Zoster sine herpete: a review.
ABSTRACT: Zoster sine herpete (ZSH) is one of the atypical clinical manifestations of herpes zoster (HZ), which stems from infection and reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in the cranial nerve, spinal nerve, viscera, or autonomic nerve. Patients with ZSH display variable symptoms, such as neuralgia, however, different from HZ, ZSH show no zoster, which makes clinical diagnosis difficult. ZSH not only causes initial symptoms, such as neuropathic pain in the affected nerve, Bell palsy, and Ramsay Hunt syndrome, but also postherpetic neuralgia and fatal complications such as VZV encephalitis and stroke. The misdiagnosis of ZSH and tardy antiviral treatment may lead to severe ZSH sequelae. We review the publications related to ZSH, especially its diagnosis with VZV DNA and/or anti-VZV immunoglobulin (IgG and IgM). More work about ZSH, especially ZSH epidemiological survey and guidelines for its diagnosis and treatment, are needed because most of the present studies are case reports.
PROVIDER: S-EPMC7336347 | BioStudies |