Dual RNA-seq provides novel insight into the roles of dksA from Pseudomonas plecoglossicida in pathogen-host interactions with large yellow croakers ( Larimichthys crocea).
ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas plecoglossicida is a rod-shaped, gram-negative bacterium with flagella. It causes visceral white spot disease and high mortality in Larimichthys crocea during culture, resulting in serious economic loss. Analysis of transcriptome and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) data showed that dksA gene expression was significantly up-regulated after 48 h of infection with Epinephelus coioides (log 2FC=3.12, P<0.001). RNAi of five shRNAs significantly reduced the expression of dksA in P. plecoglossicida, and the optimal silencing efficiency was 96.23%. Compared with wild-type strains, the symptoms of visceral white spot disease in L. crocea infected with RNAi strains were reduced, with time of death delayed by 48 h and mortality reduced by 25%. The dksA silencing led to a substantial down-regulation in cellular component-, flagellum-, and ribosome assembly-related genes in P. plecoglossicida, and the significant up-regulation of fliC may be a way in which virulence is maintained in P. plecoglossicida. The GO and KEGG results showed that RNAi strain infection in L. crocea led to the down-regulation of inflammatory factor genes in immune-related pathways, which were associated with multiple immune response processes. Results also showed that dksA was a virulence gene in P. plecoglossicida. Compared with the wild-type strains, RNAi strain infection induced a weaker immune response in L. crocea.
Project description:In the present study, Larimichthys crocea and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida were selected as a host-pathogen interaction model for teleosts and prokaryotic pathogens. Five shRNAs were designed and synthesized to silence the fliA gene, all of which resulted in pronounced reductions in fliA mRNA; the mutant strain with the best silencing efficiency of 92.16% was chosen for subsequent analysis. A significant decrease in motility, intracellular survival and escape was observed for the fliA-RNAi strain of P. plecoglossicida, whereby silencing of the fliA gene led to a 30% decrease in mortality and a four-day delay in the onset of infection in L. crocea. Moreover, silencing of P. plecoglossicida fliA resulted in a significant change in both the pathogen and host transcriptome in the spleens of infected L. crocea. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis of pathogen transcriptome data showed that silencing fliA resulted in downregulation of 18 flagellum-related genes; KEGG analysis of host transcriptome data revealed that infection with the fliA-RNAi strain caused upregulation of 47 and downregulation of 106 immune-related genes. These pathogen-host interactions might facilitate clearance of P. plecoglossicida by L. crocea, with a significant decrease in fliA-RNAi P. plecoglossicida strain virulence in L. crocea.
Project description:Pseudomonas plecoglossicida is a Gram-negative fish pathogen responsible for visceral granular disease in large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a verified virulent strain, XSDHY-P, that was isolated from spleen tissue of a diseased large yellow croaker.
Project description:Host-pathogen interactions are highly complex, involving large dynamic changes in gene expression during infection. These interactions are fundamental to understanding anti-infection immunity of hosts, as well as the pathogenesis of pathogens. For bacterial pathogens interacting with animal hosts, time-resolved dual RNA-seq of infected tissue is difficult to perform due to low pathogen load in infected tissue. In this study, an acute infection model of Larimichthys crocea infected by Pseudomonas plecoglossicida was established. The spleens of infected fish exhibited typical symptoms, with a maximum bacterial load at two days post-injection (dpi). Time-resolved dual RNA-seq of infected spleens was successfully applied to study host-pathogen interactions between L. crocea and P. plecoglossicida. The spleens of infected L. crocea were subjected to dual RNA-seq, and transcriptome data were compared with those of noninfected spleens or in vitro cultured bacteria. Results showed that pathogen-host interactions were highly dynamically regulated, with corresponding fluctuations in host and pathogen transcriptomes during infection. The expression levels of many immunogenes involved in cytokine-cytokine receptor, Toll-like receptor signaling, and other immune-related pathways were significantly up-regulated during the infection period. Furthermore, metabolic processes and the use of oxygen in L. crocea were strongly affected by P. plecoglossicida infection. The WGCNA results showed that the metabolic process was strongly related to the entire immune process. For P. plecoglossicida, the expression levels of motility-related genes and flagellum assembly-related genes were significantly up-regulated. The results of this study may help to elucidate the interactions between L. crocea and P. plecoglossicida.
