Inspection and polypectomy during both insertion and withdrawal or only during withdrawal of colonoscopy?: A protocol for systematic review and meta analysis.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Current evidence supporting additional inspection and polypectomy during insertion of colonoscopy is limited. We plan to provide a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the yield of inspection and polypectomy during both insertion and withdrawal versus the traditional practice of inspection and polypectomy during withdrawal only. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:Randomised controlled trials evaluating inspection and polypectomy during both insertion and withdrawal versus inspection and polypectomy during withdrawal only will be searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Google Scholar, from database inception to 31 May 2020. Data on study design, participant characteristics, and outcomes will be extracted. Primary outcomes to be assessed are adenoma detection rate. Secondary outcomes include polyp detection rate, advanced adenoma detection rate, the mean number of adenomas per patient, polyp miss rate, the mean number of adenomas per colonoscopy, procedure duration, cecal intubation rate, procedure difficulty, patient discomfort, sedation dose, and adverse events. Study quality will be assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Meta-analysis will be performed using RevMan V.5.3 statistical software. Data will be combined with random effect model. The results will be presented as a risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous data, and weighted/standard mean difference for continuous data. Publication bias will be visualized using funnel plots. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This study will not use primary data, and therefore formal ethical approval is not required. The findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and committee conferences. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION NUMBER:INPLASY202050051.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIMS:There are few prospective studies on cold forceps polypectomy (CFP) using jumbo cup forceps. Therefore, we examined patients with diminutive polyps (5 mm or smaller) treated with CFP using jumbo cup forceps to achieve an adenoma-free colon and also assessed the safety of the procedure and the recurrence rate of missed or residual polyp after CFP by performing follow-up colonoscopy 1 year later. METHODS:We included patients with up to 5 adenomas removed at initial colonoscopy and analyzed data from a total of 361 patients with 573 adenomas. One-year follow-up colonoscopy was performed in 165 patients, at which 251 lesions were confirmed. RESULTS:The one-bite resection rate with CFP was highest for lesions 3 mm or smaller and decreased significantly with increasing lesion size. Post-procedural hemorrhage was observed in 1 of 573 lesions (0.17%). No perforation was noted. The definite recurrence rate was 0.8% (2/251 lesions). The probable recurrence rate, which was defined as recurrence in the same colorectal segment, was 17%. Adenoma-free colon was achieved in 55% of patients at initial resection. Multivariate analysis revealed that achievement of an adenoma-free colon was significantly associated with number of adenomas and years of endoscopic experience. CONCLUSIONS:CFP using jumbo biopsy forceps was safe and showed a high one-bite resection rate for diminutive lesions of 3 mm or smaller. The low definite recurrence rate confirms the reliability of CFP using jumbo biopsy forceps. Number of adenomas and years of endoscopic experience were key factors in achieving an adenoma-free colon.
