evidence of use was identified for 36.2% of AVFs. Only 54.7% of AVFs were used within 4 months of placement, with maturation rates varying considerably across end-stage renal disease (ESRD) networks. Older age was associated with lower AVF maturation rates. Female sex, black race, some comorbid conditions (cardiovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, diabetes, needing assistance, or institutionalized status), dialysis vintage longer than 1 year, and catheter or arteriovenous graft use at ESRD incidence were also associated with lower rates of successful AVF maturation. In contrast, hypertension and prior AVF placement at ESRD incidence were associated with higher rates of successful AVF maturation. LIMITATIONS:This study relies on administrative data, with monthly recording of access use. CONCLUSIONS:We identified numerous associations between AVF maturation and patient-level factors in a recent national sample of US hemodialysis patients. After accounting for these patient factors, we observed substantial differences in AVF maturation across some ESRD networks, indicating a need for additional study of the provider, practice, and regional factors that explain AVF maturation.
Project description:To assess the anatomic development of native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) during the first 6 weeks after creation by using ultrasonographic (US) measurements in a multicenter hemodialysis fistula maturation study.Each institutional review board approved the prospective study protocol, and written informed consent was obtained. Six hundred and two participants (180 women and 422 men, 459 with upper-arm AVF and 143 with forearm AVF) from seven clinical centers underwent preoperative artery and vein US mapping. AVF draining vein diameter and blood flow rate were assessed postoperatively after 1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks. Relationships among US measurements were summarized after using multiple imputation for missing measurements.In 55% of forearm AVFs (68 of 124) and 83% of upper-arm AVFs (341 of 411) in surviving patients without thrombosis or AVF intervention prior to 6 weeks, at least 50% of their 6-week blood flow rate measurement was achieved at 1 day. Among surviving patients without thrombosis or AVF intervention prior to week 2, 70% with upper-arm AVFs (302 of 433) and 77% with forearm AVFs (99 of 128) maintained at least 85% of their week 2 flow rate at week 6. Mean AVF diameters of at least 0.40 cm were seen in 85% (389 of 459), 91% (419 of 459), and 87% (401 of 459) of upper-arm AVFs and in 40% (58 of 143), 73% (104 of 143), and 77% (110 of 143) of forearm AVFs at 1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks, respectively. One-day and 2-week AVF flow rates and diameters were used to predict 6-week levels, with 2-week prediction of 6-week measures more accurate than those of 1 day (flow rates, R(2) = 0.47 and 0.61, respectively; diameters, R(2) = 0.49 and 0.82, respectively).AVF blood flow rate at 1 day is usually more than 50% of the 6-week blood flow rate. Two-week measurements are more predictive of 6-week diameter and blood flow than those of 1 day. US measurements at 2 weeks may be of value in the early identification of fistulas that are unlikely to develop optimally.
Project description:BACKGROUND:About half of arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) require one or more interventions before successful dialysis use, a process called assisted maturation. Previous research suggested that AVF abandonment and interventions to maintain patency after maturation may be more frequent with assisted maturation versus unassisted maturation. METHODS:Using the US Renal Data System, we retrospectively compared patients with assisted versus unassisted AVF maturation for postmaturation AVF outcomes, including functional primary patency loss (requiring intervention after achieving AVF maturation), AVF abandonment, and frequency of interventions. RESULTS:We included 7301 patients ?67 years who initiated hemodialysis from July 2010 to June 2012 with a catheter and no prior AVF; all had an AVF created within 6 months of starting hemodialysis and used for dialysis (matured) within 6 months of creation, with 2-year postmaturation follow-up. AVFs matured without prior intervention for 56% of the patients. Assisted AVF maturation with one, two, three, or four or more prematuration interventions occurred in 23%, 12%, 5%, and 4% of patients, respectively. Patients with prematuration interventions had significantly increased risk of functional primary patency loss compared with patients who had unassisted AVF maturation, and the risk increased with the number of interventions. Although the likelihood of AVF abandonment was not higher among patients with up to three prematuration interventions compared with patients with unassisted AVF maturation, it was significantly higher among those with four or more interventions. CONCLUSIONS:For this cohort of patients undergoing assisted AVF maturation, we observed a positive association between the number of prematuration AVF interventions and the likelihood of functional primary patency loss and frequency of postmaturation interventions.
