Changes in the gut microbiota mediate the differential regulatory effects of two glucose oxidases produced by Aspergillus niger and Penicillium amagasakiense on the meat quality and growth performance of broilers.
ABSTRACT: Background:Glucose oxidase (GOD), an aerobic dehydrogenase, has been used as an antibiotic substitute in feed. A study was conducted to evaluate the differential effects of 2 different GODs fermented by Aspergillus niger or Penicillium amagasakiense on caecal microbiota and to further illuminate the potential roles of changes in the gut microbiota in regulating the growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens. Results:A total of 420 one-day-old healthy Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatments: the control group, the antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) supplementation group, and the GOD-A and GOD-P (GODs produced by A. niger and P. amagasakiense, respectively) groups. As a result, supplementation with GOD produced by P. amagasakiense could significantly improve the average daily weight gain and average daily feed intake of broilers before 21?days of age by significantly increasing the enzymatic activities of jejunal amylase and those of ileal amylase, chymotrypsin, and lipase in 21-day-old broilers and could increase the enzymatic activities of duodenal amylase, jejunal amylase and lipase, and ileal chymotrypsin and lipase in 42-day-old broilers. Meanwhile, compared with AGP treatment, supplementation with GOD produced by P. amagasakiense significantly decreased the L value of 21-day-old broilers and the ?pH and L* value of 42-day-old broilers, while supplementation with GOD produced by A. niger significantly increased the pH24?h value of 21-day-old and 42-day-old broilers by reducing plasma malondialdehyde content. By using 16S rRNA sequencing, we found that the beneficial bacteria and microbiota in broilers were not disturbed but were improved by GOD supplementation compared with ADP treatment, including the genera Eubacterium and Christensenella and the species uncultured_Eubacterium_sp, Clostridium_asparagiforme, and uncultured_Christensenella_sp, which were positively related to the improved intestinal digestive enzymatic activities, growth performance, and meat quality of broilers. Conclusion:The altered gut microbiota induced by supplementation with glucose oxidase produced by P. amagasakiense mediate better regulatory effects on the meat quality and growth performance of broilers than that induced by supplementation with glucose oxidase produced by A. niger.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the subclinical symptom and histological lesions of 21-day-old and 42-day-old broilers exposure to low concentration aflatoxin B1 (AFB<sub>1</sub>), and the preventive effect with adsorbent (Toxo-MX) supplementation. A total of 576 one-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted into 6 treatments 8 replicates and 12 birds per cage, fed with 0 ppb, 60 ppb and 120 ppb AFB<sub>1</sub> contamination diet with or without Toxo-MX supplementation. Results showed both 60 ppb and 120 ppb AFB<sub>1</sub> contamination significantly reduced growth performance in 21-day-old broilers (P < 0.05), but not in 42-day-old broilers (P > 0.05), however, AFB<sub>1</sub> contamination in diet caused a higher feed to gain ratio (P < 0.05). Broilers of 21-day-old exposure to 60 ppb and 120 ppb AFB<sub>1</sub> increased mRNA expression of hepatic inflammatory cytokines, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity (P < 0.05), 42-day-old broilers showed a same change in 120 ppb but not in 60 ppb of AFB<sub>1</sub> contamination (P < 0.05). mRNA expressions of clauding-1, Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and occludin decreased, but Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 increased in 21-day-old broilers exposure to 60 ppb and 120 ppb AFB<sub>1</sub> (P < 0.05), broilers of 42-day-old resisted on intestinal aflatoxicosis impairment against 60 ppb AFB<sub>1</sub> contamination (P < 0.05), but not in 120 ppb (P < 0.05). Toxo-MX supplementation significantly reversed the detrimental effects on growth performance in