MiR?199a?3p suppresses cervical epithelial cell inflammation by inhibiting the HMGB1/TLR4/NF??B pathway in preterm birth.
ABSTRACT: Preterm birth (PTB) is the primary cause of neonatal mortality worldwide. Infection and inflammation are considered to be the primary causes of PTB. Cervical remodeling is an important step in the process of preterm delivery, and the destruction of the cervical epithelial barrier and inflammation are important triggers of cervical remodeling. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect and underlying mechanism of microRNA (miR)?199a?3p/high?mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) signaling in cervical epithelial inflammation in PTB. The results of this study revealed that miR?199a?3p was significantly decreased in cervical epithelial tissue samples from patients in both the preterm labor and preterm premature rupture of membrane groups. This decrease was also observed in tissue samples from a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)?induced PTB mouse model and in LPS?induced ectocervical and endocervical cells. Whereas, the expression of HMGB1 and toll?like receptor 4 (TLR4) was significantly increased, which was associated with the upregulation of interleukin (IL)?1? and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)?? expression. Furthermore, overexpression of miR?199a?3p significantly suppressed the expression and activation of HMGB1 and TLR4/NF??B signaling, and decreased the levels of IL?1? and TNF?? in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, overexpression of HMGB1 and/or TLR4 reversed the anti?inflammatory effects of miR?199a?3p mimics in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that miR?199a?3p acts as a negative inflammatory regulator in PTB by targeting HMGB1 to regulate the TLR4/NF??B pathway.
Project description:Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of infant death and disability worldwide. The onset of preterm uterine contractions is preceded by asymptomatic cervical remodelling and ripening, which can be seen on trans-vaginal ultrasound as cervical shortening. This study aimed to identify plasma miRNA biomarkers that predict preterm birth and/or cervical shortening. We collected serial plasma samples from pregnant women prospectively from 12 to 22 weeks gestation. The nCounter miRNA assay was used to identify differentially expressed miRNAs associated with spontaneous PTB and/or cervical shortening (n = 16 term no short, n = 13 preterm, n = 24 short). Predictive values of the miRNA biomarkers were confirmed in an independent validation cohort consisting of 96 women who delivered at term, 14 preterm and 21 early cervical shortening at <20 weeks gestation. Nine miRNAs (hsa-let-7a-5p, hsa-miR-374a-5p, hsa-miR-15b-5p, hsa-miR-19b-3p, hsa-miR-23a-3p, hsa-miR-93-5p, hsa-miR-150-5p, hsa-miR-185-5p and hsa-miR-191-5p) were differentially expressed (P < 0.001) in women subsequently experiencing PTB or cervical shortening. Hsa-miR-150-5p had the strongest ability to predict PTB (AUC = 0.8725) and cervical shortening (AUC = 0.8514). Plasma miRNAs in the first trimester can predict PTB and cervical shortening in women at risk of preterm delivery. This is a key period in pregnancy when early identification of PTB risk allows time to deliver outcome-modifying interventions.
Project description:The role of p53 in renal fibrosis has recently been suggested, however, its function remains controversial and the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we show that pharmacological and genetic blockade of p53 attenuated renal interstitial fibrosis, apoptosis, and inflammation in mice with unilateral urethral obstruction (UUO). Interestingly, p53 blockade was associated with the suppression of miR-215-5p, miR-199a-5p&3p, and STAT3. In cultured human kidney tubular epithelial cells (HK-2), TGF-?1 treatment induced fibrotic changes, including collagen I and vimentin expression, being associated with p53 accumulation, p53 Ser15 phosphorylation, and miR-199a-3p expression. Inhibition of p53 by pifithrin-? blocked STAT3 activation and the expression of miR-199a-3p, collagen I, and vimentin during TGF-?1 treatment. Over-expression of miR-199a-3p increased TGF?1-induced collagen I and vimentin expression and restored SOCS7 expression. Furthermore, SOCS7 was identified as a target gene of miR-199a-3p, and silencing of SOCS7 promoted STAT3 activation. ChIp analyses indicated the binding of p53 to the promoter region of miR-199a-3p. Consistently, kidney biopsies from patients with IgA nephropathy and diabetic nephropathy exhibited substantial activation of p53 and STAT3, decreased expression of SOCS7, and increase in profibrotic proteins and miR-199a-3p. Together, these results demonstrate the novel p53/miR-199a-3p/SOCS7/STAT3 pathway in renal interstitial fibrosis.
