Meteorological impacts on the incidence of COVID-19 in the U.S.
ABSTRACT: Since the World Health Organization has declared the current outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) a global pandemic, some have been anticipating that the mitigation could happen in the summer like seasonal influenza, while medical solutions are still in a slow progress. Experimental studies have revealed a few evidences that coronavirus decayed quickly under the exposure of heat and humidity. This study aims to carry out an epidemiological investigation to establish the association between meteorological factors and COVID-19 in high risk areas of the United States (U.S.). We analyzed daily new confirmed cases of COVID-19 and seven meteorological measures in top 50 U.S. counties with the most accumulative confirmed cases from March 22, 2020 to April 22, 2020. Our analyses indicate that each meteorological factor and COVID-19 more likely have a nonlinear association rather than a linear association over the wide ranges of temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation observed. Average temperature, minimum relative humidity, and precipitation were better predictors to address the meteorological impact on COVID-19. By including all the three meteorological factors in the same model with their lagged effects up to 3 days, the overall impact of the average temperature on COVID-19 was found to peak at 68.45 °F and decrease at higher degrees, though the overall relative risk percentage (RR %) reduction did not become significantly negative up to 85 °F. There was a generally downward trend of RR % with the increase of minimum relative humidity; nonetheless, the trend reversed when the minimum relative humidity exceeded 91.42%. The overall RR % of COVID-19 climbed to the highest level of 232.07% (95% confidence interval?=?199.77, 267.85) with 1.60 inches of precipitation, and then started to decrease. When precipitation exceeded 1.85 inches, its impact on COVID-19 became significantly negative. Our findings alert people to better have self-protection during the pandemic rather than expecting that the natural environment can curb coronavirus for human beings.
Project description:Background:COVID-19 is a global pandemic. The purpose of this study is to explore correlations between the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and meteorological indicators from cities across China. Methods:We collected daily data of the cumulative number of infected, recovered and death cases, and the meteorological indicators including average temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, precipitation and air quality index (AQI) from 12 cities in China during the period of Jan 23 to Feb 22, 2020. Correlation tests were chosen for data analysis. Results:The average temperature and AQI showed significant association with the mortality rate of COVID-19. The mortality rate was not correlated with wind speed, relative humidity or precipitation. Meanwhile, higher average temperatures and more precipitation were beneficial for the recovery rate of COVID-19, but the recovery rate was not correlated with wind speed, relative humidity or AQI. Conclusions:Our study provides a new basis for correlations between COVID-19, meteorological indicators and air quality index, which can help authorities to combat COVID-19.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The associations between meteorological factors and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been discussed globally; however, because of short study periods, the lack of considering lagged effects, and different study areas, results from the literature were diverse and even contradictory.<h4>Objective</h4>The primary purpose of this study is to conduct more reliable research to evaluate the lagged meteorological impacts on COVID-19 incidence by considering a relatively long study period and diversified high-risk areas in the United States.<h4>Methods</h4>This study adopted the distributed lagged nonlinear model with a spatial function to analyze COVID-19 incidence predicted by multiple meteorological measures from March to October of 2020 across 203 high-risk counties in the United States. The estimated spatial function was further smoothed within the entire continental United States by the biharmonic spline interpolation.<h4>Results</h4>Our findings suggest that the maximum temperature, minimum relative humidity, and precipitation were the best meteorological predictors. Most significantly positive associations were found from 3 to 11 lagged days in lower levels of each selected meteorological factor. In particular, a significantly positive association appeared in minimum relative humidity higher than 88.36% at 5-day lag. The spatial analysis also shows excessive risks in the north-central United States.<h4>Significance</h4>The research findings can contribute to the implementation of early warning surveillance of COVID-19 by using weather forecasting for up to two weeks in high-risk counties.
Project description:Emerging evidence has confirmed meteorological factors and air pollutants affect novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, no studies to date have considered the impact of interactions between meteorological factors and air pollutants on COVID-19 transmission. This study explores the association between ambient air pollutants (PM<sub>2.5</sub>, NO<sub>2</sub>, SO<sub>2</sub>, CO, and O<sub>3</sub>), meteorological factors (average temperature, diurnal temperature range, relative humidity, wind velocity, air pressure, precipitation, and hours of sunshine), and their interaction on confirmed case counts of COVID-19 in 120 Chinese cities. We modeled total confirmed cases of COVID-19 as the dependent variable with meteorological factors, air pollutants, and their interactions as the independent variables. To account for potential migration effects, we included the migration scale index (MSI) from Wuhan to each of the 120 cities included in the model, using data from 15 Jan. to 18 Mar. 2020. As an important confounding factor, MSI was considered in a negative binomial regression analysis. Positive associations were found between the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 and CO, PM<sub>2.5</sub>, relative humidity, and O<sub>3</sub>, with and without MSI-adjustment. Negative associations were also found for SO<sub>2</sub> and wind velocity both with and without controlling for population migration. In addition, air pollutants and meteorological factors had interactive effects on COVID-19 after controlling for MSI. In conclusion, air pollutants, meteorological factors, and their interactions all affect COVID-19 cases.