both age broilers and reduced the accelerated feed to gain ratio caused by AFB<sub>1</sub> (P < 0.05). Intestinal mRNA expression of tight junction and apoptotic genes in both age broilers were recovered by Toxo-MX supplementation (P < 0.05). However, Toxo-MX did not restore the accelerated expression of hepatic inflammation cytokines and SOD, GSH-Px in 120ppb AFB<sub>1</sub> group (P < 0.05). The data demonstrated that diet supplementation with Toxo-MX reversed the detrimental effect on growth performance and intestine in broilers exposure to 60 ppb and 120 ppb AFB1. However, did not completely recovered hepatic inflammation induced by AFB<sub>1</sub><sub>.</sub>
Project description:This experiment was conducted to assess the comparative effects of dietary antibiotics and oregano essential oil (OEO) addition on growth performance, antioxidant status and intestinal health of broilers. A total of 384 one-day-old broilers were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 6 replicates of 16 broilers each. The 4 treatments were: an antibiotic-free control diet (control), control + 20 mg/kg colistin sulfate and 20 mg/kg virginiamycin (antibiotics), control + 200 mg/kg natural oregano essential oil (NOEO), and control + 200 mg/kg synthetic oregano essential oil (SOEO). The experiment lasted for 42 d. Results showed that birds fed with OEO had greater (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) and lower (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR) than those fed with control diet during d 1 to 21. Besides, birds fed with NOEO had the greatest (P < 0.05) ADG in the four groups during d 22 to 42. The serum oxidative stress parameters showed that OEO improved (P < 0.05) the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) of birds on day 21 and the activity of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of birds on d 42. Relative to control, NOEO increased (P < 0.05) the activity of T-AOC in jejunum and decreased (P < 0.05) the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum and jejunum. Moreover, OEO supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the concentrations of sIgA in duodenum and jejunum, Lactobacillus and total anaerobes in cecum, as well as activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase and amylase in duodenum, but restrained (P < 0.05) the amount of Escherichia coli. The NOEO supplementation increased (P < 0.05) total anaerobes of broilers on d 42 and the villus height to crypt depth ratio (VH/CD) of ileum. These results suggest that OEO improved antioxidant status and intestinal health of broilers which contributed to the growth performance improvement of broilers. Dietary OEO supplementation can be a promising alternative to antibiotic growth promoters for improving poultry production.
Project description:We evaluated the influence of enzymatic supplementation on the growth performance and cecal microbiota of broilers. A total of 2160 1-day-old male chicks were used in a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (three corn hybrids, two drying temperatures -80 and 110 °C, with or without the inclusion of an enzymatic blend (amylase, xylanase, and protease) (20 birds/pen, <i>n</i> = 9). For all performance and digestibility parameters, we observed, in general, isolated effects of the corn hybrids and drying temperature. Birds that received the enzymatic blend in the diet showed better weight gain from 1 to 21 days (d) and better digestibility coefficients of nutrients at 42 d. Birds fed diets with corn dried at 80 °C showed a better feed conversion ratio from 1 to 42 d. At 21 d of age, enzymatic supplementation had positive effects on jejunum morphology. Enzyme supplementation increased the abundance of the phylum Tenericutes, class Bacilli and Mollicutes, reduced Clostridia, and increased the abundances of the families Lactobacillaceae, Anaeroplasmataceae, and O_RF39;F. In conclusion, the addition of amylase, xylanase, and protease led to a better nutrient digestibility, performance, and intestinal morphology. In addition, enzyme supplementation changed the diversity, composition, and predicted function of the cecal microbiota at d 21.