Project description:RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE:National vascular access guidelines recommend placement of arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) over grafts (AVGs) in hemodialysis patients, but have not been comprehensively assessed in the elderly. We evaluated clinically relevant vascular access outcomes in elderly patients receiving an AVF or AVG after hemodialysis therapy initiation. STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective cohort study using national administrative data. SETTINGS & PARTCIPANTS:Claims data from the US Renal Data System of 9,458 US patients 67 years and older who initiated hemodialysis therapy from July 1, 2010, to June 30, 2011, with a catheter and received an AVF (n=7,433) or AVG (n=2,025) within the ensuing 6 months. PREDICTOR:Arteriovenous access subtype, AVF or AVG. OUTCOMES:Successful use of vascular access, interventions to make vascular access functional, duration of catheter dependence before successful use of vascular access, frequency of interventions, and abandonment after successful use of vascular access. ANALYTICAL APPROACH:Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to compare the need for intervention before successful use of AVFs and AVGs, and negative bionomial regression was used to calculate the frequency of intervention after successful use of vascular access. RESULTS:Unsuccessful use of vascular access within 6 months of creation was higher for AVFs versus AVGs (51% vs 45%; adjusted HR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.73-1.99). Interventions to make vascular access functional were greater in AVFs versus AVGs (42% vs 23%; OR, 2.66; 95% CI, 2.26-3.12). AVFs had a lower 1-year abandonment rate after successful use compared with AVGs (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.62-0.83) and required one-fourth fewer interventions after successful use (relative risk, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.69-0.81). Patients receiving an AVF had substantially longer catheter dependence before successful use than those receiving an AVG (median time, 3 vs 1 month; P<0.001). LIMITATIONS:Residual confounding due to vascular access choice, restriction to an elderly population, and 1-year follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS:In elderly hemodialysis patients initiating hemodialysis therapy with a catheter, the optimal vascular access selection depends on tradeoffs between shorter catheter dependence and less frequent interventions to make the vascular access (AVG) functional versus longer access patency and fewer interventions after successful use of the vascular access (AVF).
Project description:Background:Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation failure is a significant clinical problem in the hemodialysis population. Geometric parameters of human AVFs were associated with AVF development, but causative studies are lacking. We characterized mouse AVF geometry using endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) mouse models. Methods:Carotid-jugular AVFs were created in NOS3 overexpression (OE), knockout (KO), and wild type (WT) mice. At 7 and 21 days postcreation, black-blood magnetic resonance images of AVFs were acquired and used to build three-dimensional reconstructions of AVF lumens. We used these reconstructions to calculate the lumen area, lumen centerline, and centerline-derived parameters: anastomosis angle, tortuosity, nonplanarity angle, and location of maximal distance between the feeding artery and AVF vein. Inter- and intrauser variabilities were also determined. Results:When all mice were considered, increased minimum AVF venous lumen area was accompanied by increased venous tortuosity and increased distance between the artery and vein, with both remaining in-plane with the anastomosis. At day 7, the lumen area of AVFs from all strains was 1.5- to 2.5-fold larger than native veins. Furthermore, at day 21, AVF lumen in NOS3 OE (4.04±1.43 mm2) was significantly larger than KO (2.74±1.34 mm2) (P<0.001) and WT (2.94±1.30 mm2) mice (p<0.001). At day 21, the location of maximal artery-vein distance on the vein was further away from the anastomosis in OE (4.49±0.66 mm) than KO (2.87±0.38 mm) (p=0.001). Other geometric parameters were not significantly different between mouse strains or time points. Inter- and intrauser variabilities were small, indicating the reliability and reproducibility of our protocol. Conclusions:Our study presents a detailed characterization of mouse AVF geometry, and a robust protocol for future mechanistic studies to investigate the role of molecular pathways in AVF geometry. Identifying a geometry related to desired AVF remodeling can help inform surgery to enhance AVF maturation.
Project description:The frequency of primary failure in arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) remains unacceptably high. This lack of improvement is due in part to a poor understanding of the pathobiology underlying AVF nonmaturation. This observational study quantified the progression of three vascular features, medial fibrosis, intimal hyperplasia (IH), and collagen fiber organization, during early AVF remodeling and evaluated the associations thereof with AVF nonmaturation. We obtained venous samples from patients undergoing two-stage upper-arm AVF surgeries at a single center, including intraoperative veins at the first-stage access creation surgery and AVFs at the second-stage transposition procedure. Paired venous samples from both stages were used to evaluate change in these vascular features after anastomosis. Anatomic nonmaturation (AVF diameter never ?6 mm) occurred in 39 of 161 (24%) patients. Neither preexisting fibrosis nor IH predicted AVF outcomes. Postoperative medial fibrosis associated with nonmaturation (odds ratio [OR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.05 to 2.30; P=0.03, per 10% absolute increase in fibrosis), whereas postoperative IH only associated with failure in those individuals with medial fibrosis over the population's median value (OR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.07 to 6.46; P=0.04, per increase of 1 in the intima/media ratio). Analysis of postoperative medial collagen organization revealed that circumferential alignment of fibers around the lumen associated with AVF nonmaturation (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.84; P=0.03, per 10° increase in angle). This study demonstrates that excessive fibrotic remodeling of the vein after AVF creation is an important risk factor for nonmaturation and that high medial fibrosis determines the stenotic potential of IH.