Project description:At the end of 2019, a novel coronavirus, designated as SARS-CoV-2, emerged in Wuhan, China and was identified as the causal pathogen of COVID-19. The epidemic scale of COVID-19 has increased dramatically, with confirmed cases increasing across China and globally. Understanding the potential affecting factors involved in COVID-19 transmission will be of great significance in containing the spread of the epidemic. Environmental and meteorological factors might impact the occurrence of COVID-19, as these have been linked to various diseases, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), whose causative pathogens belong to the same virus family as SARS-CoV-2. We collected daily data of COVID-19 confirmed cases, air quality and meteorological variables of 33 locations in China for the outbreak period of 29 January 2020 to 15 February 2020. The association between air quality index (AQI) and confirmed cases was estimated through a Poisson regression model, and the effects of temperature and humidity on the AQI-confirmed cases association were analyzed. The results show that the effect of AQI on confirmed cases associated with an increase in each unit of AQI was statistically significant in several cities. The lag effect of AQI on the confirmed cases was statistically significant on lag day 1 (relative risk (RR) = 1.0009, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0004, 1.0013), day 2 (RR = 1.0007, 95% CI: 1.0003, 1.0012) and day 3 (RR = 1.0008, 95% CI: 1.0003, 1.0012). The AQI effect on the confirmed cases might be stronger in the temperature range of 10 °C ? T < 20 °C than in other temperature ranges, while the RR of COVID-19 transmission associated with AQI was higher in the relative humidity (RH) range of 10% ? RH < 20%. Results may suggest an enhanced impact of AQI on the COVID-19 spread under low RH.
Project description:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the novel coronavirus. The role of environmental factors in COVID-19 transmission is unclear. This study aimed to analyze the correlation between meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, sunshine duration, wind speed) and dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland. Data on a daily number of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases and the number of COVID-19-related deaths were gatheredfrom the official governmental website. Meteorological observations from 55 synoptic stations in Poland were used. Moreover, reports on the movement of people across different categories of places were collected. A cross-correlation function, principal component analysis and random forest were applied. Maximum temperature, sunshine duration, relative humidity and variability of mean daily temperature affected the dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic. An increase intemperature and sunshine hours decreased the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases. The occurrence of high humidity caused an increase in the number of COVID-19 cases 14 days later. Decreased sunshine duration and increased air humidity had a negative impact on the number of COVID-19-related deaths. Our study provides information that may be used by policymakers to support the decision-making process in nonpharmaceutical interventions against COVID-19.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4> Meteorological factors have been proven to affect pathogens; both the transmission routes and other intermediate. Many studies have worked on assessing how those meteorological factors would influence the transmissibility of COVID-19. In this study, we used generalized estimating equations to evaluate the impact of meteorological factors on Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by using three outcome variables, which are transmissibility, incidence rate, and the number of reported cases. <h4>Methods</h4> In this study, the data on the daily number of new cases and deaths of COVID-19 in 30 provinces and cities nationwide were obtained from the provincial and municipal health committees, while the data from 682 conventional weather stations in the selected provinces and cities were obtained from the website of the China Meteorological Administration. We built a Susceptible-Exposed-Symptomatic-Asymptomatic-Recovered/Removed (SEIAR) model to fit the data, then we calculated the transmissibility of COVID-19 using an indicator of the effective reproduction number (Reff). To quantify the different impacts of meteorological factors on several outcome variables including transmissibility, incidence rate, and the number of reported cases of COVID-19, we collected panel data and used generalized estimating equations. We also explored whether there is a lag effect and the different times of meteorological factors on the three outcome variables. <h4>Results</h4> Precipitation and wind speed had a negative effect on transmissibility, incidence rate, and the number of reported cases, while humidity had a positive effect on them. The higher the temperature, the lower the transmissibility. The temperature had a lag effect on the incidence rate, while the remaining five meteorological factors had immediate and lag effects on the incidence rate and the number of reported cases. <h4>Conclusion</h4> Meteorological factors had similar effects on incidence rate and number of reported cases, but different effects on transmissibility. Temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, sunshine hours, and wind speed had immediate and lag effects on transmissibility, but with different lag times. An increase in temperature may first cause a decrease in virus transmissibility and then lead to a decrease in incidence rate. Also, the mechanism of the role of meteorological factors in the process of transmissibility to incidence rate needs to be further explored.