Project description:Background:The effect of amylases combined with exogenous carbohydrase and protease in a newly harvested corn diet on starch digestibility, intestine health and cecal microbiota was investigated in broiler chickens. Methods:Two hunderd and eighty-eight 5-day-old female chickens were randomly divided into six treatments: a newly harvested corn-soybean meal diet (control); control supplemented with 1,500 U/g ?-amylase (Enzyme A); Enzyme A?+?300 U/g amylopectase +?20,000 U/g glucoamylase (Enzyme B); Enzyme B?+?protease 10,000 U/g (Enzyme C); Enzyme C?+?xylanase 15,000 U/g (Enzyme D); and Enzyme D?+?cellulase 200 U/g?+?pectinase 1,000 U/g (Enzyme E). Growth performance, starch digestibility, digestive organ morphology, and intestinal microbiota were evaluated in the birds at 16 and 23 d of age. Results:Compared with the control diet, supplementation with Enzyme A significantly decreased ileum lesion scoring at 16 d of age (P?<?0.05); supplementation with Enzyme B or Enzyme C showed positive effects on ileal amylopectin and total starch digestibility (P?<?0.05); Broilers fed with a diet supplemented with Enzyme D had a tendency to decrease body weight gain at 23 d. Enzyme E supplementation improved lesion scoring of jejunum and ileum at 16 d (P?<?0.05), and increased ileal amylopectin or total starch digestibility at 23 d (P?<?0.05). Supplementation of enzymes changed cecal microbiota diversity. High numbers of Campylobacter, Helicobacter and Butyricicoccus, Anaerostipes and Bifidobacterium, Sutterella and Odoribacter were the main genera detected in supplementations with Enzymes B, C, D, and E respectively. Conclusions:Supplementation with amylase combined with glucoamylase or protease showed a beneficial effect on starch digestibility and intestinal microbiota diversity, and increased growth of broilers fed with newly harvested corn.
Project description:Arbor Acre (AA) broilers were used as the research object to investigate whether glucose oxidase (GOD) has preventive and relieving effects on necrotic enteritis. The experiment was designed as a factorial arrangement of 2 dietary treatments × 2 infection states. Chickens were fed a basal diet or a diet with 150 U/kg GOD, and were challenged with Clostridium perfringens (Cp) or sterile culture medium. In our study, Cp challenge led to intestinal injury, as evidenced by reducing the average daily gain and the average daily feed intake of AA broilers of 14 to 21 d (P < 0.05), increasing the intestinal jejunal lesion score (P < 0.05), reducing the jejunal villi height and villi height/crypt depth (P < 0.05), upregulating the mRNA expression levels jejunal IFN-γ (P < 0.05). The dietary GOD had no significant effects on the growth performance of each growth period, but significantly decreased the ileal pH, increased the height of villi and the ratio of villi height to crypt depth (P < 0.05) and the expression levels of Occludin and Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) at d 21. Moreover, dietary GOD and the Cp challenge significantly altered the composition of 21-d ileal microbiota. The Cp challenge decreased the relative abundance of genus Lactobacillus (P = 0.057), and increased the relative abundance of genus Romboutsia (P < 0.05) and genus Veillonella (P = 0.088). The dietary GOD tended to increase the relative abundance of genus Helicobacter (P = 0.066) and decrease the relative abundance of genus Streptococcus (P = 0.071). This study has shown that the supplementation of GOD could promote the integrity of intestinal barrier and the balance of ileal microbiota, but the effects of GOD on NE broilers and its application in actual production need to be further confirmed.
Project description:The negative effects of dietary antibiotics have become a widespread concern. It is imperative to search for a new type of green, safe, and efficient feed additive that can replace antibiotics. This study was to investigate the effects of glucose oxidase (GOD) on growth performance, immune function, and intestinal barrier in ducks infected with Escherichia coli O88. First, we established the E. coli challenge model of ducks through a preliminary experiment and then carried out the formal experiment by using 144 1-day-old male lean Peking ducklings (50 ± 2.75 g). All ducks were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatment groups of basal diet (control), 30 mg/kg virginiamycin (antibiotic), and 200 U/kg GOD (1,000 U/g). Each group consisted of 6 replications with 8 birds per replicate. At day 7, all ducks were orally administered 0.2 mL E coli O88 (3 × 10<sup>9</sup> cfu/mL) twice, 8 h apart based on the preliminary experiment. The experiment lasted for 28 d. Dietary supplementation with GOD improved growth performance of ducks infected with E. coli. The GOD increased contents of Ig in plasma and secreted Ig A in jejunal mucosa. The GOD group had lower concentrations of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-?, IL-1?, and IL-6) and their upstream regulator Toll-like receptor 4 in the jejunum of ducks than the control group. Supplementation with GOD increased villus height and decreased crypt depth in the jejunum. The gene expression of tight junction proteins (zonula occludens-1, claudin-1 and claudin-2) was enhanced by adding GOD. The GOD decreased intestinal permeability by reducing the concentrations of diamine oxidase and D-lactic in plasma of ducks. There were no significant differences in almost all the indices tested between the GOD and the antibiotic groups. In conclusion, supplementation of GOD improved growth performance, immune function, and intestinal barrier of ducks infected with E. coli O88. Glucose oxidase may serve as a promising alternative therapy to antibiotics to relieve or prevent colibacillosis in ducks.
