Management of patients with multidrug-resistant organisms in rehabilitation facilities. Results of a survey in the Rhine-Main region, Germany, 2019.
ABSTRACT: Introduction: Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) are a problem in medical facilities, including rehabilitation facilities in Germany. The national recommendations of the Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO) for prevention of and dealing with patients affected by MDRO are obligatory in rehabilitation facilities. A survey on the management of patients with MDRO in rehabilitation facilities in the Rhine-Main area is presented below. Materials and methods: The questions from a recently published survey in 45 rehabilitation facilities in 26 European countries (Doherty et al., 2019) were largely adopted unchanged: the type, size, and organization of the facility, availability of guidelines on MDRO, screening and (estimated) prevalence of MDRO, as well as special hygiene measures or restrictions for patients with MDRO. Results: 22 of the 43 institutions contacted participated (58%). All facilities had specific recommendations on how to deal with MDRO and more than 95% had adequate hygiene staff. The facilities encompassed 4,369 beds, with 3,909 (89%) of them in single-bed rooms, and only a few offered 3-bed rooms. About 20% of patients in general rehabilitation and 100% in early neurological rehabilitation are screened on admission. Six (27%) facilities refused to accept patients with MDRO. 40% of the facilities treated these patients in their own room and/or in a separate area. 27% of the facilities prohibited eating in the dining room and participating in hydrotherapy. Only 6 (27%) of the rehabilitation centers indicated that patients with MDRO are allowed to participate in full rehabilitation programs. Discussion: In accordance with the results of Doherty et al. (2019), there were many restrictions for rehabilitation patients with MDRO, indicating considerable need for improvement. Necessary hygiene recommendations to avoid the transmission of MDRO must not lead to rejection of inpatient rehabilitation or to less intensive rehabilitation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The impact of healthcare personnel hand contamination in multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) transmission is important and well studied; however, the role of patient hand contamination needs to be characterized further. METHODS:Patients from 2 hospitals in southeast Michigan were recruited within 24 hours of arrival to their room and followed prospectively using microbial surveillance of nares, dominant hand, and 6 high-touch environmental surfaces. Sampling was performed on admission, days 3 and 7, and weekly until discharge. Paired samples of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from the patients' hand and room surfaces were evaluated for relatedness using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin typing. RESULTS:A total of 399 patients (mean age, 60.8 years; 49% male) were enrolled and followed for 710 visits. Fourteen percent (n = 56/399) of patients were colonized with an MDRO at baseline; 10% (40/399) had an MDRO on their hands. Twenty-nine percent of rooms harbored an MDRO. Six percent (14/225 patients with at least 2 visits) newly acquired an MDRO on their hands during their stay. New MDRO acquisition in patients occurred at a rate of 24.6/1000 patient-days, and in rooms at a rate of 58.6/1000 patient-days. Typing demonstrated a high correlation between MRSA on patient hands and room surfaces. CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest that patient hand contamination with MDROs is common and correlates with contamination on high-touch room surfaces. Patient hand hygiene protocols should be considered to reduce transmission of pathogens and healthcare-associated infections.
Project description:<b>Objective: </b>Determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. (VRE), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing organisms (ESBLs), and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) among residents and in the environment of nursing homes (NHs).<br><br><b>Design: </b>Point prevalence sampling of residents and environmental sampling of high-touch objects in resident rooms and common areas.<br><br><b>Setting: </b>Twenty-eight NHs in Southern California from 2016 to 2017.<br><br><b>Participants: </b>NH participants in Project PROTECT, a cluster-randomized trial of enhanced bathing and decolonization vs routine care.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>Fifty residents were randomly sampled per NH. Twenty objects were sampled, including 5 common room objects plus 5 objects in each of 3 rooms (ambulatory, total care, and dementia care residents).<br><br><b>Results: </b>A total of 2797 swabs were obtained from 1400 residents in 28 NHs. Median prevalence of multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) carriage per NH was 50% (range: 24%-70%). Median prevalence of specific MDROs were as follows: MRSA, 36% (range: 20%-54%); ESBL, 16% (range: 2%-34%); VRE, 5% (range: 0%-30%); and CRE, 0% (range: 0%-8%). A median of 45% of residents (range: 24%-67%) harbored an MDRO without a known MDRO history. Environmental MDRO contamination was found in 74% of resident rooms and 93% of common areas.<br><br><b>Conclusions and implications: </b>In more than half of the NHs, more than 50% of residents were colonized with MDROs of clinical and public health significance, most commonly MRSA and ESBL. Additionally, the vast majority of resident rooms and common areas were MDRO contaminated. The unknown submerged portion of the iceberg of MDRO carriers in NHs may warrant changes to infection prevention and control practices, particularly high-fidelity adoption of universal strategies such as hand hygiene, environmental cleaning, and decolonization.
