Electroacupuncture intervention of visceral hypersensitivity is involved in PAR-2-activation and CGRP-release in the spinal cord.
ABSTRACT: Electroacupuncture (EA) relieves visceral hypersensitivity (VH) with underlying inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the mechanism by which EA treats ileitis-induced VH is not clearly known. To assess the effects of EA on ileitis-induced VH and confirm whether EA attenuates VH through spinal PAR-2 activation and CGRP release, goats received an injection of 2,4,6-trinitro-benzenesulfonic-acid (TNBS) solution into the ileal wall. TNBS-injected goats were allocated into VH, Sham acupuncture (Sham-A) and EA groups, while goats treated with saline instead of TNBS solution were used as the control. Goats in EA group received EA at bilateral Hou-San-Li acupoints for 0.5 h at 7 days and thereafter repeated every 3 days for 6 times. Goats in the Sham-A group were inserted with needles for 0.5 h at the aforementioned acupoints without any hand manipulation and electric stimulation. Visceromotor responses to colorectal distension, an indicator of VH, were recorded by electromyography. The terminal ileum and thoracic spinal cord (T11) were sampled for evaluating ileitis at days 7 and 22, and distribution and expression-levels of PAR-2, CGRP and c-Fos on day 22. TNBS-treated-goats exhibited apparent transmural-ileitis on day 7, microscopically low-grade ileitis on day 22 and VH at days 7-22. Goats of Sham-A, VH or EA group showed higher (P?
Project description:Electroacupuncture (EA) has been used for treating visceral hypersensitivity (VH). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. This study was aim to testify the effect of EA on ileitis-provoked VH, and to confirm whether EA attenuates VH through Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in the periaqueductal gray (PAG)-the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM)-the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) axis. Methods: Goats were anesthetized and laparotomized for injecting 2,4,6-trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS)-ethanol solution (30mg TNBS dissolved in 40% ethanol) into the ileal wall to induce VH. EA was treated for 30min from day 7, then every 3 days for six times. VH was assessed by visceromotor response (VMR) and pain behavior response to 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mmHg colorectal distension pressures at day 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, and 22. The spinal cord in the eleventh thoracic vertebra and the brain were collected at day 22. The protein and mRNA levels of IL-6, JAK2, and STAT3 in the SCDH were detected with western blot and qPCR, respectively. The distribution of these substances was observed with immunohistochemistry in the ventrolateral PAG (vlPAG), RVM (mainly the nucleus raphe magnus, NRM), SCDH, the nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS) and the dorsal motor nucleus of vagi (DMV). Results: Goats administered with TNBS-ethanol solution showed diarrhea, enhanced VMR and pain behavior response, and increased IL-6, phosphorylated JAK2 and STAT3 (pJAK2 and pSTAT3) in the vlPAG, NRM, NTS and DMV, and their protein and mRNA levels in the SCDH. EA relieved diarrhea, VMR and pain behavior response, decreased IL-6, pJAK2 and pSTAT3 levels in the vlPAG, NRM, SCDH, NTS, and DMV except for pSTAT3 in the DMV, but did not affect mRNA level of these three substances in the SCDH. Conclusion: EA attenuates VH probably through inhibiting JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in the PAG-RVM-SCDH axis.
