Secreted frizzled-related protein 2 prevents pressure-overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy by targeting the Wnt/?-catenin pathway.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIM:Secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) has been reported to be involved in cardiovascular diseases. However, its role in cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload is still elusive. We aimed to examine the role of sFRP2 in the development of cardiac hypertrophy in vivo and in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS:Following cardiac hypertrophy stimulated by aortic banding (AB), the expression of sFRP2 was downregulated in the hypertrophic ventricle. Adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9) was injected through the tail vein to overexpress sFRP2 in the mouse myocardium. Overexpression of sFRP2 alleviated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis, as identified by the reduced cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area, heart weight/body weight ratio, and left ventricular (LV) collagen ratio. Additionally, sFRP2 decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by pressure overload. Western blot showed that sFRP2 prevented the expression of active ?-catenin. The Wnt/?-catenin agonist LiCl (1 mmol/kg) abolished the inhibitory effects of sFRP2 on cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis, as evidenced by the increased cross-sectional area and LV collagen ratio and the deterioration of echocardiographic data. CONCLUSION:Our study indicated that decreased sFRP2 levels were observed in failing mouse hearts. Overexpression of sFRP2 attenuated myocyte hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis induced by hypertrophic stimuli by inhibiting the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. We revealed that sFRP2 may be a promising therapeutic target for the development of cardiac remodeling.
Project description:Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by excessive extracellular matrix deposition that contributes to compromised cardiac function and potentially heart failure. Cardiac pressure overload resulting from trans-aortic constriction in mice leads to cardiac fibrosis and increased Wnt/?-catenin signaling in cardiac fibroblasts. Here, we conditionally induce ?-catenin loss of function in resident cardiac fibroblasts using Tcf21 <sup>MerCreMer</sup> or in activated cardiac fibroblasts using periostin (Postn) <sup>MerCreMer</sup> . We show that ?-catenin loss of function in cardiac fibroblasts after trans-aortic constriction significantly preserves cardiac function, and reduces interstitial fibrosis but does not alter the numbers of activated or differentiated cardiac fibroblasts in vivo. However, ?-catenin is specifically required in resident cardiac fibroblasts for fibrotic excessive extracellular matrix gene expression and binds Col3a1 and Postn gene sequences in cultured cardiac fibroblasts after induction of Wnt signaling. Moreover, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is blunted with cardiac fibroblast-specific loss of ?-catenin after trans-aortic constriction in vivo. Thus, Wnt/?-catenin signaling in resident cardiac fibroblasts is required for excessive extracellular matrix gene expression and collagen deposition after trans-aortic constriction.Understanding the mechanisms causing cardiac fibrosis is key to prevention and therapy development of many heart diseases. Here, the authors show that Wnt/?-catenin signaling in resident cardiac fibroblasts is required for deposition of fibrotic extracellular matrix and the regulation of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in a mouse model of heart fibrosis.
Project description:Nearly 50% of patients with heart failure (HF) have preserved LV ejection fraction, with interstitial fibrosis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy as early manifestations of pressure overload. However, methods to assess both tissue characteristics dynamically and noninvasively with therapy are lacking. We measured the effects of mineralocorticoid receptor blockade on tissue phenotypes in LV pressure overload using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR).Mice were randomized to l-nitro-?-methyl ester (l-NAME, 3 mg/mL in water; n=22), or l-NAME with spironolactone (50 mg/kg/day in subcutaneous pellets; n=21). Myocardial extracellular volume (ECV; marker of diffuse interstitial fibrosis) and the intracellular lifetime of water (?ic; marker of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy) were determined by CMR T1 imaging at baseline and after 7 weeks of therapy alongside histological assessments. Administration of l-NAME induced hypertensive heart disease in mice, with increases in mean arterial pressure, LV mass, ECV, and ?ic compared with placebo-treated controls, while LV ejection fraction was preserved (>50%). In comparison, animals receiving both spironolactone and l-NAME ("l-NAME+S") showed less concentric remodeling, and a lower myocardial ECV and ?ic, indicating decreased interstitial fibrosis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy (ECV: 0.43 ± 0.09 for l-NAME versus 0.25 ± 0.03 for l-NAME+S, P<0.001; ?ic: 0.42 ± 0.11 for l-NAME groups versus 0.12 ± 0.05 for l-NAME+S group). Mice treated with a combination of l-NAME and spironolactone were similar to placebo-treated controls at 7 weeks.Spironolactone attenuates interstitial fibrosis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in hypertensive heart disease. CMR can phenotype myocardial tissue remodeling in pressure-overload, furthering our understanding of HF progression.