Project description:The contribution of intimal hyperplasia (IH) to arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure is uncertain. This observational study assessed the relationship between pre-existing, postoperative, and change in IH over time and AVF outcomes.Prospective cohort study with longitudinal assessment of IH at the time of AVF creation (pre-existing) and transposition (postoperative). Patients were followed up for up to 3.3 years.96 patients from a single center who underwent AVF surgery initially planned as a 2-stage procedure. Veins and AVF samples were collected from 66 and 86 patients, respectively. Matched-pair tissues were available from 56 of these patients.Pre-existing, postoperative, and change in IH over time.Anatomic maturation failure was defined as an AVF that never reached a diameter > 6mm. Primary unassisted patency was defined as the time elapsed from the second-stage surgery to the first intervention.Maximal intimal thickness in veins and AVFs and change in intimal thickness over time.Pre-existing IH (>0.05mm) was present in 98% of patients. In this group, the median intimal thickness increased 4.40-fold (IQR, 2.17- to 4.94-fold) between AVF creation and transposition. However, this change was not associated with pre-existing thickness (r(2)=0.002; P=0.7). Ten of 96 (10%) AVFs never achieved maturation, whereas 70% of vascular accesses remained patent at the end of the observational period. Postoperative IH was not associated with anatomic maturation failure using univariate logistic regression. Pre-existing, postoperative, and change in IH over time had no effects on primary unassisted patency.The small number of patients from whom longitudinal tissue samples were available and low incidence of anatomic maturation failure, which decreased the statistical power to find associations between end points and IH.Pre-existing, postoperative, and change in IH over time were not associated with 2-stage AVF outcomes.
Project description:In patients with severe kidney disease AVF are surgically placed in order to create good access for hemodialysis. In these dialysis patients the failure rates of AVF can be as high as 24% within 6 months after surgery, causing ineffective dialysis and necessitating additional clinical interventions. The pathological processes known to lead to AVF failure are beginning to be unravelled include the formation of venous neointimal hyperplasia (VNIH), thrombosis (Chang et al. PMID 16105066), and venous stenosis (Kanterman et al. PMID7892454, Tang et al. 1998), resulting in a reduced blood flow through the fistula. We established a rat model for AVF failure in human kidney dialysis patients. The characterization of this model has been previously described (Globerman et al. 2011, PubmedID:22002501). In this model the AVFs are surgically constructed in the right leg by connecting the superficial epigastric vein SEV to the common femoral artery (CFA), resulting in exposure of the SEV to arterial pressure with pulsatile and low resistant flow patterns (Globerman et al. 2011, PMID22002501). In the present study we utilized this AVF model in order to assess the effects of arterialized flow, with consequent pathological changes of the vessel wall due to surgical AVF instalment, on the transcriptome of endothelium from the SEV. Within the SEV these pathologies of the vessel wall include the formation of NIH in the main branch, and stenosis in the side branches. By employing this rat model we assessed the changes of the endothelial transcriptome in relation to these pathologies in order to gain mechanistic understanding of the potential roles of venous endothelium in AVF failure, as well as to identify potential biomarkers preceding AVF failure. AVF surgery was performed on N=6 rats, and 13-14 days after surgery the rats were sacrificed. AVFs were extracted from the rats, and microarray transcriptome analyses were performed on luminal endothelial cells that isolated from four different sites of the AVF by employing Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM). These sites included (i) N=5 AVF sections of the superficial epigastric vein (SEV) with neointimal hyperplasia (NIH), (ii) N=3 AVF sections of SEV side branches with luminal stenosis, (iii), N=6 sections of the SEV located distally from a ligation thereby omitting exposure to arterialized flow and consequently preventing the development of NIH or stenosis, and (iv) N=3 sections of the AVF common femoral artery without signs of NIH or stenosis.