Project description:Background:The role of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on visceral hypersensitivity (VH) in postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) has yet to be elucidated. Aim:In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the analgesic effect of EA in a rat model of PI-IBS. Methods:Visceral hypersensitivity was evaluated by the abdominal withdrawal reflex test before and after administration of the PAR2 agonist, PAR2-AP, and/or EA. The protein expression and mRNA levels of PAR2, CGRP, SP, and TPSP in colon tissues were measured by immunofluorescence, western blot, and RT-PCR. Results:We found that EA could alleviate VH and significantly decrease protein and mRNA levels of PAR2, TPSP, CGRP, and SP in PI-IBS rats. The analgesic effect of EA on VH was slightly reduced in the presence of PAR2-AP. Conclusions:These results suggest that EA alleviates VH symptoms through downregulation of the levels of the TPSP/PAR2/SP/CGRP signaling axis in colon tissues in PI-IBS rats. Together, our data suggests that PAR2 plays a critical role in the analgesic effect of EA on VH in PI-IBS.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the potential tools for treatment of the spinal cord injury; however, the survival and differentiation of MSCs in an injured spinal cord still need to be improved. In the present study, we investigated whether Governor Vessel electro-acupuncture (EA) could efficiently promote bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) survival and differentiation, axonal regeneration and finally, functional recovery in the transected spinal cord.<h4>Results</h4>The spinal cords of adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were completely transected at T10, five experimental groups were performed: 1. sham operated control (Sham-control); 2. operated control (Op-control); 3. electro-acupuncture treatment (EA); 4. MSCs transplantation (MSCs); and 5. MSCs transplantation combined with electro-acupuncture (MSCs+EA). After 2-8 weeks of MSCs transplantation plus EA treatment, we found that the neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), cAMP level, the differentiation of MSCs, the 5-HT positive and CGRP positive nerve fibers in the lesion site and nearby tissue of injured spinal cord were significantly increased in the MSCs+EA group as compared to the group of the MSCs transplantation or the EA treated alone. Furthermore, behavioral test and spinal cord evoked potentials detection demonstrated a significantly functional recovery in the MSCs +EA group.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These results suggest that EA treatment may promote grafted MSCs survival and differentiation; MSCs transplantation combined with EA treatment could promote axonal regeneration and partial locomotor functional recovery in the transected spinal cord in rats and indicate a promising avenue of treatment of spinal cord injury.
Project description:Clinical data provide evidence of high level of co-morbidity among genitourinary and gastrointestinal disorders characterized by chronic pelvic pain. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that colonic inflammation can impact the function of the urinary bladder via activation of TRPV1 signaling pathways followed by alterations in gene and protein expression of substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in sensory neurons and in the bladder. Inflammation was induced by intracolonic instillation of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS, 12.5mg/kg), and desensitization of TRPV1 receptors was evoked by intracolonic resiniferatoxin (RTX, 10(-)(7)M). mRNA and protein concentrations of CGRP and SP were measured at 3, 5 and 30 days. RTX instillation in the colon caused 3-fold up-regulation of SP mRNA in the urinary bladder at day 5 (n=7, p ? 0.05) followed by 35-fold increase at day 30 (n=5, p ? 0.05). Likewise, TNBS colitis triggered 15.8-fold up-regulation of SP mRNA 1 month after TNBS (n=5, p ? 0.05). Desensitization of colonic TRPV1 receptors prior to TNBS abolished SP increase in the urinary bladder. RTX led to 4.3-fold increase of CGRP mRNA at day 5 (n=7, p ? 0.05 to control) in the bladder followed by 28-fold increase at day 30 post-RTX (n=4, p ? 0.05). Colitis did not alter CGRP concentration during acute phase; however, at day 30 mRNA level was increased by 17.8 ± 6.9-fold (n=5, p ? 0.05) in parallel with 4-fold increase in CGRP protein (n=5, p ? 0.01) in the detrusor. Protein concentration of CGRP in the spinal cord was diminished by 45-65% (p ? 0.05) during colitis. RTX pretreatment did not affect CGRP concentration in the urinary bladder; however, it caused a reduction in CGRP release from lumbosacral DRG neurons during acute phase (3 and 5 days post-TNBS). Our results clearly demonstrate that colonic inflammation triggers the release of pro-inflammatory neuropeptides SP and CGRP in the urinary bladder via activation of TRPV1 signaling mechanisms enunciating the neurogenic nature of pelvic organ cross-sensitization.