Project description:Adenosine exerts numerous protective actions in the heart, including attenuation of cardiac hypertrophy. Adenosine kinase (ADK) converts adenosine to adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and is the major route of myocardial adenosine metabolism, however, the impact of ADK activity on cardiac structure and function is unknown. To examine the role of ADK in cardiac homeostasis and adaptation to stress, conditional cardiomyocyte specific ADK knockout mice (cADK-/-) were produced using the MerCreMer-lox-P system. Within 4?weeks of ADK disruption, cADK-/- mice developed spontaneous hypertrophy and increased ?-Myosin Heavy Chain expression without observable LV dysfunction. In response to 6?weeks moderate left ventricular pressure overload (transverse aortic constriction;TAC), wild type mice (WT) exhibited ~60% increase in ventricular ADK expression and developed LV hypertrophy with preserved LV function. In contrast, cADK-/- mice exhibited significantly greater LV hypertrophy and cardiac stress marker expression (atrial natrurietic peptide and ?-Myosin Heavy Chain), LV dilation, reduced LV ejection fraction and increased pulmonary congestion. ADK disruption did not decrease protein methylation, inhibit AMPK, or worsen fibrosis, but was associated with persistently elevated mTORC1 and p44/42 ERK MAP kinase signaling and a striking increase in microtubule (MT) stabilization/detyrosination. In neonatal cardiomyocytes exposed to hypertrophic stress, 2-chloroadenosine (CADO) or adenosine treatment suppressed MT detyrosination, which was reversed by ADK inhibition with iodotubercidin or ABT-702. Conversely, adenoviral over-expression of ADK augmented CADO destabilization of MTs and potentiated CADO attenuation of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Together, these findings indicate a novel adenosine receptor-independent role for ADK-mediated adenosine metabolism in cardiomyocyte microtubule dynamics and protection against maladaptive hypertrophy.
Project description:Transforming growth factor-? family cytokines have diverse actions in the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. Follistatin-like 3 (Fstl3) is an extracellular regulator of certain TGF-? family members, including activin A. The aim of this study was to examine the role of Fstl3 in cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac myocyte-specific Fstl3 knock-out (KO) mice and control mice were subjected to pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Cardiac hypertrophy was assessed by echocardiography and histological and biochemical methods. KO mice showed reduced cardiac hypertrophy, pulmonary congestion, concentric LV wall thickness, LV dilatation, and LV systolic dysfunction after TAC compared with control mice. KO mice displayed attenuated increases in cardiomyocyte cell surface area and interstitial fibrosis following pressure overload. Although activin A was similarly up-regulated in KO and control mice after TAC, a significant increase in Smad2 phosphorylation only occurred in KO mice. Knockdown of Fstl3 in cultured cardiomyocytes inhibited PE-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Conversely, adenovirus-mediated Fstl3 overexpression blocked the inhibitory action of activin A on hypertrophy and Smad2 activation. Transduction with Smad7, a negative regulator of Smad2 signaling, blocked the antihypertrophic actions of activin A stimulation or Fstl3 ablation. These findings identify Fstl3 as a stress-induced regulator of hypertrophy that controls myocyte size via regulation of Smad signaling.
Project description:The heart responds to pathological overload through myocyte hypertrophy. Here we show that this response is regulated by cardiac fibroblasts via a paracrine mechanism involving plasma membrane calcium ATPase 4 (PMCA4). Pmca4 deletion in mice, both systemically and specifically in fibroblasts, reduces the hypertrophic response to pressure overload; however, knocking out Pmca4 specifically in cardiomyocytes does not produce this effect. Mechanistically, cardiac fibroblasts lacking PMCA4 produce higher levels of secreted frizzled related protein 2 (sFRP2), which inhibits the hypertrophic response in neighbouring cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, we show that treatment with the PMCA4 inhibitor aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA) inhibits and reverses cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload in mice. Our results reveal that PMCA4 regulates the development of cardiac hypertrophy and provide proof of principle for a therapeutic approach to treat this condition.
Project description:Pathological cardiac overload induces myocardial protein synthesis and hypertrophy, which predisposes to heart failure. To inhibit hypertrophy therapeutically, the identification of negative regulators of cardiomyocyte protein synthesis is needed. Here, we identified the tumor suppressor protein TIP30 as novel inhibitor of cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. Reduced TIP30 levels in mice entailed exaggerated cardiac growth during experimental pressure overload, which was associated with cardiomyocyte cellular hypertrophy, increased myocardial protein synthesis, reduced capillary density, and left ventricular dysfunction. Pharmacological inhibition of protein synthesis improved these defects. Our results are relevant for human disease, since we found diminished cardiac TIP30 levels in samples from patients suffering from end-stage heart failure or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Importantly, therapeutic overexpression of TIP30 in mouse hearts inhibited cardiac hypertrophy and improved left ventricular function during pressure overload and in cardiomyopathic mdx mice. Mechanistically, we identified a previously unknown anti-hypertrophic mechanism, whereby TIP30 binds the eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) to prevent the interaction with its essential co-factor eEF1B2 and translational elongation. Therefore, TIP30 could be a therapeutic target to counteract cardiac hypertrophy.
