Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation Into Odontoblast-Like Cells and Endothelial Cells: A Potential Cell Source for Dental Pulp Tissue Engineering.
ABSTRACT: Objectives:Dental pulp regeneration is considered an ideal approach for treating dental pulp disease. Because pulp is composed of various cells, determining the proper seed cells is critical. We explored the potential of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) as seed cells for dental pulp regeneration. Methods:Liquid extract of human treated dentin matrix (LE-TDM) was acquired to culture hUCMSCs. Odontoblast-specific markers were detected by western blot, qRT-PCR, and immunofluorescence assays. Endothelial differentiation of hUCMSCs was examined according to VEGF induction by western blot, qRT-PCR, and Matrigel assays. hUCMSCs and VEGF-induced hUCMSCs (V-hUCMSCs) were also cocultured in vivo for the Matrigel plug assay and in vitro for RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Finally, encapsulated mono-cultured hUCMSCs or cocultured hUCMSCs and V-hUCMSCs in scaffolds were injected into the root segments and transplanted into immunodeficient mice for dental pulp regeneration. Results:Under LE-TDM induction, hUCMSCs expressed specific odontoblast markers (DSPP, DMP-1, DSP). Under VEGF induction, hUCMSCs expressed functional endothelial markers (CD31, eNOs, vWF). In vivo, the Matrigel plug assay indicated that cocultured hUCMSCs and V-hUCMSCs formed extensive vessel-like structures. RNA-seq results indicated that cocultured V-hUCMSCs exhibited high Hif-1 signaling pathway activity. Both the hUCMSCs mono-culture and coculture groups showed pulp-like tissue regeneration. The cocultured group showed more extracellular matrix and vascularization than the mono-cultured group in vivo. Conclusion:hUCMSCs can differentiate into odontoblast-like cells and functional endothelial cells. Cocultured hUCMSCs and V-hUCMSCs formed vessel-like structures and regenerated dental pulp-like tissue. Therefore, hUCMSCs can be used as an alternative seed cell source for angiogenesis and dental pulp regeneration.
Project description:Tooth regeneration is considered to be an optimistic approach to replace current treatments for tooth loss. It is important to determine the most suitable seed cells for tooth regeneration. Recently, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) have been regarded as a promising candidate for tissue regeneration. However, it has not been reported whether hUCMSCs can be employed in tooth regeneration. Here, we report that hUCMSCs can be induced into odontoblast-like cells in vitro and in vivo. Induced hUCMSCs expressed dentin-related proteins including dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1), and their gene expression levels were similar to those in native pulp tissue cells. Moreover, DSP- and DMP-1-positive calcifications were observed after implantation of hUCMSCs in vivo. These findings reveal that hUCMSCs have an odontogenic differentiation potency to differentiate to odontoblast-like cells with characteristic deposition of dentin-like matrix in vivo. This study clearly demonstrates hUCMSCs as an alternative therapeutic cell source for tooth regeneration.
Project description:The dentin sialophosphoprotein (dspp) transcript is expressed during tooth development as a DSPP precursor protein, which then undergoes cleavage to form mature dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and phosphophoryn (PP) proteins. Previous studies using DSPP-knockout (KO) mice have reported that these animals have hypomineralized teeth, thin dentin, and a large dental pulp chamber, similar to those from patients with dentinogenesis imperfecta III. However, there is no information about factors that regulate dental pulp stem cell lineage fate, a critical early event in the odontoblast-dentin mineralization scheme. To reveal the role of DSPP in odontoblast lineage differentiation during tooth development, we systematically examined teeth from wild-type (wt) and DSPP-KO C57BL/6 mice between the ages of postnatal day 1 and 3 months. We found developmental abnormalities not previously reported, such as circular dentin formation within dental pulp cells and altered odontoblast differentiation in DSPP-KO mice, even as early as 1 day after birth. Surprisingly, we also identified chondrocyte-like cells in the dental pulp from KO-mice teeth. Thus, these studies that compare wt and DSPP-KO mice suggest that the expression of DSPP precursor protein is required for normal odontoblast lineage differentiation and that the absence of DSPP allows dental pulp cells to differentiate into chondrocyte-like cells, which could negatively impact pulpal wound healing and tissue regeneration.
Project description:We developed a novel dentin-pulp-like organoid. It has both stem-cell and odontoblast characteristics using a mesenchymal cell lineage of human dental-pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). The mixture of hDPSCs and Matrigel was transferred into the maintenance medium (MM) and divided into four different groups according to how long they were maintained in the odontogenic differentiation medium (ODM). All organoids were harvested at 21 days and analyzed to find the optimal differentiation condition. To assess the re-fabrication of dentin-pulp-like organoid, after dissociation of the organoids, it was successfully regenerated. Additionally, its biological activity was confirmed by analyzing changes of relevant gene expression and performing a histology analysis after adding Biodentine® into the ODM. The organoid was cultured for 11 days in the ODM (ODM 11) had the most features of both stem cells and differentiated cells (odontoblasts) as confirmed by relevant gene expression and histology analyses. Micro-computed tomography and an electron microscope also showed mineralization and odontoblastic differentiation. Finally, ODM 11 demonstrated a biologically active response to Biodentine® treatment. In conclusion, for the first time, we report the fabrication of a dentin-pulp-like organoid using mesenchymal stem cells. This organoid has potential as a future therapeutic strategy for tooth regeneration.