Project description:BACKGROUNDThe adenoma detection rate (ADR) is inversely associated with the incidence of interval colorectal cancer and serves as a benchmark quality criterion during screening colonoscopy. However, adenoma miss rates reach up to 26% and studies have shown that a second inspection of the right colon in retroflected view (RFV) can increase ADR.AIMTo assess whether inspection of the whole colon in RFV compared to standard forward view (SFV) can increase ADR.METHODSPatients presenting for screening or surveillance colonoscopy were invited to participate in this randomized controlled trial and randomized into two arms. In RFV arm colonoscopy was initially performed with SFV, followed by a second inspection of the whole colon in RFV. In the SFV arm first withdrawal was performed with SFV, followed by a second inspection of the whole colon again with SFV. Number, size and morphology of polyps found during first and second inspection in each colonic segment were recorded and all polyps were removed and sent for histopathology in separate containers.RESULTSTwo hundred and five patients were randomly assigned to the RFV (n = 101) and SFV (n = 104) arm. In the RFV arm, both polyp detection rate (PDR) and ADR were increased under second inspection in RFV (PDR 1st SFV: 39.8%, PDR 2nd RFV: 46.6%; ADR 1st SFV: 35.2%, ADR 2nd RFV: 42%). Likewise, in the SFV arm, PDR and ADR were increased under second inspection (PDR 1st SFV: 37.5%, PDR 2nd SFV: 46.6%; ADR 1st SFV: 34.1%, ADR 2nd SFV: 44.3%) with no significant differences in ADR and PDR between the SFV and RFV arm. Mean number of adenomas per patient (APP) was increased in the RFV and SFV (APP RFV arm: 1st SFV: 1.71; 2nd RFV: 2.38; APP SFV arm: 1st SFV: 1.83, 2nd SFV:2.2). The majority of adenomas additionally found during second inspection in RFV or in SFV were located in the transverse and left-sided colon and were > 5 mm in size.CONCLUSIONSecond inspection of the whole colon leads to increased adenoma detection with no differences between SFV and RFV. Hence, increased detection is most likely a feature of the second inspection itself but not of the inspection mode.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Colonoscopy is the accepted gold standard for the detection of colorectal cancer. However, colonoscopy is less effective in preventing colon cancer in the right side compared with the left side.<h4>Aim</h4>To investigate the feasibility of a novel type of retroflexion colonoscope, EC-3490Ti colonoscope, for detection of proximal colon lesions.<h4>Methods</h4>In this prospective trial, we recruited patients who underwent colonoscopy for screening or surveillance. When the endoscopists could not grasp the whole observation of the right-side colon mucosa in the forward view (FV), insertion and withdrawal were repeatedly performed in the FV group with the EC38-i10F colonoscope while retroflexion was performed in the retroflexed view (RV) group with the EC-3490Ti colonoscope. Adenoma detection rate, the total number of adenomas per positive participant, the success rate of retroflexion, and endoscope withdrawal time were recorded and compared.<h4>Results</h4>The total adenoma detection rate (39.3% <i>vs</i> 37.7%, <i>P</i> = 0.646) did not show any significant difference between the two groups. However, the polyp detection rate (59.6% <i>vs</i> 51.0%, <i>P</i> = 0.002), adenoma detection rate in the right colon (21.6% <i>vs</i> 14.4%, <i>P</i> = 0.012), and the total number of adenomas per positive participant (2.1 <i>vs</i> 1.7, <i>P</i> = 0.011) reached statistical significance. Retroflexion was achieved in 91.7% of our cohort. Compared with the FV group, the withdrawal time was significantly prolonged in the RV group (586.1 ± 124.4 s <i>vs</i> 508.8 ± 129.6 s, <i>P</i> < 0.001). In contrast, the proportion of additional ancillary pressure decreased (27.4% <i>vs</i> 45.7%, <i>P</i> < 0.001), and the visual analog scale pain scores did not increase (2.7 ± 1.4 <i>vs</i> 2.8 ± 1.4, <i>P</i> = 0.377).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Retroflexion in the proximal colon could be performed successfully and safely with the EC-3490Ti colonoscope. This maneuver could detect more adenomas effectively.