Project description:Molecular mechanisms regulating preterm birth (PTB)-associated cervical remodeling remain unclear. Prior work demonstrated an altered miRNA profile, with significant increases in miR-143 and miR-145, in cervical cells of women destined to have a PTB. The study objective was to determine the effect of miR-143 and miR-145 on the cervical epithelial barrier and to elucidate the mechanisms by which these miRNAs modify cervical epithelial cell function. Ectocervical and endocervical cells transfected with miR-negative control, miR-143 or miR-145 were used in cell permeability and flow cytometry assays for apoptosis and proliferation. miR-143 and miR-145 target genes associated with cell adhesion, apoptosis and proliferation were measured. Epithelial cell permeability was increased in miR-143 and miR-145 transfected cervical epithelial cells. Cell adhesion genes, JAM-A and FSCN1, were downregulated with overexpression of miR-143 and miR-145. miR-143 and miR-145 transfection decreased cervical cell number by increasing apoptosis and decreasing cell proliferation through initiation of cell cycle arrest. Apoptosis genes, BCL2 and BIRC5, and proliferation genes, CDK1 and CCND2, were repressed by miR-143 and miR-145. These findings suggest that miR-143 and miR-145 play a significant role in cervical epithelial barrier breakdown through diverse mechanisms and could contribute to premature cervical remodeling associated with PTB.
Project description:Progesterone (P(4)) and estradiol-17? (E(2)) play critical and opposing roles in regulating myometrial quiescence and contractility during pregnancy and labor. Although these contrasting hormonal effects are likely mediated via differential regulation of inflammatory and contractile genes, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Recently we discovered that targets of the microRNA (miR)-200 family, transcription factors zinc finger E-box binding homeobox (ZEB)-1 and ZEB2, serve as P(4)/progesterone receptor-mediated regulators of uterine quiescence during pregnancy. In the present study, we found that levels of the clustered miRNAs, miR-199a-3p and miR-214, were significantly decreased in laboring myometrium of pregnant mice and humans and in an inflammatory mouse model of preterm labor, whereas the miR-199a-3p/miR-214 target, cyclooxygenase-2, a critical enzyme in synthesis of proinflammatory prostaglandins, was coordinately increased. Overexpression of miR-199a-3p and miR-214 in cultured human myometrial cells inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 protein and blocked TNF-?-induced myometrial cell contractility, suggesting their physiological relevance. Notably, E(2) treatment of ovariectomized mice suppressed, whereas P(4) enhanced uterine miR-199a-3p/214 expression. Intriguingly, these opposing hormonal effects were mediated by ZEB1, which is induced by P(4), inhibited by E(2) and activates miR199a/214 transcription. Together, these findings identify miR-199a-3p/miR-214 as important regulators of myometrial contractility and provide new insight into strategies to prevent preterm birth.
Project description:Hepatic apoptosis and the initiated liver inflammation play the initial roles in inflammation-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of hepatocyte apoptosis and their roles in hepatocarcinogenesis have attracted much attention. A set of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been determined to be dysregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and participated in cancer progression, however, the roles of these dysregulated miRNAs in carcinogenesis are still poorly understood. We previously analyzed the dysregulated miRNAs in HCC using high-throughput sequencing, and found that miR-199a/b-3p was abundantly expressed in human normal liver while markedly decreased in HCC, which promotes HCC progression. Whether miR-199a/b-3p participates in HCC carcinogenesis is still unknown up to now. Hence, we focused on the role and mechanism of miR-199a/b-3p in hepatocarcinogenesis in this study. Hepatic miR-199a/b-3p was determined to be expressed by miR-199a-2 gene in mice, and we constructed miR-199a-2 knockout and hepatocyte-specific miR-199a-2 knockout mice. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis were markedly increased by hepatocyte-specific miR-199a-3p knockout, which is mediated by the enhanced hepatocyte apoptosis and hepatic injury by DEN administration. In acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute hepatic injury model, hepatocyte-specific miR-199a-3p knockout also aggravated hepatic apoptosis. By proteomic screening and reporter gene validation, we identified and verified that hepatic programed cell death 4 (PDCD4), which promotes apoptosis, was directly targeted by miR-199a-3p. Furthermore, we confirmed that miR-199a-3p-suppressed hepatocyte apoptosis and hepatic injury by targeting and suppressing PDCD4. Thus, hepatic miR-199a-3p inhibits hepatocyte apoptosis and hepatocarcinogenesis, and decreased miR-199a-3p in hepatocytes may aggravate hepatic injury and HCC development.
