Closure of an iatrogenic ventricular septal defect using a hybrid approach and echocardiographic guidance.
ABSTRACT: Treatment of postsurgical iatrogenic ventricular septal defects (VSDs) remains a challenge. Surgical closure is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A peripheral accessed percutaneous approach is faced with difficulties of gaining adequate access and complex positioning in a beating heart. We report a case of using a hybrid approach to treat iatrogenic VSD with surgical right atriotomy and delivery of an Amplatzer system under direct visualization and transesophageal echocardiography guidance.
Project description:Background:Iatrogenic membranous ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are rare complications of cardiothoracic surgery, such as septal myectomy for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). Transcatheter closure is considered an appealing alternative to surgery, given the increased mortality associated with repeated surgical procedures, but reports are extremely limited. Case summary:We herein report the case of a 63-year-old woman with HOCM who underwent successful percutaneous closure of an iatrogenic VSD after septal myectomy. Two percutaneous techniques are discussed, namely the 'muscular anchoring' and the 'buddy wire delivery', aimed at increasing support and providing stability to the system during percutaneous intervention. Discussion:Transcatheter closure represents an attractive minimally invasive approach for the management of symptomatic iatrogenic VSDs. The new techniques described could help operators to cross tortuous and tunnelled defects and to deploy closure devices in case of complex VSD anatomy.
Project description:Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been increasingly used in symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis who are at high risk for conventional open heart surgery. However, it might be associated with serious complications. We report a case with an iatrogenic ventricular septal defect as a rare complication following TAVI procedure. <<b>Learning objective:</b> To highlight a rare complication of iatrogenic ventricular septal defect (VSD) following transcatheter aortic valve implantation procedure and its treatment with percutaneous interventional VSD closure.>.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to close ventricular septal defects (VSDs) directly through the chest wall using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance, without cardiopulmonary bypass, sternotomy, or radiation exposure. BACKGROUND:Surgical, percutaneous, and hybrid management of VSD each have limitations and known morbidity. METHODS:Percutaneous muscular VSDs were created in 10 naive Yorkshire swine using a transjugular laser catheter. Under real-time MRI guidance, a direct transthoracic vascular access sheath was introduced through the chest into the heart along a trajectory suitable for VSD access and closure. Through this transthoracic sheath, muscular VSDs were occluded using a commercial nitinol device. Finally, the right ventricular free wall was closed using a commercial collagen plug intended for arterial closure. RESULTS:Anterior, posterior, and mid-muscular VSDs (6.8 ± 1.8 mm) were created. VSDs were closed successfully in all animals. The transthoracic access sheath was displaced in 2, both fatal. Thereafter, we tested an intracameral retention sheath to prevent this complication. Right ventricular access ports were closed successfully in all, and after as many as 30 days, healed successfully. CONCLUSIONS:Real-time MRI guidance allowed closed-chest transthoracic perventricular muscular VSD closure in a clinically meaningful animal model. Once applied to patients, this approach may avoid traditional surgical, percutaneous, or open-chest transcatheter ("hybrid") risks.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The incidence of the post-infarct ventricular septal defect (VSD) is 0.17%. Surgical repair is the definitive treatment and percutaneous closure is an alternative in high-risk patients. We report a case of post-myocardial infarction inferior wall aneurysm associated with a large ventricular septal rupture, with a communication between the aneurysm and right ventricle. Successful percutaneous closure of both the aneurysm and the post-infarct (VSD) was performed using two Amplatzer septal occluder devices.<h4>Case summary</h4>A 76-year-old man was referred to the clinic 2 weeks after an inferior wall myocardial infarction. A harsh, pansystolic murmur was appreciated on his left parasternal area and across the pericardium. An echocardiogram demonstrated a large, true aneurysm in the mid-cavity inferior wall. The inferior septum was ruptured and dissected, with a large, left-to-right shunt. The patient's coronary angiography revealed a multi-vessel disease. The patient was considered as high surgical risk and thus transcatheter closure of both the post-infarct VSD and inferior wall aneurysm was recommended. We crossed the VSD from the venous side. An Amplatzer septal occluder (18?mm) was deployed to close the VSD completely. We crossed the aneurysm mouth from the arterial side. Another Amplatzer septal occluder (26?mm) was deployed with the large disc inside the aneurysm, sealing it with no more flow. After discharge from the intensive care unit, the patient underwent complete revascularization for his right coronary artery, left main artery, proximal left anterior descending artery, and ramus intermedius. At his 3-month follow-up, the patient remained well with reasonable exercise tolerance.<h4>Discussion</h4>Percutaneous closure of a post-infarct VSD and aneurysm is an option for patients whose comorbidities preclude surgical repair and whose septal anatomy is favourable to device placement.