Project description:Background:Limited research has focused on the effect of Lactobacillus on the intestinal toxicity of deoxynivalenol (DON). The present study was conducted to investigate the role of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) JM113 in protecting against the intestinal toxicity caused by DON. Methods:A total of 144 one-day-old healthy Arbor Acres broilers were randomly distributed into 3 treatments, including the CON (basal diet), the DON (extra 10 mg/kg deoxynivalenol), and the DL (extra 1?×?109 CFU/ kg L. plantarum JM113 based on DON group) treatments. The growth performance, organ indexes, intestinal morphology, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal secreted immunoglobulin A (sIgA), jejunal transcriptome, and intestinal microbiota were evaluated. Results:Compared with the CON and DL groups, the DON supplementation altered intestinal morphology, especially in duodenum and jejunum, where villi were shorter and crypts were deeper (P?<?0.05). Meanwhile, the significantly decreased mRNA expression of jejunal claudin-1 and occludin (P?<?0.05), ileal rBAT and jejunal GLUT1 of 21-day-old broilers (P?<?0.05), as well as duodenal PepT1 and ileal rBAT of 42-day-old broilers were identified in the DON group. Moreover, supplementation with L. plantarum JM113 could increase duodenal expression of IL-10 and IL-12 of 21-day-old broilers, ileal sIgA of 42-day-old broilers, and the bursa of Fabricius index of 21-day-old broilers. Further jejunal transcriptome proved that the genes related to the intestinal absorption and metabolism were significantly reduced in the DON group but a significant increase when supplemented with extra L. plantarum JM113. Furthermore, the bacteria related to nutrient utilization, including the Proteobacteria, Escherichia, Cc-115 (P?<?0.05), Lactobacillus and Prevotella (P?<?0.1) were all decreased in the DON group. By contrast, supplementation with L. plantarum JM113 increased the relative abundance of beneficial bacterium, including the Bacteroidetes, Roseburia, Anaerofustis, Anaerostipe, and Ruminococcus bromii (P?<?0.05). Specifically, the increased abundance of bacteria in the DL group could be proved by the significantly increased caecal content of propionic acid, n-Butyric acid, and total short-chain fatty acid. Conclusions:L. plantarum JM113 enhanced the digestion, absorption, and metabolic functions of the gut when challenged with DON by reducing the injury to intestinal barriers and by increasing the abundance of beneficial bacterium.
Project description:This study investigated the effects of xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS) and flavomycin (FLA) on the performance and immune function of broiler chickens. A total of 150 ArborAcres broilers were randomly divided into three groups and fed for six weeks from one day of age in cascade cages. The diets of each test group were (1) a basal diet, (2) the basal diet supplemented with 2 mg/kg FLA, and (3) the basal diet supplemented with 2 mg/kg XOS. At 21 and 42 days, the growth performance index values and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in the cecum were quantified. Furthermore, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and plasma interleukin 2 (IL-2) as well as mRNA expression of LPS-Induced TNF-alpha Factor (LITAF), Toll-like receptor-5 (TLR5) and interferon gamma (IFN? ) in the jejunum were quantified. The results showed that administration of XOS or FLA to chickens significantly improved the average daily gain. Supplementation with XOS increased acetate and butyrate in the cecum, while FLA supplementation increased propionate in the cecum. An increase in plasma IgG was observed in XOS-fed 21-day-old broilers, but FLA supplementation decreased IgG in the plasma of 42-day-old broilers and increased plasma IL-2. Furthermore, FLA or XOS supplementation downregulated mRNA expression of IFN? , LITAF and TLR5. The above data suggest that addition of XOS and FLA to the diet could improve the growth performance of broilers and reduce the expression of cytokine genes by stimulating SCFA.