Project description:Meteorological parameters are the critical factors of affecting respiratory infectious disease such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and influenza, however, the effect of meteorological parameters on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains controversial. This study investigated the effects of meteorological factors on daily new cases of COVID-19 in 127 countries, as of August 31 2020. The log-linear generalized additive model (GAM) was used to analyze the effect of meteorological variables on daily new cases of COVID-19. Our findings revealed that temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed are nonlinearly correlated with daily new cases, and they may be negatively correlated with the daily new cases of COVID-19 over 127 countries when temperature, relative humidity and wind speed were below 20°C, 70% and 7 m/s respectively. Temperature(>20°C) was positively correlated with daily new cases. Wind speed (when>7 m/s) and relative humidity (>70%) was not statistically associated with transmission of COVID-19. The results of this research will be a useful supplement to help healthcare policymakers in the Belt and Road countries, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop strategies to combat COVID-19.
Project description:The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2, has been rapidly increasing in the United States. Boroughs of New York City, including Queens county, turn out to be the epicenters of this infection. According to the data provided by the New York State Department of Health, most of the cases of new COVID-19 infections in New York City have been found in the Queens county where 42,023 people have tested positive, and 3221 people have died as of 20 April 2020. Person-to-person transmission and travels were implicated in the initial spread of the outbreaks, but factors related to the late phase of rapidly spreading outbreaks in March and April are still uncertain. A few previous studies have explored the links between air pollution and COVID-19 infections, but more data is needed to understand the effects of short-term exposures of air pollutants and meteorological factors on the spread of COVID-19 infections, particularly in the U.S. disease epicenters. In this study, we have focused on ozone and PM2.5, two major air pollutants in New York City, which were previously found to be associated with respiratory viral infections. The aim of our regression modeling was to explore the associations among ozone, PM2.5, daily meteorological variables (wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, absolute humidity, cloud percentages, and precipitation levels), and COVID-19 confirmed new cases and new deaths in Queens county, New York during March and April 2020. The results from these analyses showed that daily average temperature, daily maximum eight-hour ozone concentration, average relative humidity, and cloud percentages were significantly and positively associated with new confirmed cases related to COVID-19; none of these variables showed significant associations with new deaths related to COVID-19. The findings indicate that short-term exposures to ozone and other meteorological factors can influence COVID-19 transmission and initiation of the disease, but disease aggravation and mortality depend on other factors.
Project description:The study aimed to investigate the correlation between meteorological parameters and the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in Islamabad, Pakistan. The meteorological parameters include temperature minimum (°C), temperature maximum (°C), temperature average (°C), humidity minimum (%), humidity maximum (%), humidity average (%), and rainfall (mm). The data of COVID-19, such as the number of new confirmed cases and deaths was obtained from the Ministry of Health, Pakistan. The correlations of various types, i.e., Pearson, Spearman, and Kendall correlations between meteorological parameters and COVID-19, were employed for data analyses. The results exhibited a highly significant relationship between COVID-19 and temperature minimum and temperature average among all meteorological parameters. The study findings may help competitive authorities to combat this disease in Pakistan. <h4>Electronic supplementary material</h4> The online version of this article (10.1007/s42398-020-00125-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Project description:With the global lockdown, meteorological factors are highly discussed for COVID-19 transmission. In this study, national-specific and region-specific data sets from Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom were used to explore the effect of temperature, absolute humidity and diurnal temperature range (DTR) on COVID-19 transmission. From February 1st to November 1st, a 7-day COVID-19 case doubling time (Td), meteorological factors with cumulative 14-day-lagged, government response index and other factors were fitted in the distributed lag nonlinear models. The overall relative risk (RR) of the 10th and the 25th percentiles temperature compared to the median were 0.0074 (95% CI: 0.0023, 0.0237) and 0.1220 (95% CI: 0.0667, 0.2232), respectively. The pooled RR of lower (10th, 25th) and extremely high (90th) absolute humidity were 0.3266 (95% CI: 0.1379, 0.7734), 0.6018 (95% CI: 0.4693, 0.7718) and 0.3438 (95% CI: 0.2254, 0.5242), respectively. While the DTR did not have a significant effect on Td. The total cumulative effect of temperature (10th) and absolute humidity (10th, 90th) on Td increased with the change of lag days. Similarly, a decline in temperature and absolute humidity at cumulative 14-day-lagged corresponded to the lower RR on Td in pooled region-specific effects. In summary, the government responses are important factors in alleviating the spread of COVID-19. After controlling that, our results indicate that both the cold and the dry environment also likely facilitate the COVID-19 transmission.