Project description:Pseudomonas plecoglossicida is a temperature-dependent opportunistic pathogen which is associated with a variety of diseases in fish. During the development of "white nodules" disease, the expression of htpG in P. plecoglossicida was found to be significantly up-regulated at its virulent temperature of 18°C. The infection of htpG-RNAi strain resulted in the onset time delay, reduction in mortality and infection symptoms in spleen of Epinephelus coioides, and affected the bacterial tissue colonization. In order to reveal the effect of htpG silencing of P. plecoglossicida on the virulence regulation in P. plecoglossicida and immune response in E. coioides, dual RNA-seq was performed and a pathogen-host integration network was constructed. Our results showed that infection induced the expression of host genes related to immune response, but attenuated the expression of bacterial virulence genes. Novel integration was found between host immune genes and bacterial virulence genes, while IL6, IL1R2, IL1B, and TLR5 played key roles in the network. Further analysis with GeneMANIA indicated that flgD and rplF might play key roles during the htpG-dependent virulence regulation, which was in accordance with the reduced biofilm production, motility and virulence in htpG-RNAi strain. Meanwhile, IL6 and IL1B were found to play key roles during the defense against P. plecoglossicida, while CELA2, TRY, CPA1, CPA2, and CPB1 were important targets for P. plecoglossicida attacking to the host.
Project description:Pseudomonas plecoglossicida is an important pathogen for aquaculture and causes high mortality in various marine fishes. Expression of sigX was found significantly up-regulated at 18°C than at 28°C, which was verified by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). RNAi significantly reduced the content of sigX mRNA of P. plecoglossicida, whether in in vitro or in the spleen at all sampling time points. Compared with the wild-type strain, the infection of sigX-RNAi strain resulted in the onset time delay, and 20% reduction in mortality of Epinephelus coioides, as well as alleviates in the symptoms of E. coioides spleen. Compared with wild-type strain, the gene silence of sigX in P. plecoglossicida resulted in a significant change in transcriptome of infected E. coioides. The result of gene ontology and KEGG analysis on E. coioides showed that genes of serine-type endopeptidase and chemokine signaling pathway, coagulation and complement system, and intestinal immune network for IgA production pathway were mostly affected by sigX of P. plecoglossicida. Meanwhile, the immune genes were associated with different number of miRNA and lncRNA, and some miRNAs were associated with more than one gene at the same time. The results indicated that sigX was a virulent gene of P. plecoglossicida. The up-regulation of the immune pathways made E. coioides more likely to kill sigX-RNAi strain than the wild-type strain of P. plecoglossicida, while the immune genes were regulated by miRNA and lncRNA by a complex mode.
Project description:Pseudomonas plecoglossicida is a facultative pathogen that is associated with diseases of multiple fish, mainly at 15-20°C. Although fish disease caused by P. plecoglossicida has led to significant economic losses, the mechanisms of the temperature-dependent virulence are unclear. Here, we identify potential pathogenicity mechanisms and demonstrate the direct regulation of several virulence factors by temperature with transcriptomic and proteomic analyses, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), RNAi, pyoverdine (PVD) quantification, the chrome azurol S (CAS) assay, growth curve measurements, a biofilm assay, and artificial infection. The principal component analysis, the heat map generation and hierarchical clustering, together with the functional annotations of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) demonstrated that, under different growth temperatures, the animation and focus of P. plecoglossicida are quite different, which may be the key to pathogenicity. Genes involved in PVD synthesis and in the type VI secretion system (T6SS) are specifically upregulated at the virulent temperature of 18°C. Silencing of the PVD-synthesis-related genes reduces the iron acquisition, growth, biofilm formation, distribution in host organs and virulence of the bacteria. Silencing of the T6SS genes also leads to the reduction of biofilm formation, distribution in host organs and virulence. These findings reveal that temperature regulates multiple virulence mechanisms in P. plecoglossicida, especially through iron acquisition and T6SS secretion. Meanwhile, integration of transcriptomic and proteomic data provide us with a new perspective into the pathogenesis of P. plecoglossicida, which would not have been easy to catch at either the protein or mRNA differential analyses alone, thus illustrating the power of multi-omics analyses in microbiology.
