TRPS1 Confers Multidrug Resistance of Breast Cancer Cells by Regulating BCRP Expression.
ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the major obstruction in the successful treatment of breast cancer (BCa). The elucidation of molecular events that confer chemoresistance of BCa is of major therapeutic importance. Several studies have elucidated the correlation of TRPS1 and BCa. Here we focused on the role of TRPS1 in acquisition of chemoresistance, and reported a unique role of TRPS1 renders BCa cells resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs via the regulation of BCRP expression. Bioinformation analysis based on publicly available BCa data suggested that TRPS1 overexpression linked to chemoresistance. Mechanistically, TRPS1 regulated BCRP expression and efflux transportation. Overexpression of TRPS1 led to upregulation of BCRP while its inhibition resulted in repression of BCRP. The correlation of TRPS1 and BCRP was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry in 180 BCa samples. MTT assay demonstrated that manipulation of TRPS1 expression affects the chemosensitivity of BCa cells. In total, high expression of TRPS1 confers MDR of BCa which is mediated by BCRP. Our data demonstrated a new insight into mechanisms and strategies to overcome chemoresistance in BCa.
Project description:Multidrug resistance (MDR) often leads to chemotherapy failure of lung cancer and has been linking to the cellular expression of several DNA transcription- and repair-related genes such as Trps1 and MGMT. However, their roles in the formation of MDR are largely unknown. In this study, overexpression/knockdown, luciferase assay and ChIP assay were performed to study the relationship between Trps1 and MGMT, as well as their roles in MDR formation. Our results demonstrated that Trps1 and MGMT expression both increased in drug-resistant lung cancer cell line (H446/CDDP). Silencing of Trps1 resulted in downregulation of MGMT expression and decrease in the multidrug sensitivity of H446/CDDP cells, while Trps1 overexpression exhibited the opposite effects in H446 cells. Ectopic expression of MGMT had no effect on Trps1 expression, but enhanced the IC50 values of H446 cells or rescued the IC50 values of Trps1-silenced H446/CDDP cells in treatment of multidrug. Our data further showed that, mechanistically, Trps1 acted as a transcription activator that directly induced MGMT transcription by binding to the MGMT promoter. Taken together, we consider that upregulation of Trps1 induces MGMT transcription contributing to the formation of MDR in lung cancer cells. Our findings proved potential targets for reversing MDR in clinical chemotherapy of lung cancer.
Project description:Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)/ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter identified as a molecular cause of multidrug resistance (MDR) in diverse cancer cells. BCRP physiologically functions as a part of a self-defense mechanism for the organism; it enhances elimination of toxic xenobiotic substances and harmful agents in the gut and biliary tract, as well as through the blood-brain, placental, and possibly blood-testis barriers. BCRP recognizes and transports numerous anticancer drugs including conventional chemotherapeutic and targeted small therapeutic molecules relatively new in clinical use. Thus, BCRP expression in cancer cells directly causes MDR by active efflux of anticancer drugs. Because BCRP is also known to be a stem cell marker, its expression in cancer cells could be a manifestation of metabolic and signaling pathways that confer multiple mechanisms of drug resistance, self-renewal (stemness), and invasiveness (aggressiveness), and thereby impart a poor prognosis. Therefore, blocking BCRP-mediated active efflux may provide a therapeutic benefit for cancers. Delineating the precise molecular mechanisms for BCRP gene expression may lead to identification of a novel molecular target to modulate BCRP-mediated MDR. Current evidence suggests that BCRP gene transcription is regulated by a number of trans-acting elements including hypoxia inducible factor 1?, estrogen receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor. Furthermore, alternative promoter usage, demethylation of the BCRP promoter, and histone modification are likely associated with drug-induced BCRP overexpression in cancer cells. Finally, PI3K/AKT signaling may play a critical role in modulating BCRP function under a variety of conditions. These biological events seem involved in a complicated manner. Untangling the events would be an essential first step to developing a method to modulate BCRP function to aid patients with cancer. This review will present a synopsis of the impact of BCRP-mediated MDR in cancer cells, and the molecular mechanisms of acquired MDR currently postulated in a variety of human cancers.