Project description:Intramural ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are interventricular communications through right ventricular free wall trabeculations that can occur after repair of conotruncal anomalies. We assessed the prevalence of residual intramural VSDs and their effect on postoperative course.Children who underwent biventricular repair of a conotruncal anomaly from January 1, 2006, to June 30, 2013, and had a postoperative transthoracic echocardiogram were included. Images were reviewed for residual intramural or nonintramural VSDs. The primary outcome was a composite of mortality, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use, and need for subsequent catheter or surgical VSD closure. The secondary outcome was postoperative hospital length of stay. A residual VSD was present in 256 of the 442 subjects (58%), of which 231 (90%) were <2 mm in size. Forty-nine patients (11%) had intramural VSDs, and 207 (47%) had nonintramural VSDs. Patients with intramural VSDs were more likely to reach the primary composite outcome compared with those with nonintramural VSDs or no residual VSD (14 of 49 [29%] versus 15 of 207 [7%] versus 6 of 186 [3%]; P<0.0001). In addition, those with intramural VSDs had longer postoperative hospital length of stay compared with those with nonintramural VSDs or no residual VSD (20 days [interquartile range, 11-42 days] versus 7 days [interquartile range, 5-14 days] versus 6 days [interquartile range, 4-11 days]; P=0.0001). These associations remained significant after adjustment for known risk factors for poor outcomes, including residual VSD size and operative complexity.Among residual VSDs after repair of conotruncal anomalies, intramural VSDs are uniquely associated with postoperative morbidity, mortality, and longer postoperative hospital length of stay. It is important to recognize intramural VSDs in the postoperative period.
Project description:Highlights•Large perimembranous VSDs can occasionally close spontaneously by a septal aneurysm.•Complications of aneurysmatic VSD closure include RVOT obstruction.•The use of multimodal imaging allows accurate diagnosis of RVOT obstruction.•RVOT obstruction due to septal aneurysm is preferably treated by surgical excision.•Patients with aneurysmatic closure of perimembranous VSD need life-long observation.
Project description:Iatrogenic valvular regurgitation following cardiac surgery has been reported as a result of leaflet perforation or entrapment. Due to its central location, the aortic valve is one of the most vulnerable structures for iatrogenic injuries. Proper assessment of the aortic valve by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) should be done after a cardiac surgery in the periaortic area. We hereby report a case of iatrogenic aortic regurgitation which was developed after primary closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defect. It was timely diagnosed by TEE after termination of cardiopulmonary bypass and helped in further management.
Project description:Aortic pseudoaneurysm after cardiac surgery is a rare entity, but it is potentially fatal due to its clinical course along with higher morbidity and mortality rates. Instead of open surgical repair, percutaneous procedures have been introduced as other options for managing an aortic pseudoaneurysm. In this case report, we describe transesophageal echocardiography guidance for successful percutaneous closure of an aortic pseudoaneurysm located in the left ventricular outflow tract by using a type II Amplatzer vascular plug in a patient in whom open surgical repair was not recommended.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intramural ventricular septal defects (VSDs), residual interventricular communications occurring after repair of conotruncal defects, are associated with poor postoperative outcomes. The ability of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to identify intramural VSDs has not yet been evaluated. METHODS:Intraoperative TEE and postoperative transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) data in all patients undergoing all biventricular repair of conotruncal anomalies in our hospital between January 1, 2006, and June 30, 2013, were reviewed. The ability of TEE to accurately identify residual defects was assessed using postoperative TTE as the reference imaging modality. RESULTS:Intramural VSDs occurred in 34 of 337 patients evaluated; 19 were identified by both TTE and TEE, and 15 were identified by TTE only. Sensitivity was 56% and specificity was 100% for TEE to identify intramural VSDs. Peripatch VSDs were identified in 90 patients by both TTE and TEE, in 53 by TTE only, and in 15 by TEE only, yielding a sensitivity of 63% and specificity of 92%. Of the VSDs requiring catheterization or surgical reintervention, 6 of 7 intramural VSDs and all 5 peripatch VSDs were identified by intraoperative TEE. TEE guided the intraoperative decision to return to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in an attempt to close residual defects in 12 patients with intramural VSDs and in 4 patients with peripatch VSDs seen after initial CPB; of these, 10 intramural VSDs and all 4 peripatch VSDs resolved or became smaller on final intraoperative TEE. CONCLUSIONS:TEE has modest sensitivity but high specificity for identifying intramural VSDs and can detect most defects requiring reintervention. Repeat attempts at closure in the index operation may successfully correct intramural VSDs identified by TEE.
Project description:A 59-year-old male with an secundum atrial septal defect status post repair with an Amplatzer occluder in 2001 was admitted with sepsis and MRSA bacteremia. Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE) showed presence of an overlying mobile echogenic structure on the left atrial surface of the device suggestive of a vegetation/infected thrombus. This is only the 3rd case description of late endocarditis involving the Amplatzer ASD closure device in an adult.