Project description:The bacterial stringent response is a response to nutrition deprivation and other stress conditions. In Gram-negative bacteria, this process is mediated by the small signal molecules guanosine pentaphosphate pppGpp and guanosine tetraphosphate ppGpp (collectively referred to as (p)ppGpp), and the RNA polymerase-binding transcription factor DksA. The (p)ppGpp synthetase RelA and the bifunctional (p)ppGpp synthase/hydrolase SpoT are responsible for cellular (p)ppGpp levels. Here, we investigated the roles of DksA and (p)ppGpp in the virulence traits of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), the causal agent of citrus canker. ?dksA and (p)ppGpp-deficient ?spoT?relA strains caused reduced virulence and compromised growth in host plants, indicating that DksA and (p)ppGpp are required for full virulence of Xcc. To characterize the effect of stringent response regulators on gene expression, RNA-seq was conducted using ?dksA and ?spoT?relA mutant strains grown in hrp-inducing XVM2 medium. Transcriptome analyses showed that DksA and (p)ppGpp repressed the expression of genes encoding tRNAs, ribosome proteins, iron acquisition and flagellum assembly, and enhanced the expression of genes for histidine metabolism, type 3 secretion system (T3SS), type 2 secretion system (T2SS) and TonB-dependent transporters. Phenotypically, the ?dksA and ?spoT?relA strains displayed altered motility, enhanced siderophore production and were unable to cause the hypersensitive response on non-host plants. In conclusion, stringent response regulators DksA and (p)ppGpp play an important role in virulence, nutrition uptake and host adaptation of Xcc.
Project description:2-Ketogluconate (2KGA) is an organic acid that is important for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and environmental applications. Pseudomonas plecoglossicida JUIM01 strain is an important industrial 2KGA producer in China. In this paper, we found that P. plecoglossicida JUIM01 could convert glucose to 2KGA extracellularly, and the formed 2KGA was subsequently consumed after glucose was exhausted during the fermentation process. Experiments of glucose and 2KGA supplementation during fermentation process revealed that, only when glucose was exhausted, the strain started to consume the product 2KGA. Then, the mechanism of this phenomenon was investigated at transcription and protein levels, and the results indicated that P. plecoglossicida JUIM01 possesses carbon catabolite repression of 2KGA metabolism by glucose. Next, increasing the supply of glucose could attenuate 2KGA consumption and enhance the 2KGA yield from glucose. Finally, fed-batch fermentation of P. plecoglossicida JUIM01 resulted in 205.67 g/L of 2KGA with a productivity of 6.86 g/L/h and yield of 0.953 g/g glucose. These results can provide references for the industrial fermentation production of 2KGA and other fermentation products.
Project description:Pseudomonas plecoglossicida is a lethal pathogen of ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) in Japan and is responsible for substantial economic costs to ayu culture. Previously, we demonstrated the efficacy of phage therapy against P. plecoglossicida infection using two lytic phages (PPpW-3 and PPpW-4) (S. C. Park, I. Shimamura, M. Fukunaga, K. Mori, and T. Nakai, Appl Environ Microbiol 66:1416-1422, 2000, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.66.4.1416-1422.2000; S. C. Park and T. Nakai, Dis Aquat Org 53:33-39, 2003, http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao053033). In the present study, the complete genome sequences of these therapeutic P. plecoglossicida phages were determined and analyzed for deleterious factors as therapeutic agents. The genome of PPpW-3 (myovirus) consisted of 43,564 bp with a GC content of 61.1% and 66 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Approximately half of the genes were similar to the genes of the Escherichia coli phage vB_EcoM_ECO1230-10 (myovirus). The genome of PPpW-4 (podovirus) consisted of 41,386 bp with a GC content of 56.8% and 50 predicted ORFs. More than 70% of the genes were similar to the genes of Pseudomonas fluorescens phage ?IBB-PF7A and Pseudomonas putida phage ?15 (podoviruses). The whole-genome analysis revealed that no known virulence genes were present in PPpW-3 and PPpW-4. An integrase gene was found in PPpW-3, but other factors used for lysogeny were not confirmed. The PCR detection of phage genes in phage-resistant variants provided no evidence of lysogenic activity in PPpW-3 and PPpW-4. We conclude that these two lytic phages qualify as therapeutic agents.
Project description:Pseudomonas plecoglossicida TND35 is a potent nicotine-degrading bacterium. The draft genome sequence of strain TND35 contains 6,209,227 bp, 5,511 coding genes, and a G+C content of 62.3%. It encompasses genes related to catabolism of nicotine, N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds, heavy metal degradation, and butanol biosynthesis.