Project description:Infections cause morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The association between nursery design and nosocomial infections is unclear.To determine whether rates of colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), late-onset sepsis, and mortality are reduced in single-patient rooms. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.NICU in a tertiary referral center.Our NICU is organized into single-patient and open-unit rooms. Clinical data sets including bed location and microbiology results were examined over 29 months. Differences in outcomes between bed configurations were determined by ?2 and Cox regression.All NICU patients.Among 1,823 patients representing 55,166 patient-days, single-patient and open-unit models had similar incidences of MRSA colonization and MRSA colonization-free survival times. Average daily census was associated with MRSA colonization rates only in single-patient rooms (hazard ratio, 1.31; P=.039), whereas hand hygiene compliance on room entry and exit was associated with lower colonization rates independent of bed configuration (hazard ratios, 0.834 and 0.719 per 1% higher compliance, respectively). Late-onset sepsis rates were similar in single-patient and open-unit models as were sepsis-free survival and the combined outcome of sepsis or death. After controlling for demographic, clinical, and unit-based variables, multivariate Cox regression demonstrated that bed configuration had no effect on MRSA colonization, late-onset sepsis, or mortality.MRSA colonization rate was impacted by hand hygiene compliance, regardless of room configuration, whereas average daily census affected only infants in single-patient rooms. Single-patient rooms did not reduce the rates of MRSA colonization, late-onset sepsis, or death.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hand hygiene is a simple and low-cost measure to reduce healthcare associated infection yet it has always been a concern in low as well as high resource settings across the globe. Poor hand hygiene during intra-partum and newborn care may result in sepsis, which is a major cause of death among newborns and puts a financial burden on already strained health systems. METHODS:We conducted non-participatory observations in newborn care units and labour rooms from secondary and tertiary level, public and private hospitals, as part of a baseline evaluation of a quality improvement collaborative across two southern states of India. We assessed hand hygiene compliance during examinations and common procedures, using tools adapted from internationally recommended checklists and World Health Organization's concept of five moments of hand hygiene. We assessed differences in compliance by type (public/private), level (secondary/tertiary) and case load (low/intermediate/high). Analysis was adjusted for clustering and weighted as appropriate. RESULTS:We included 49 newborn care units (19 private, 30 public) and 35 labour rooms (5 private, 30 public) that granted permission. We observed 3661 contacts with newborns and their environment, 242 per-vaginal examinations and 235 deliveries. For the newborns, a greater proportion of contacts in private newborn units than public complied with all steps of hand hygiene (44% vs 12%, p <?0.001), and similarly in tertiary than secondary units (33% vs 12%, p?<?0.001) but there was no evidence of a difference by case load of the facility (low load-28%; intermediate load-14%; high load- 24%, p =?0.246). The component with lowest compliance was glove usage where indicated (20%). For deliveries, hand hygiene compliance before delivery was universal in private facilities but seen in only about one-quarter of observations in public facilities (100% vs 27%, p =?0.012). Average overall compliance for hand-hygiene during per-vaginal examinations was 35% and we found no evidence of differences by type of facility. CONCLUSION:Observed compliance with hand hygiene was low overall, although better in private than public facilities in both newborn units and labour rooms. Glove usage was a particular problem in newborn care units. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Retrospectively registered with Clinical Trials Registry- India ( CTRI/2018/04/013014 ).
Project description:Infections and colonisations with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) increasingly affect different types of healthcare facilities worldwide. So far, little is known about additional costs attributable to MDROs outside hospitals. The aim of this study was to analysis the economic burden of multidrug-resistant bacteria in nursing homes in Germany.The cost analysis is performed from a microeconomic perspective of the healthcare facilities. Study took place in six long-term care facilities in north-eastern Germany.Data of 71 residents with a positive MDRO status were included.The study analysed MDRO surveillance data from 2011 to 2013. It was supplemented by an empirical analysis to determine the burden on staff capacity and materials consumption.11,793 days with a positive multidrug-resistant pathogen diagnosis could be included in the analysis. On average, 11.8 (SD ± 6.3) MDRO cases occurred per nursing home. Mean duration per case was 163.3 days (SD ± 97.1). The annual MDRO-related costs varied in nursing homes between €2449.72 and €153,263.74 on an average €12,682.23 per case. Main cost drivers were staff capacity (€43.95 per day and €7177.04 per case) and isolation materials (€24.70 per day and €4033.51 per case).The importance of MDROs in nursing homes could be confirmed. MDRO-related cost data in this specific healthcare sector were collected for the first time. Knowledge about the burden of MDROs will enable to assess the efficiency of hygiene intervention measures in nursing homes in the future.