Project description:Pathological cardiac overload induces myocardial protein synthesis and hypertrophy, which predisposes to heart failure. To inhibit hypertrophy therapeutically, the identification of negative regulators of cardiomyocyte protein synthesis is needed. Here, we identified the tumor suppressor protein TIP30 as novel inhibitor of cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. Reduced TIP30 levels in mice entailed exaggerated cardiac growth during experimental pressure overload, which was associated with cardiomyocyte cellular hypertrophy, increased myocardial protein synthesis, reduced capillary density and left ventricular dysfunction. Pharmacological inhibition of protein synthesis improved these defects. Our results are relevant for human disease, since we found diminished cardiac TIP30 levels in samples from patients suffering from end-stage heart failure or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Importantly, therapeutic overexpression of TIP30 in mouse hearts inhibited cardiac hypertrophy and improved left ventricular function during pressure overload and in cardiomyopathic mdx mice. Mechanistically, we identified a previously unknown anti-hypertrophic mechanism, whereby TIP30 binds the eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) to prevent the interaction with its essential co-factor eEF1B2 and translational elongation. Therefore, TIP30 could be a therapeutic target to counteract cardiac hypertrophy.
Project description:Activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is associated with hypertension and heart disease. However, how RAS activation causes cardiac lesions remains elusive. Here we report the involvement of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in this process. In rats with chronic infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II), eight Wnt ligands were induced and ?-catenin activated in both cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts. Blockade of Wnt/?-catenin signaling by small molecule inhibitor ICG-001 restrained Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy by normalizing heart size and inhibiting hypertrophic marker genes. ICG-001 also attenuated myocardial fibrosis and inhibited ?-smooth muscle actin, fibronectin and collagen I expression. These changes were accompanied by a reduced expression of atrial natriuretic peptide and B-type natriuretic peptide. Interestingly, ICG-001 also lowered blood pressure induced by Ang II. In vitro, Ang II induced multiple Wnt ligands and activated ?-catenin in rat primary cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts. ICG-001 inhibited myocyte hypertrophy and Snail1, c-Myc and atrial natriuretic peptide expression, and abolished the fibrogenic effect of Ang II in cardiac fibroblasts. Finally, recombinant Wnt3a was sufficient to induce cardiomyocyte injury and fibroblast activation in vitro. Taken together, these results illustrate an essential role for Wnt/?-catenin in mediating hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. Therefore, blockade of this pathway may be a novel strategy for ameliorating hypertensive heart disease.
Project description:Fibroblasts, which are the most numerous cell type in the heart, interact with cardiomyocytes in vitro and affect their function; however, they are considered to play a secondary role in cardiac hypertrophy and failure. Here we have shown that cardiac fibroblasts are essential for the protective and hypertrophic myocardial responses to pressure overload in vivo in mice. Haploinsufficiency of the transcription factor-encoding gene Krüppel-like factor 5 (Klf5) suppressed cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy elicited by moderate-intensity pressure overload, whereas cardiomyocyte-specific Klf5 deletion did not alter the hypertrophic responses. By contrast, cardiac fibroblast-specific Klf5 deletion ameliorated cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, indicating that KLF5 in fibroblasts is important for the response to pressure overload and that cardiac fibroblasts are required for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. High-intensity pressure overload caused severe heart failure and early death in mice with Klf5-null fibroblasts. KLF5 transactivated Igf1 in cardiac fibroblasts, and IGF-1 subsequently acted in a paracrine fashion to induce hypertrophic responses in cardiomyocytes. Igf1 induction was essential for cardioprotective responses, as administration of a peptide inhibitor of IGF-1 severely exacerbated heart failure induced by high-intensity pressure overload. Thus, cardiac fibroblasts play a pivotal role in the myocardial adaptive response to pressure overload, and this role is partly controlled by KLF5. Modulation of cardiac fibroblast function may provide a novel strategy for treating heart failure, with KLF5 serving as an attractive target.
Project description:Myocardial hypertrophy is an adaptive response to hemodynamic demands. Although angiogenesis is critical to support the increase in heart mass with matching blood supply, it may also promote a hypertrophic response. Previously, we showed that cardiac angiogenesis induced by placental growth factor (PlGF), promotes myocardial hypertrophy through the paracrine action of endothelium-derived NO, which triggers the degradation of regulator of G protein signaling 4 (RGS4) to activate the Akt/mTORC1 pathways in cardiomyocytes. Here, we investigated whether miRNAs contribute to the development of hypertrophic response associated with myocardial angiogenesis. We show that miR-182 is upregulated concurrently with the development of hypertrophy in PlGF mice, but not when hypertrophy was blocked by concomitant expression of PlGF and RGS4, or by PlGF expression in eNOS(-/-) mice. Anti-miR-182 treatment inhibits the hypertrophic response and prevents the Akt/mTORC1 activation in PlGF mice and NO-treated cardiomyocytes. miR-182 reduces the expression of Bcat2, Foxo3 and Adcy6 to regulate the hypertrophic response in PlGF mice. Particularly, depletion of Bcat2, identified as a new miR-182 target, promotes Akt(Ser473)/p70-S6K(Thr389) phosphorylation and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. LV pressure overload did not upregulate miR-182. Thus, miR-182 is a novel target of endothelial-cardiomyocyte crosstalk and plays an important role in the angiogenesis induced-hypertrophic response.