Project description:Ovarian cancer stem cells (OCSCs) are sources of tumor chemoresistance and recurrence. A hypoxic microenvironment contributes to the chemoresistance of cancer stem cells (CSCs), but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood yet. Here, we show that increased HIF-2? expression is associated with enhanced stemness of OCSCs and poor outcomes in ovarian cancer patients. OVCAR-3 and CAOV-3 sphere-forming (OVCAR-3 S and CAOV-3 S) cells with OCSC-like properties showed strong resistance to adriamycin (ADR). Hypoxia (1% O2 ) induced high expression of both HIF-1? and especially HIF-2?, and increased the resistance of OVCAR-3 S and CAOV-3 S cells to ADR. Notably, treatment with ADR further increased the expression of HIF-2?, but not that of HIF-1?. Knockdown of HIF-2? expression substantially attenuated the resistance of OVCAR-3 S and CAOV-3 S cells to ADR, and the HIF-2? overexpression had the opposite effect. Furthermore, in mouse models xenografted with OCSCs, HIF-2? depletion significantly inhibited tumor growth and sensitized OCSCs to ADR in vivo. Mechanistically, HIF-2? directly promotes transcription/expression of BCRP, a gene encoding a transporter protein responsible for pumping drugs (e.g., ADR) out of cells, which in turn increases drug resistance due to increased drug transportation. Collectively, our studies reveal a novel drug-resistant mechanism in ovarian cancer by which hypoxia (and ADR treatment)-induced HIF-2? overexpression endows OCSCs with resistance to ADR by promoting BCRP expression and ADR transportation. Therefore, targeting the HIF-2?/BCRP axis holds therapeutic potential for treating drug-resistant ovarian cancer.
Project description:The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), an ATP binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporter, plays a role in multiple drug resistance (MDR). Previous studies of the subcellular location of the ABC transporter P-glycoprotein indicated that this protein is expressed in nuclear membranes. This study examines the nuclear distribution of BCRP in seven human-derived glioblastoma (GBM) and astrocytoma cell lines. BCRP expression was observed in the nuclear extracts of 6/7 cell lines. Using the GBM LN229 cell line as a model, nuclear BCRP protein was detected by immunoblotting and confocal laser microscopy. Importantly, nuclear BCRP staining was found in a subpopulation of tumour cells in a human brain GBM biopsy. Mitoxantrone cytotoxicity in the LN229 cell line was determined with and without the BCRP inhibitor fumitremorgin C (FTC) and after downregulation of BCRP with small interfering RNA (siRNA). FTC inhibition of BCRP increased mitoxantrone cytotoxicity with a ~7-fold reduction in the IC?? and this effect was further potentiated in the siRNA-treated cells. In conclusion, BCRP is expressed in the nuclear extracts of select GBM and astrocytoma cell lines and in a human GBM tumour biopsy. Its presence in the nucleus of cancer cells suggests new role for BCRP in MDR.
Project description:Abnormal circular RNA (circRNA) expression correlates with human traits such as many kinds of cancers. Though circRNAs have links to cancer, they have less characterization in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (PCa), which is main reason for PCa mortality. Therefore, high-throughput sequencing was used for selected circRNA profiles. The result showed that circ-TRPS1 was upregulated significantly in high-grade PCa tissues or cell lines. High circ-TRPS1 expression correlated to aggressive PCa phenotypes. Knockdown of circ-TRPS1 suppressed PCa proliferation and metastasis through targeting miR-124-3p/EZH2 axis-mediated stemness in PCa, which was validated by luciferase reporter assays. EZH2 overexpression or miR-124-3p inhibition reversed the inhibition of circ-TRPS1 silencing in PCa cell migration and proliferation by recovering stemness. In summary, data demonstrated that circ-TRPS1 suppressed PCa progression through functioning similar to a miR-124-3p sponge to enhance EZH2 expression and cancer stem-like cell differentiation. Thus, circ-TRPS1 might be a candidate target for PCa treatment.