Project description:OBJECTIVE To determine the typical microbial bioburden (overall bacterial and multidrug-resistant organisms [MDROs]) on high-touch healthcare environmental surfaces after routine or terminal cleaning. DESIGN Prospective 2.5-year microbiological survey of large surface areas (>1,000 cm2). SETTING MDRO contact-precaution rooms from 9 acute-care hospitals and 2 long-term care facilities in 4 states. PARTICIPANTS Samples from 166 rooms (113 routine cleaned and 53 terminal cleaned rooms). METHODS Using a standard sponge-wipe sampling protocol, 2 composite samples were collected from each room; a third sample was collected from each Clostridium difficile room. Composite 1 included the TV remote, telephone, call button, and bed rails. Composite 2 included the room door handle, IV pole, and overbed table. Composite 3 included toileting surfaces. Total bacteria and MDROs (ie, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci [VRE], Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and C. difficile) were quantified, confirmed, and tested for drug resistance. RESULTS The mean microbial bioburden and range from routine cleaned room composites were higher (2,700 colony-forming units [CFU]/100 cm2; ?1-130,000 CFU/100 cm2) than from terminal cleaned room composites (353 CFU/100 cm2; ?1-4,300 CFU/100 cm2). MDROs were recovered from 34% of routine cleaned room composites (range ?1-13,000 CFU/100 cm2) and 17% of terminal cleaned room composites (?1-524 CFU/100 cm2). MDROs were recovered from 40% of rooms; VRE was the most common (19%). CONCLUSIONS This multicenter bioburden summary provides a first step to determining microbial bioburden on healthcare surfaces, which may help provide a basis for developing standards to evaluate cleaning and disinfection as well as a framework for studies using an evidentiary hierarchy for environmental infection control. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1426-1432.
Project description:Importance:Health care-associated infections are often caused by multidrug-resistant organisms and substantially factor into hospital costs and avoidable iatrogenic harm. Although it is recommended that new facilities be built with single-room, low-acuity beds, this process is costly and evidence of reductions in health care-associated infections is weak. Objective:To examine whether single-patient rooms are associated with decreased rates of common multidrug-resistant organism transmissions and health care-associated infections. Design, Setting, and Participants:A time-series analysis comparing institution-level rates of new multidrug-resistant organism colonization and health care-associated infections before (January 1, 2013-March 31, 2015) and after (April 1, 2015-March 31, 2018) the move to the hospital with 100% single-patient rooms. In the largest hospital move in Canadian history, inpatients in an older, tertiary care, 417-bed hospital in Montréal, Canada, that consisted of mainly mixed 3- and 4-person ward-type rooms were moved to a new 350-bed facility with all private rooms. Exposures:A synchronized move of all patients on April 26, 2015, to a new hospital with 100% single-patient rooms equipped with individual toilets and showers and easy access to sinks for hand washing. Main Outcomes and Measures:Rates of nosocomial vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization, VRE and MRSA infection, and Clostridioides difficile (formerly known as Clostridium difficile) infection (CDI) per 10 000 patient-days. Results:Compared with the 27 months before, during the 36 months after the hospital move, an immediate and sustained reduction in nosocomial VRE colonization (from 766 to 209 colonizations; incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.25; 95% CI, 0.19-0.34) and MRSA colonization (from 129 to 112 colonizations; IRR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.33-0.96) was noted, as well as VRE infection (from 55 to 14 infections; IRR, 0.30, 95% CI, 0.12-0.75). Rates of CDI (from 236 to 223 infections; IRR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.51-1.76) and MRSA infection (from 27 to 37 infections; IRR, 0.89, 95% CI, 0.34-2.29) did not decrease. Conclusion and Relevance:The move to a new hospital with exclusively single-patient rooms appeared to be associated with a sustained decrease in the rates of new MRSA and VRE colonization and VRE infection; however, the move was not associated with a reduction in CDI or MRSA infection. These findings may have important implications for the role of hospital construction in facilitating infection control.