Project description:Fibrosis reflects a progression to liver cancer or cirrhosis of the liver. Recent studies have shown that high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) plays a major role in hepatic injury and fibrosis. Carnosic acid (CA), a compound extracted from rosemary, has been reported to alleviate alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver injury. CA can also alleviate renal fibrosis. We hypothesized that CA might exert anti-liver fibrosis properties through an HMGB1-related pathway, and the results of the present study showed that CA treatment significantly protected against hepatic fibrosis in a bile duct ligation (BDL) rat model. CA reduced the liver expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and collagen 1 (Col-1). Importantly, we found that CA ameliorated the increase in HMGB1 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) caused by BDL, and inhibited NF-?B p65 nuclear translocation in fibrotic livers. In vitro, CA inhibited LX2 cell activation by inhibiting HMGB1/TLR4 signaling pathway. Furthermore, miR-29b-3p decreased HMGB1 expression, and a dual-luciferase assay validated these results. Moreover, CA down-regulated HMGB1 and inhibited LX2 cell activation, and these effects were significantly counteracted by antago-miR-29b-3p, indicating that the CA-mediated inhibition of HMGB1 expression might be miR-29b-3p dependent. Collectively, the results demonstrate that a miR-29b-3p/HMGB1/TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway, which can be modulated by CA, is important in liver fibrosis, and indicate that CA might be a prospective therapeutic drug for liver fibrosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Recently, it has been reported that miRNA is involved in pterygium, however the exact underlying mechanism in pterygium is unrevealed and require further investigation. METHODS:The differential expression of miRNA in pterygium was profiled using microarray and validated with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Human conjunctival epithelial cells (HCEs) were cultured and treated with transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transfected with miR-199a-3p/5p mimic and inhibitor. Markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HCEs were detected using western blot and immunohistochemistry. Cell migration ability was determined using wound healing and transwell assay, while apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. The target genes of miR-199a were confirmed by the dual-luciferase reporter assay. RESULTS:TGF-? and EGF could induced EMT in HCEs and increase miR-199a-3p/5p but suppress target genes, DUSP5 and MAP3K11. With the occurrence of EMT, cell migration ability was enhanced, and apoptosis was impeded. Promoting miR-199a-3p/5p expression could induce EMT in HCEs without TGF-? and EGF, while suppressing miR-199a-3p/5p could inhibit EMT in TGF-? and EGF induced HCEs. In a word, TGF-? and EGF induced EMT could be regulated with miR-199a-3p/5p-DUSP5/MAP3K11 axes. The validated results in tissues showed that, compared with control conjunctival tissues, miR-199a-3p/5p were more overexpressed in pterygium, while DUSP5/MAP3K11 were lower expressed. In addition, bioinformatics analysis indicated the miR-199a-3p/5p-DUSP5/MAP3K11 was belong to MAPK signalling pathway. CONCLUSIONS:TGF-? and EGF induce EMT of HCEs through miR-199a-3p/5p-DUSP5/MAP3K11 axes, which explains the pathogenesis of EMT in pterygium and may provide new targets for pterygium prevention and therapy.