Project description:Measures shown to improve the adenoma detection during colonoscopy (excellent bowel preparation, cecal intubation, cap fitted colonoscope to examine behind folds, patient position change to optimize colon distention, trained endoscopy team focusing on detection of subtle flat lesions, and incorporation of optimum endoscopic examination with adequate withdrawal time) are applicable to clinical practice and, if incorporated are projected to facilitate comprehensive colonoscopy screening program for colon cancer prevention. To determine adenoma and serrated polyp detection rate under conditions designed to optimize quality parameters for comprehensive screening colonoscopy. Retrospective analysis of data obtained from a comprehensive colon cancer screening program designed to optimize quality parameters. Academic medical center. Three hundred and forty-three patients between the ages of 50 years and 75 years who underwent first screening colonoscopy between 2009 and 2011 among 535 consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy. Comprehensive colonoscopy screening program was utilized to screen all patients. Cecal intubation was successful in 98.8% of patients. The Boston Bowel Preparation Scale for quality of colonoscopy was 8.97 (95% confidence interval [CI]; 8.94, 9.00). The rate of adenoma detection was 60% and serrated lesion (defined as serrated adenomas or hyperplastic polyps proximal to the splenic flexure) detection was 23%. The rate of precancerous lesion detection (adenomas and serrated lesions) was 66%. The mean number of adenomas per screening procedure was 1.4 (1.2, 1.6) and the mean number of precancerous lesions (adenomas or serrated lesions) per screening procedure was 1.6 (1.4, 1.8). Retrospective study and single endoscopist experience. A comprehensive colonoscopy screening program results in high-quality screening with high detection of adenomas, advanced adenomas, serrated adenomas, and multiple adenomas.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The guidelines for colonoscopy present withdrawal time (WT) and adenoma detection rate (ADR) as the quality indicator. The purpose of this retrospective study is to analyze the predicting factors with polyp detection rate (PDR) as a surrogate for ADR by using comprehensive health checkup data, and assess the correlation between PDR per each colonic segment and WT, and factors influencing WT.<h4>Methods</h4>One thousand and thirty six consecutive health checkup cases from April 2015 to March 2016 were enrolled in this study, and 880 subjects who undertook colonoscopy without polyp removal or biopsy were divided into the two groups (polyp not detected group vs polyp detected group). The two groups were compared by subjects and clinical characteristics with univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis. Colonoscopies with longer WT (? 6 min) and those with shorter WT (< 6 min) were compared by PDR per each colonic segment, and also by subjects and clinical characteristics.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 1009 subjects included two incomplete colonoscopies (CIR, 99.9%) and overall PDR was 35.8%. A multiple logistic regression model demonstrated that age, gender, and WT were significantly related factors for polyp detection (odds ratio, 1.036; 1.771; 1.217). PDR showed a linear increase as WT increased from 3 min to 9 min (r = 0.989, p = 0.000) and PDR with long WT group was higher than that with short WT group per each colonic segment, significantly in transverse (2.3 times, p = 0.004) and sigmoid colon (2.1 times, p = 0.001). Not only bowel preparation quality but also insertion difficulty evaluated by endoscopist were significant factors relating with WT (odds ratio, 3.811; 1.679).<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study suggests that endoscopists should be recommended to take more time up to 9 min of WT to observe transverse and sigmoid colon, especially when they feel no difficulty during scope insertion.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To improve patients' comprehension of bowel preparation instructions before colonoscopy, enhanced patient education (EPE) such as cartoon pictures or other visual aids, phone calls, mobile apps, multimedia education and social media apps have been proposed. However, it is uncertain whether EPE can increase the detection rate of colonic polyps and adenomas. OBJECTIVE:This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy of EPE in detecting colonic polyps and adenomas. METHODS:We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from their inception to June 2019 for the identification of trials comparing the EPE with standard patient education for outpatients undergoing colonoscopy. We used a random effects model to calculate summary estimates of the polyp detection rate (defined as the number of patients with at least one polyp divided by the total number of patients undergoing selective colonoscopy), adenoma detection rate (defined as the number of patients with at least one adenoma divided by the total number of patients undergoing selective colonoscopy), advanced adenoma detection rate (defined as the number of patients with at least one advanced adenoma divided by the total number of patients undergoing selective colonoscopy), sessile serrated adenoma detection rate (defined as the number of patients with at least one sessile serrated adenoma divided by the total number of patients undergoing selective colonoscopy), cancer detection rate (defined as the number of patients with at least one cancer divided by the total number of patients undergoing selective colonoscopy), or adenoma detection rate - plus (defined as the number of additional adenomas found after