Project description:Trichorhinophalangeal 1 (Trps1) is a transcription factor essential for epithelial cell morphogenesis during kidney development, but the role of Trps1 in AKI induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) remains unclear. Our study investigated Trps1 expression during kidney repair after acute I/R in rats and explored the molecular mechanisms by which Trps1 promotes renal tubular epithelial cell proliferation. Trps1 expression positively associated with the extent of renal repair after I/R injury. Compared with wild-type rats, rats with knockdown of Trps1 exhibited significantly delayed renal repair in the moderate I/R model, with lower GFR levels and more severe morphologic injury, whereas rats overexpressing Trps1 exhibited significantly accelerated renal repair after severe I/R injury. Additionally, knockdown of Trps1 inhibited and overexpression of Trps1 enhanced the proliferation of renal tubular epithelial cells in rats. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing assays and RT-PCR revealed that Trps1 regulated cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4D (Pde4d) expression. Knockdown of Trps1 decreased the renal protein expression of Pde4d and phosphorylated Akt in rats, and dual luciferase analysis showed that Trps1 directly activated Pde4d transcription. Furthermore, knockdown of Pde4d or treatment with the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase inhibitor wortmannin significantly inhibited Trps1-induced tubular cell proliferation in vitro Trps1 may promote tubular cell proliferation through the Pde4d/phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/AKT signaling pathway, suggesting Trps1 as a potential therapeutic target for kidney repair after I/R injury.
Project description:BACKGROUND:PI3K/AKT is a vital signaling pathway in humans. Recently, several PI3K/AKT inhibitors were reported to have the ability to reverse cancer multidrug resistance (MDR); however, specific targets in the PI3K/AKT pathways and the mechanisms associated with MDR have not been found because many of the inhibitors have multiple targets within a large candidate protein pool. AKT activation is one presumed mechanism by which MDR develops during cancer treatment. METHODS:The effects of inhibiting PI3K 110? and 110? by BAY-1082439 treatment and CRISPR/Cas9 knockout were examined to determine the possible functions of BAY-1082439 and the roles of PI3K 110? and 110? in the reversal of MDR that is mediated by the downregulation of P-gp and BCRP. Inhibition of AKT with GSK-2110183 showed that the downregulation of P-gp and BCRP is independent of generalized AKT inactivation. Immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, MTT, flow cytometry and JC-1 staining analyses were conducted to study the reversal of MDR that is mediated by P-gp and BCRP in cancer cells. An ATPase assay and a structural analysis were also used to analyze the potential mechanisms by which BAY-1082439 specifically targets PI3K 110? and 110? and nonspecifically influences P-gp and BCRP. RESULTS:By inhibiting the activation of the PI3K 110? and 110? catalytic subunits through both the administration of BAY-1082439 and the CRISPR/Cas9 deletion of Pik3ca and Pik3cb, the ATP-binding cassette transporters P-gp/ABCB1 and BCRP/ABCG2 were downregulated, thereby reestablishing the drug sensitivity of human epidermoid carcinoma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) MDR cells. Inhibition of AKT did not reverse the MDR mediated by P-gp or BCRP. The ABC family proteins and AKT may play MDR-enhancing roles independently. CONCLUSIONS:The reversal of the dual functions of ABC-transporter-mediated and AKT-activation-enhanced MDR through the inhibition or knockout of PI3K 110? or 110? promises to improve current strategies based on combined drug treatments to overcome MDR challenges.