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Healthcare acquired infections (HAIs) cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Copper appears to have strong antimicrobial properties under laboratory conditions. AIM:We conducted a systematic review to examine the potential effect of copper treating of commonly touched surfaces in healthcare facilities. METHODS:We included controlled trials comparing the effect of copper-treated surfaces (furniture or bed linens) in hospital rooms versus standard rooms on hospital acquired infections (HAIs). Two reviewers independently screened retrieved articles, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. The primary outcome was the occurrence of healthcare acquired infections. FINDINGS:We screened 638 records; 7 studies comprising 12362 patients were included. From risk of bias assessment, all included studies were judged to be at high risk in ?2 of the 7 domains of bias. All 7 included studies reported the effect of various copper-treated surfaces on HAIs. Overall, we found low quality evidence of a potential clinical importance that copper-treated hard surfaces and/or bed linens and clothes reduced healthcare acquired infections by 27% (RR 0.73; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.94; I2 = 44%, p-value = 0.01). CONCLUSION:Given the clinical and economic costs of healthcare acquired infections, the potentially protective effect of copper-treated surfaces appears important. However, the current evidence is insufficient to make a strong positive recommendation. However, it would appear worthwhile and urgent to conduct larger scale publicly funded clinical trials of the impact of copper coating.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is rapidly increasing in children's hospitals nationwide. Thus, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of 9 infection prevention interventions and 6 multiple-intervention bundles at reducing hospital-onset CDI and asymptomatic C. difficile colonization. DESIGN:Agent-based simulation model of C. difficile transmission. SETTING:Computer-simulated, 80-bed freestanding, tertiary-care pediatric hospital, including 8 identical wards with 10 single-bed patient rooms each. PARTICIPANTS:The model includes 5 distinct agent types: patients, visitors, caregivers, nurses, and physicians. INTERVENTIONS:Daily and terminal environmental disinfection, screening at admission, reduced intrahospital patient transfers, healthcare worker (HCW), visitor, and patient hand hygiene, and HCW and visitor contact precautions. RESULTS:The model predicted that daily environmental disinfection with sporicidal product, combined with screening for asymptomatic C. difficile at admission, was the most effective 2-pronged infection prevention bundle, reducing hospital-onset CDI by 62.0% and asymptomatic colonization by 88.4%. Single-intervention strategies, including daily disinfection, terminal disinfection, asymptomatic screening at admission, HCW hand hygiene, and patient hand hygiene, as well as decreasing intrahospital patient transfers, all also reduced both hospital-onset CDI and asymptomatic colonization in the model. Visitor hand hygiene and visitor and HCW contact precautions were not effective at reducing either measure. CONCLUSIONS:Hospitals can achieve substantial reduction in hospital-onset CDIs by implementing a small number of highly effective interventions.
Project description:Background:Much effort has been made over the last two decades to educate and train healthcare professionals working on antimicrobial resistance in French hospitals. However, little has been done in France to assess perceptions, attitudes and knowledge regarding multidrug resistant organisms (MDROs) and, more globally, these have never been evaluated in a large-scale population of medical and non-medical healthcare workers (HCWs). Our aim was to explore awareness among HCWs by evaluating their knowledge of MDROs and the associated control measures, by comparing perceptions between professional categories and by studying the impact of training and health beliefs. Methods:A multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted in 58 randomly selected French healthcare facilities with questionnaires including professional and demographic characteristics, and knowledge and perception of MDRO transmission and control. A knowledge score was calculated and used in a logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with higher knowledge of MDROs, and the association between knowledge and perception. Results:Between June 2014 and March 2016, 8716/11,753 (participation rate, 74%) questionnaires were completed. The mean knowledge score was 4.7/8 (SD: 1.3) and 3.6/8 (SD: 1.4) in medical and non-medical HCWs, respectively. Five variables were positively associated with higher knowledge: working in a university hospital (adjusted odds ratio, 1.41, 95% CI 1.16-1.70); age classes 26-35?years (1.43, 1.23-1.6) and 36-45?years (1.19, 1.01-1.40); medical professional status (3.7, 3.09-4.44), working in an intensive care unit (1.28, 1.06-1.55), and having been trained on control of antimicrobial resistance (1.31, 1.16-1.48). After adjustment for these variables, greater knowledge was significantly associated with four cognitive factors: perceived susceptibility, attitude toward hand hygiene, self-efficacy, and motivation. Conclusions:We found a low level of MDRO awareness and knowledge of associated control measures among French HCWs. Training on hand hygiene and measures to control MDRO spread may be helpful in shaping beliefs and perceptions on MDRO control among other possible associated factors. Messages should be tailored to professional status and their perception. Other approaches should be designed, with more effective methods of training and cognitive interventions. Trial registration:Clinical Trials.gov NCT02265471. Registered 16 October 2014 - Retrospectively registered.