the first adenoma per colonoscopy). Moreover, we conducted trial sequential analysis (TSA) to determine the robustness of summary estimates of all primary outcomes. RESULTS:We included 10 randomized controlled trials enrolling 4560 participants for analysis. The meta-analysis suggested that EPE was associated with an increased polyp detection rate (9 trials; 3781 participants; risk ratio [RR] 1.19, 95% CI 1.05-1.35; P<.05; I2=42%) and adenoma detection rate (5 trials; 2133 participants; RR 1.37, 95% CI 1.15-1.64; P<.001; I2=0%), which were established by TSA. Pooled result from the inverse-variance model illustrated an increase in the sessile serrated adenoma detection rate (3 trials; 1248 participants; odds ratio 1.76, 95% CI 1.22-2.53; P<.05; I2=0%). One trial suggested an increase in the adenoma detection rate - plus (RR 4.39, 95% CI 2.91-6.61; P<.001). Pooled estimates from 3 (1649 participants) and 2 trials (1375 participants) generated no evidence of statistical difference for the advanced adenoma detection rate and cancer detection rate, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The current evidence indicates that EPE should be recommended to instruct bowel preparation in patients undergoing colonoscopy because it can increase the polyp detection rate, adenoma detection rate, and sessile serrated adenoma detection rate. However, further trials are warranted to determine the efficacy of EPE for advanced adenoma detection rate, adenoma detection rate - plus, and cancer detection rate because of limited data.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Computer-aided detection (CADe) of colon polyps has been demonstrated to improve colon polyp and adenoma detection during colonoscopy by indicating the location of a given polyp on a parallel monitor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether embedding the CADe system into the primary colonoscopy monitor may serve to increase polyp and adenoma detection, without increasing physician fatigue level.<h4>Methods</h4>Consecutive patients presenting for colonoscopies were prospectively randomized to undergo routine colonoscopy with or without the assistance of a real-time polyp detection CADe system. Fatigue level was evaluated from score 0 to 10 by the performing endoscopists after each colonoscopy procedure. The main outcome was adenoma detection rate (ADR).<h4>Results</h4>Out of 790 patients analyzed, 397 were randomized to routine colonoscopy (control group), and 393 to a colonoscopy with computer-aided diagnosis (CADe group). The ADRs were 20.91% and 29.01%, respectively (OR?=?1.546, 95% CI 1.116-2.141, <i>p</i>?=?0.009). The average number of adenomas per colonoscopy (APC) was 0.29 and 0.48, respectively (Change Folds?=?1.64, 95% CI 1.299-2.063, <i>p</i>?<?0.001). The improvement in polyp detection was mainly due to increased detection of non-advanced diminutive adenomas, serrated adenoma and hyperplastic polyps. The fatigue score for each procedure was 3.28 <i>versus</i> 3.40 for routine and CADe group, <i>p</i>?=?0.357.<h4>Conclusions</h4>A real-time CADe system employed on the primary endoscopy monitor may lead to improvements in ADR and polyp detection rate without increasing fatigue level during colonoscopy. The integration of a low-latency and high-performance CADe systems may serve as an effective quality assurance tool during colonoscopy. www.chictr.org.cn number, ChiCTR1800018058.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: The decision tree underlying current practice guidelines for post polypectomy surveillance relies on risk stratification based on predictive attributes gleaned from adenomas removed on screening colonoscopy examination. Our primary aim was to estimate the magnitude of association between baseline adenoma attributes and the risk of adenoma recurrence and invasive colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC). Our secondary aims were to estimate the adenoma detection rate (ADR) of surveillance compared with screening colonoscopies and describe time trends in preventive colonoscopy utilization. METHODS: We used prospective analyses of retrospectively collected clinical data from electronic health records. A cohort of primary care patients eligible for colorectal cancer screening was assembled encompassing 110,452 subjects, of which 3,300 had adenomas removed on screening examination. Of those patients who had a follow-up surveillance colonoscopy (defined as a patient with a documented adenoma on prior colonoscopy) recorded during the study period, 537 had a recurrent adenoma. RESULTS: Of those recurrent adenomas, 354 had a high-risk attributes. High-risk attributes were described at >3 adenomas, at least one adenoma >10 mm in size, high-grade dysplasia, or villous features. The risk of developing invasive CRC among post polypectomy patients was significantly higher if the baseline adenomas displayed any of the following attributes: more numerous than 3 (4.3-fold higher risk, 95% confidence interval (CI) low, high 1.4, 12.9), larger than 10 mm in size (5.2-fold higher risk, 95% CI low, high 1.8, 15.1), high-grade dysplasia (13.2-fold risk, 95% CI low, high 2.8, 62.1), or villous features (7.4-fold higher risk, 95% CI low, high 2.5, 21.5). These attributes combined added a net value of 22.8% to the probability of correctly predicting CRC. There was a threefold increase in surveillance utilization relative to screening from 2005 to 2011. The ADR of surveillance (34.1%) was 1.5-fold higher than that of screening (23.1%). CONCLUSIONS: These results emphasize the need to mitigate excessive risk by performing timely surveillance colonoscopies in patients with baseline adenomas displaying high-risk attributes as recommended in practice guidelines.