Project description:This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding fermented mulberry leaf powder (FMLP) on growth performance, slaughter performance, and meat quality of broilers. A total of 360 1-day-old chickens were randomly divided into 5 groups. The control group was fed basal diet (CON), 3% FMLP, 6% FMLP, 9% FMLP, and 3% unfermented mulberry leaf powder. The (MLP) group was fed basal diet supplemented with 3%, 6%, 9% fermented mulberry leaf powder, and 3% MLP, respectively. The experiment lasted for 56 days, with 1-28 days as the starter phase and 29-56 days as the grower phase. The results on the growth performance showed that diets supplemented with 3% FMLP significantly increased the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of broilers, enhanced the activity of intestinal amylase and digestibility of dry matter and crude protein, improved the average daily gain (ADG), and decreased the feed to gain ratio (F/G) (<i>p</i> < 0.05). Compared with the control group diet, the 3% FMLP group diet significantly increased the breast muscle yield (<i>p</i> < 0.05), reduced the abdominal fat ratio (0.1 < <i>p</i> < 0.05), and improved the slaughter performance of broilers. The 3% MLP group diet increased the shear force of breast muscle (<i>p</i> < 0.05) and thigh muscle of broilers compared to the control group, and adding FMLP could reverse the above results. Additionally, relative to the control group, FMLP supplementation improved the contents of inosine monophosphate (IMP), total amino acids (TAA), essential amino acids (EAA), and delicious amino acids (DAA) in breast and thigh muscle, and improved polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and essential fatty acids (EFA) in breast muscle; the 6% and 9% FMLP groups showed preferably such effects (<i>p</i> < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation of FMLP can improve the digestion and absorption of nutrients, and then improve the growth performance of broilers; it also has a positive effect on improving slaughter performance and meat quality.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of dietary glucose oxidase (GOD), catalase (CAT), or both supplementation on reproductive performance, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in sows.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 104 multiparous sows were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 26) with each group given a basal diet, basal diet plus GOD at 60 U/kg, basal diet plus CAT at 75 U/kg, and basal diet plus GOD at 60 U/kg and CAT at 75 U/kg. Sows were fed the experimental diets throughout gestation and lactation.<h4>Results</h4>Dietary GOD supplementation increased average daily feed intake of sows and litter weight at weaning (p<0.05). Dietary CAT supplementation reduced the duration of parturition, stillbirth, and piglet mortality and increased growth performance of weaned piglets (p<0.05). Dietary GOD and CAT supplementation enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities and lessened oxidative stress product levels in plasma of sows and elevated anti-oxidant capacity of 14-day milk and plasma in weaned piglets (p<0.05). Dietary GOD supplementation increased fecal Lactobacillus counts and reduced Escherichia coli counts of sows (p<0.05). Compared with the basal diet, the GOD diet reduced fecal Escherichia coli counts of sows, but the addition of CAT did not reduce Escherichia coli counts in the GOD diet. Dietary GOD and CAT supplementation reduced the apoptosis rate of the liver, endometrium, and ovarian granulosa cells in sows (p<0.05). In the liver, uterus, and ovary of sows, the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 was downregulated by dietary GOD and CAT supplementation (p<0.05).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Dietary GOD and CAT supplementation could improve the antioxidant capacity of sows and weaned piglets, and alleviate hepatic, ovarian and uterine apoptosis by weakening apoptosis-related gene expression. Glucose oxidase regulated fecal microflora of sows, but supplementation of CAT to GOD could weaken the inhibitory effect of GOD on fecal Escherichia coli.