Project description:Early activation of transcription factors is one of the epigenetic mechanisms contributing to the induction and maintenance of chronic pain states. Previous studies identified the changes in a number of nociception-related genes, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) in the pelvic organs after transient colonic inflammation. The gene and protein expression of these neuropeptides could be modulated by transcription factors Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (Mecp2) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). In this study, we aimed to evaluate time-dependent changes in the expression levels of Mecp2 and CREB in the lumbosacral (LS) spinal cord and sensory ganglia after inflammation-induced pelvic pain in rat. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) to induce transient colonic inflammation. LS (L6-S2) spinal cord segments and respective dorsal root ganglias (DRGs) were isolated from control and experimental animals at 1, 2, 6, 24 h and 3 days post-TNBS treatment. Immunohistochemical (IHC) labeling and Western blotting experiments were performed to assess the expression of Mecp2, CREB and their phosphorylated forms. Total Mecp2 expression, but not phosphorylated p-Mecp2 (pS421Mecp2) expression was detected in the cells of the spinal dorsal horn under control conditions. Colonic inflammation triggered a significant decrease in the number of Mecp2-expressing neurons in parallel with elevated numbers of pS421Mecp2-expressing cells at 2 h and 6 h post-TNBS. The majority of Mecp2-positive cells (80 ± 6%) co-expressed CREB. TNBS treatment caused a transient up-regulation of CREB-expressing cells at 1 h post-TNBS only. The number of cells expressing phosphorylated CREB (pS133CREB) did not change at 1 h and 2 h post-TNBS, but was down-regulated by three folds at 6 h post-TNBS. Analysis of DRG sections revealed that the number of Mecp2-positive neurons was up-regulated by TNBS treatment, reaching three-fold increase at 2 h post-TNBS, and eight-fold increase at 6 h post-TNBS (p ? 0.05 to control). These data showed early changes in Mecp2 and CREB expression in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and sensory ganglia after colonic inflammation, suggesting a possible contribution Mecp2 and CREB signaling in the development of visceral hyperalgesia and pelvic pain following peripheral inflammation.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic colonic inflammation that displays symptoms like diarrhea and weight loss. Acupuncture has been widely accepted by Western countries for the treatment of pain. Here, we analyzed efficacy and mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (TNBS-) induced colitis in mice. Mice were intrarectally administered with 250?mg/kg TNBS and electroacupunctured at Quze (PC3) and Neiguan (PC6) acupoints, which have been applied for gastrointestinal disorders. Gene expression profiles in colons and spleens were analyzed by microarray for the elucidation of mechanism of EA. Our data showed that EA at PC3 and PC6 improved macroscopic and microscopic features of colitis and the improvement displayed a frequency-dependent manner. Administration of TNBS upregulated the expression of most cytokine genes in colons, while EA downregulated the expression of TNBS-induced cytokine genes. Pathway analysis showed that EA significantly affected inflammatory pathways in colons and immunity-associated pathway in spleens. Immunohistochemical staining further showed that EA decreased the expression of interleukin-1 ? and nuclear factor- ? B. In conclusion, this is the first study reporting the global gene expression profiles of EA on TNBS-induced colitis. Our findings suggested that inflammatory and immunity pathways were involved in the anti-inflammatory mechanism of EA on colitis induced by TNBS.
Project description:Electroacupuncture (EA) tolerance is a gradual decline in EA antinociception because of its repeated or prolonged use. This study aims to explore the role of spinal glutamate transporters (GTs) in EA tolerance (EAT).Rats were treated with EA once per day for eight consecutive days, and their L4-5 spinal cords were collected at days 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8. The levels of three spinal GTs and their mRNAs were detected with Western blot and pPCR, respectively. Then, riluzole, a positive GT regulator, was administered intrathecally in order to observe its effect on EA analgesia after repeated EA.The expression levels of the spinal GTs increased at days 2 and 4, and gradually decreased as the times of EA increased. At day 8, no difference was observed in the spinal GTs between the sham treatment and the EA treatment. Intrathecal administration of riluzole dose-dependently attenuated the decreased EA analgesia.These results indicated the participation of the spinal GTs in EAT.
Project description:Acupuncture therapy effectively reduces post-surgical pain, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether expression of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the primary sensory neurons of cervical dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are involved in electroacupuncture (EA)-induced analgesia in a rat model of incisional neck pain.The pain model was established by making a longitudinal midline neck incision in 60 rats. Another 15 rats underwent sham surgery (normal group). Post-incision, 15 rats remained untreated (model group) and 45 rats underwent EA (frequency 2/100 Hz, intensity 1 mA) at bilateral LI18, LI4-PC6 or ST36-GB34 (n=15 each) for 30 min at 4 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours post-surgery, followed by thermal pain threshold (PT) measurement. 30 min later, the rats were euthanased and cervical (C3-6) DRGs removed for measurement of immunoreactivity and mRNA expression of SP/CGRP and the GABAergic neuronal marker glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67).Thermal PT was significantly lower in the model group versus the normal group and increased in the LI18 and LI4-PC6 groups but not the ST36-GB34 group compared with the model group. Additionally, EA at LI18 and LI4-PC6 markedly suppressed neck incision-induced upregulation of mRNA/protein expression of SP/CGRP, and upregulated mRNA/protein expression of GAD67 in the DRGs of C3-6 segments.EA at LI18/LI4-PC6 increases PT in rats with incisional neck pain, which is likely related to downregulation of pronociceptive mediators SP/CGRP and upregulation of the inhibitory transmitter GABA in the primary sensory neurons of cervical DRGs.