Project description:Although colonoscopy is the accepted standard for detection of colorectal adenomas and cancers, many adenomas and some cancers are missed. To avoid interval colorectal cancer, the adenoma miss rate of colonoscopy needs to be reduced by improvement of colonoscopy technique and imaging capability. We aimed to compare the adenoma miss rates of full-spectrum endoscopy colonoscopy with those of standard forward-viewing colonoscopy.We did an international, multicentre, randomised trial at three sites in Israel, one site in the Netherlands, and two sites in the USA between Feb 1, 2012, and March 31, 2013. Patients aged 18-70 years referred for colorectal cancer screening, polyp surveillance, or diagnostic assessment underwent same-day, back-to-back tandem colonoscopy with standard forward-viewing colonoscope and the full-spectrum endoscopy colonoscope. The patients were randomly assigned (1:1), via computer-generated randomisation with block size of 20, to which procedure was done first. The endoscopist was masked to group allocation until immediately before the start of colonoscopy examinations; patients were not masked. The primary endpoint was adenoma miss rates. We did per-protocol analyses. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01549535.197 participants were enrolled. 185 participants were included in the per-protocol analyses: 88 (48%) were randomly assigned to receive standard forward-viewing colonoscopy first, and 97 (52%) to receive full-spectrum endoscopy colonoscopy first. By per-lesion analysis, the adenoma miss rate was significantly lower in patients in the full-spectrum endoscopy group than in those in the standard forward-viewing procedure group: five (7%) of 67 vs 20 (41%) of 49 adenomas were missed (p<0·0001). Standard forward-viewing colonoscopy missed 20 adenomas in 15 patients; of those, three (15%) were advanced adenomas. Full-spectrum endoscopy missed five adenomas in five patients in whom an adenoma had already been detected with first-pass standard forward-viewing colonoscopy; none of these missed adenomas were advanced. One patient was admitted to hospital for colitis detected at colonoscopy, whereas five minor adverse events were reported including vomiting, diarrhoea, cystitis, gastroenteritis, and bleeding.Full-spectrum endoscopy represents a technology advancement for colonoscopy and could improve the efficacy of colorectal cancer screening and surveillance.EndoChoice.
Project description:Background:A low adenoma detection rate (ADR) increases risks of interval cancers (ICs). Proximal colon flat polyps, e.g. serrated lesions (SLs), are difficult to find. Missed proximal colon flat lesions likely contribute to IC. Aims:We compared chromoendoscopy with water exchange (CWE), water exchange (WE) and air insufflation (AI) in detecting adenomas in screening colonoscopy. Methods:After split-dose preparation, 480 veterans were randomized to AI, WE and CWE. Results:Primary outcome of proximal ADR (55.6% vs 53.4% vs 52.2%, respectively) were similar in all groups. Adenoma per colonoscopy (APC) and adenoma per positive colonoscopy (APPC) were comparable. Detection rate of proximal colon SLs was significantly higher for CWE and WE than AI (26.3%, 23.6% and 11.3%, respectively, p?=?0.002). Limitations: single operator; SLs only surrogate markers of but not IC. Conclusions:When an endoscopist achieves high-quality AI examinations with overall ADR twice (61.6%) the recommended standard (30%), use of WE and CWE does not produce further improvement in proximal or overall ADR. Comparable APC and APPC confirm equivalent withdrawal inspection techniques. WE alone is sufficient to significantly improve detection of proximal SLs. The impact of increased detection of proximal SLs by WE on prevention of IC deserves to be studied. This study is registered at ClinicalTrial.gov (NCT#01607255).