Project description:ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, such as P-gp, BCRP and MRP1, can increase efflux of clinical chemotherapeutic agents and lead to multi-drug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. While the discovery and development of clinically useful inhibitors has proved elusive to date, this molecular target nevertheless remains a promising strategy for addressing and potentially overcoming MDR. In a search for new classes of inhibitor, we used fluorescent accumulation and efflux assays supported by cell flow cytometry and MDR reversal assays, against a panel of sensitive and MDR human cancer cell lines, to evaluate the marine sponge co-metabolites 1-12 as inhibitors of P-gp, BCRP or MRP1 initiated MDR. These studies identified and characterized lamellarin O (11) as a selective inhibitor of BCRP mediated drug efflux. A structure-activity relationship analysis inclusive of the natural products 1-12 and the synthetic analogues 13-19, supported by in silico docking studies, revealed key structural requirements for the lamellarin O (11) BCRP inhibitory pharmacophore.
Project description:TRPS1 (tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome) is a unique GATA-type transcription factor that acts as a transcriptional repressor. TRPS1 deficiency and dysregulated TRPS1 expression result in skeletal and dental abnormalities implicating TRPS1 in endochondral bone formation and tooth development. Moreover, patients with tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome frequently present with low bone mass indicating TRPS1 involvement in bone homeostasis. In addition, our previous data demonstrated accelerated mineralization of the perichondrium in Trps1 mutant mice and impaired dentin mineralization in Col1a1-Trps1 transgenic mice, implicating Trps1 in the mineralization process. To understand the role of Trps1 in the differentiation and function of cells producing mineralized matrix, we used a preodontoblastic cell line as a model of dentin mineralization. We generated both Trps1-deficient and Trps1-overexpressing stable cell lines and analyzed the progression of mineralization by alkaline phosphatase and alizarin red staining. As predicted, based on our previous in vivo data, delayed and decreased mineralization of Trps1-overexpressing odontoblastic cells was observed when compared with control cells. This was associated with down-regulation of genes regulating phosphate homeostasis. Interestingly, Trps1-deficient cells lost the ability to mineralize and demonstrated decreased expression of several genes critical for initiating the mineralization process, including Alpl and Phospho1. Based on these data, we have concluded that Trps1 serves two critical and context-dependent functions in odontoblast-regulated mineralization as follows: 1) Trps1 is required for odontoblast maturation by supporting expression of genes crucial for initiating the mineralization process, and 2) Trps1 represses the function of mature cells and, consequently, restricts the extent of extracellular matrix mineralization.
Project description:Human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)/MXR/ABCG2 is a well-recognized ABC half-transporter that is highly expressed at the apical membrane of many normal tissues and cancer cells. BCRP facilitates disposition of endogenous and exogenous harmful xenobiotics to protect cells/tissues from xenobiotic-induced toxicity. Despite the enormous impact of BCRP in the physiological and pathophysiological regulation of the transport of a wide variety of substrates, little is known about the factors that regulate posttranslational expression of BCRP. Here, we identified Derlin-1, a member of a family of proteins that bears homology to yeast Der1p, as a posttranslational regulator of BCRP expression. Overexpression of Derlin-1 suppressed ER to Golgi transport of wild-type (WT) BCRP that is known to be efficiently trafficked to the plasma membrane. On the other hand, protein expression of N596Q variant of BCRP, N-linked glycosylation-deficient mutant that preferentially undergoes ubiquitin-mediated ER-associated degradation (ERAD), was strongly suppressed by the overexpression of Derlin-1, whereas knockdown of Derlin-1 stabilized N596Q protein, suggesting a negative regulatory role of Derlin-1 for N596Q protein expression. Notably, knockdown of Derlin-1 also stabilized the expression of tunicamycin-induced deglycosylated WT BCRP protein, implying the importance of glycosylation state for the recognition of BCRP by Derlin-1. Thus, our data demonstrate that Derlin-1 is a negative regulator for both glycosylated and non-glycosylated BCRP expression and provide a novel posttranslational regulatory mechanism of BCRP by Derlin-1.