Project description:Although a number of intestinal inflammatory conditions pertain to the ileum, whole-genome gene expression analyses in animal models of ileal inflammation are lacking to date. Therefore, we aimed to identify and characterize alterations in gene expression in the acutely inflamed ileum of two murine models of intestinal inflammation, namely intestinal schistosomiasis and TNBS-induced ileitis, compared to healthy controls. To this end, we used whole-genome microarrays, followed by bioinformatics analyses to detect over-represented Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways and Gene Ontology categories.Following screening of almost all known mouse genes and transcripts represented on the array, intestinal schistosomiasis and TNBS-induced ileitis yielded 207 and 1417 differentially expressed genes, respectively, with only 30 overlapping concordantly changed genes. Functional category groups consisting of complement and coagulation cascades, extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction, Fc epsilon receptor I signaling pathways and protein activation cascade, cell adhesion categories were over-represented in the differential gene list of intestinal schistosomiasis. Antigen processing and presentation, cell adhesion molecules, ABC transporters, Toll-like receptor signaling pathways and response to chemical stimulus categories were over-represented in the differential gene list of TNBS-induced ileitis. Although cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, intestinal immune network for IgA production, focal adhesion pathways and immune, inflammatory and defense response categories were over-represented in the differential gene lists of both inflammation models, the vast majority of the associated genes and changes were unique to each model.This study characterized two models of ileal inflammation at a whole-genome level and outlined distinct gene expression profiles and patterns in the two models. The results indicate that intestinal schistosomiasis involves Th2 responses, complement activation, protein activation and enhanced ECM turnover, while TNBS-induced ileitis involves Th17 responses, defective antigen processing and presentation and altered Toll-like receptor-mediated responses. Signs of an impaired epithelial barrier are apparent in both inflammation models. Furthermore, the comprehensive differential gene list and functional groups provided by this study constitute an interesting starting point to explore new targets and extended functional networks dealing with small bowel inflammation.
Project description:Background: Although a number of intestinal inflammatory conditions pertain to the ileum, whole-genome gene expression analyses on ileal inflammation in animal models are lacking to date. Therefore, we aimed to identify and characterize alterations in gene expression in the acutely inflamed ileum of two murine models of intestinal inflammation, namely intestinal schistosomiasis and TNBS-induced ileitis, using Agilent whole-genome microarrays followed by bioinformatics analysis to detect enrichment of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways and Gene Ontology categories. Results: When compared with healthy control mice, of almost all known mouse genes and transcripts represented on the array, intestinal schistosomiasis and TNBS-induced ileitis yielded 207 and 1417 differential genes respectively, with 48 overlapping genes (adj.p.value<0.1 and log2FC>1 or <1). Complement and coagulation cascades, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, Fc epsilon receptor I signaling pathways and protein activation cascade, cell adhesion categories were enriched for differential genes in intestinal schistosomiasis. Antigen processing and presentation, cell adhesion molecules, ABC transporters, Toll-like receptor signaling pathways and response to chemical stimulus categories were enriched for differential genes in TNBS-induced ileitis. Although cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, intestinal immune network for immunoglobulin A production, focal adhesion pathways and immune, inflammatory and defense response categories were enriched for differential genes in both inflammation models, the vast majority of the associated differential genes were unique to each model. Conclusions: This study characterized the two diverse models of ileal inflammation at a whole-genome level and outlined their underlying molecular heterogeneity. The results indicate that intestinal schistosomiasis involves Th2 responses, enhanced tissue repair and complement activation, while TNBS-induced ileitis involves Th17 responses, defective antigen processing and presentation and altered Toll-like receptor-mediated responses. Epithelial barrier impairment seems to occur in both inflammation models. Moreover, the comprehensive differential gene-list provided by this study would be helpful as a starting point to explore a specific novel pathway in more detail dealing with small bowel inflammation. A total of 9 biological samples containing 3 each of Control, S.mansoni-infected and TNBS-treated were included in the study. A reference design was used including a reference sample containing a pool of equimolar amounts of all Control samples. The design consisted totally of 11 arrays which included 3 biological replicates each of Control (labeled in Cy5), S.mansoni-infected (labeled in Cy3) and TNBS-treated tissue samples(labeled in Cy5) as well as two dye flipped technical replicates of a Control and a S.mansoni-infected tissue sample. The reference was labeled with either Cy5 or Cy3, depending on the labeling of the test sample.