Project description:Emerging evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) play fundamental roles in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases, including acute lung injury (ALI). Here, we discovered that miR-199a-3p was significantly downregulated in ALI lung tissues using a microarray analysis. In vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of the human epithelial cell line A549 and the human macrophage cell line U937 caused a decrease of miR-199a-3p. Mechanically, miR-199a-3p specifically bound to the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of NLRP1 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain-containing protein 1), a critical member of inflammasomes. Ectopic overexpression or downregulation of miR-199a-3p resulted in the repression or induction of NLRP1, respectively, thereby downregulating or activating its downstream events. Moreover, transcription factor FOXP3 (forkhead box P3) was able to specifically bind to the promoter of miR-199a-3p. Knockdown or overexpression of FOXP3 resulted in a decrease or induction miR-199a-3p expression, respectively. Using immunoprecipitation (IP), mass spectrometry and co-IP assays, we found that FOXP3 formed a transcriptional complex with HDAC1 (histone deacetylase 1) and CtBP2 (C-terminal-binding protein 2). Collectively, our results suggested that the CtBP2-HDAC1-FOXP3 transcriptional complex (CHFTC) could specifically bind to the promoter of miR-199a-3p and repress its expression. Downregulation of miR-199a-3p eliminated its inhibition of NLRP1, causing activation of NLRP1 and cleavage of pro-IL-1? and pro-IL-18 mediated by Caspase-1. The secretion of IL-1? and IL-18 further aggravated the inflammatory response and resulted in the occurrence of ALI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) has been proven effective against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, knowledge on the underlying signaling events remain poor. Having recent highlight of microRNAs (miRNAs) in mediating intestinal I/R injury, we hypothesized that HRS may protect intestine against I/R injury by regulating miRNAs. METHOD:Mice were given intraperitoneal injection of saline or HRS once daily for five consecutive days before undergoing intestinal I/R that was induced by 60-min ischemia followed by 180-min reperfusion of superior mesenteric artery. The intestine was collected for histopathological assay, miRNA microarray profiling, Real-Time PCR, and Western blotting. Next, miR-199a-3p mimics or inhibitors were transfected into IEC-6 cells to explore the relationship between HRS treatment and miR-199a-3p. RESULTS:I/R-induced mucosal injury and epithelial cells apoptosis were attenuated by HRS pretreatment. A total of 64 intestinal I/R-responsive miRNAs were altered significantly by HRS pretreatment, in which we validated four novel miRNAs with top significance by Real-Time PCR, namely miR-199a-3p, miR-296-5p, miR-5126, and miR-6538. Particularly, miR-199a-3p was drastically increased by I/R but reduced by HRS. Computational analysis predicts insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) regulatory subunit 1 as targets of miR-199a-3p, suggesting involvement of the pro-survival pathway, IGF- 1/PI3K/Akt/mTOR. In in vitro experiment, HRS treatment reduced miR-199a-3p level, increase IGF-1, PI3K and mTOR mRNA expression, restore IEC-6 cells viability, and this protective effects were reversed under miR-199a-3p mimics treatment. CONCLUSION:Collectively, miR-199a-3p may serve a key role in the anti-apoptotic mechanism of HRS that contributes to its protection of the intestine against I/R injury.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intrarenal calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals induce inflammation and kidney tubular cell injury, which are processes that involve TLR4/NF-?B signalling. A recent genome-wide gene expression profile analysis of Randall's plaques in CaOx stone patients revealed that the expression of the long noncoding RNA H19 was significantly upregulated. However, to date, its role in kidney CaOx stones has not been reported. METHOD:A Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) dataset was utilized to analyse gene expression profiles. Luciferase reporter, Western blotting, qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays were employed to study the molecular mechanism of HMGB1/TLR4/NF-?B regulation by H19 and miR-216b. In vitro and in vivo assays were performed to further confirm the proinflammatory and prooxidative stress effects. FINDING:H19 expression was significantly increased and positively correlated with the expression levels of HMGB1, TLR4 and NF-?B in Randall's plaques and glyoxylate-induced CaOx nephrocalcinosis mouse models. H19 interacted with miR-216b and suppressed its expression. Additionally, miR-216b inhibited HMGB1 expression by directly binding its 3'-untranslated region. Moreover, H19 downregulation inhibited HMGB1, TLR4 and NF-?B expression and suppressed CaOx nephrocalcinosis-induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury, NADPH oxidase, and oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, miR-216b inhibition partially reversed the inhibitory effect of H19 knockdown on HMGB1 expression. INTERPRETATION:We determined that H19 might serve as a facilitator in the process of CaOx nephrocalcinosis-induced oxidative stress and renal tubular epithelial cell injury, and we revealed that the interaction between H19 and miR-216b could exert its effect via the HMGB1/TLR4/NF-?B pathway. FUNDING:This work was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Nos. 8196030190, 8190033175, 81370805, 81470935, 81900645, 81500534, and 81602236).