Project description:The requirement for immediate vascularization of engineered dental pulp poses a major hurdle towards successful implementation of pulp regeneration as an effective therapeutic strategy for root canal therapy, especially in adult teeth. Here, we demonstrate a novel strategy to engineer pre-vascularized, cell-laden hydrogel pulp-like tissue constructs in full-length root canals for dental pulp regeneration. We utilized gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels with tunable physical and mechanical properties to determine the microenvironmental conditions (microstructure, degradation, swelling and elastic modulus) that enhanced viability, spreading and proliferation of encapsulated odontoblast-like cells (OD21), and the formation of endothelial monolayers by endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs). GelMA hydrogels with higher polymer concentration (15% w/v) and stiffness enhanced OD21 cell viability, spreading and proliferation, as well as endothelial cell spreading and monolayer formation. We then fabricated pre-vascularized, full-length, dental pulp-like tissue constructs by dispensing OD21 cell-laden GelMA hydrogel prepolymer in root canals of extracted teeth and fabricating 500?µm channels throughout the root canals. ECFCs seeded into the microchannels successfully formed monolayers and underwent angiogenic sprouting within 7 days in culture. In summary, the proposed approach is a simple and effective strategy for engineering of pre-vascularized dental pulp constructs offering potentially beneficial translational outcomes.
Project description:Background: The formation of dentin-pulp involves complex epithelial-mesenchymal interactions between Hertwig's epithelial root sheath cells (HERS) and dental papilla cells (DPCs). Earlier studies have identified some of the regulatory molecules participating in the crosstalk between HERS and DPCs and the formation of dentin-pulp. In the present study we focused on the role of HERS-secreted exosomes in DPCs and the formation of dentin-pulp. Specifically, we hypothesized that exosome-like vesicles (ELVs) might mediate the function of HERS and trigger lineage-specific differentiation of dental mesenchymal cells. To test our hypothesis, we evaluated the potential of ELVs derived from a HERS cell line (ELVs-H1) in inducing in vitro and in vivo differentiation of DPCs. Methods: ELVs-H1 were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The proliferation, migration, and odontoblast differentiation of DPCs after treatment with ELVs-H1, was detected by CCK8, transwell, ALP, and mineralization assays, respectively. Real time PCR and western blotting were used to detect gene and protein expression. For in vivo studies, DPC cells were mixed with collagen gel combined with or without ELVs and transplanted into the renal capsule of rats or subcutaneously into nude mice. HE staining and immunostaining were used to verify the regeneration of dentin-pulp and expression of odontoblast differentiation markers. Results: ELVs-H1 promoted the migration and proliferation of DPCs and also induced odontogenic differentiation and activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling. ELVs-H1 also contributed to tube formation and neural differentiation in vitro. In addition, ELVs-H1 attached to the collagen gel, and were slowly released and endocytosed by DPCs, enhancing cell survival. ELVs-H1 together with DPCs triggered regeneration of dental pulp-dentin like tissue comprised of hard (reparative dentin-like tissue) and soft (blood vessels and neurons) tissue, in an in vivo tooth root slice model. Conclusion: Our data highlighted the potential of ELVs-H1 as biomimetic tools in providing a microenvironment for specific differentiation of dental mesenchymal stem cells. From a developmental perspective, these vesicles might be considered as novel mediators facilitating the epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk. Their instructive potency might be exploited for the regeneration of dental pulp-dentin tissues.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Odontoblast is a unique progenitor that plays a role in dentin formation. So far, the dentinogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells and the role of surface molecules of odontoblasts in dentinogenesis are not well known yet. In this study, we obtained odontoblast-like cells from human dental pulp cells and screened odontoblast-specific cell surface antigens by decoy immunization. METHODS:Through decoy immunization with intact odontoblast-like cells derived from human dental pulp cells, we constructed 12 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) of IgG type, and their binding affinities for cell surface of odontoblast-like cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry, and immunohistochemistry were performed to demonstrate odontoblast-specific antigens. Odontoblasts were sorted by these mAbs using magnetic-activated cell sorting system, and their mineralization efficiency was increased after sorting. RESULTS:We constructed 12 mAbs of IgG type, which had a strong binding affinity for cell surface antigens of odontoblast-like cells. In human adult tooth, these mAbs accumulated in the odontoblastic layer between dentin and pulp and in the perivascular region adjacent to the blood vessels in the pulp core. Cell surface expression of the antigenic molecules was increased during odontogenic cytodifferentiation and decreased gradually as dentinogenic maturation progressed. Proteomic analysis showed that two representative antigenic molecules, OD40 and OD46, had the potential to be components for cell adhesion and extracellular matrix structures. CONCLUSION:These results suggest that mAbs will be useful for detecting and separating odontoblasts from the primary pulp cells and other lineage cells and will provide information on the structures of extracellular matrix and microenvironment that appears during the dentinogenic differentiation.
Project description:Preservation of a vital dental pulp is a central goal of restorative dentistry. Currently, there is significant interest in the development of tissue engineering scaffolds that can serve as biocompatible and bioactive pulp-capping materials, driving dentin bridge formation without causing cytotoxic effects. Our earlier in vitro studies described the biocompatibility of multidomain peptide (MDP) hydrogel scaffolds with dental pulp-derived cells but were limited in their ability to model contact with intact 3-dimensional pulp tissues. Here, we utilize an established ex vivo mandible organ culture model to model these complex interactions. MDP hydrogel scaffolds were injected either at the interface of the odontoblasts and the dentin or into the pulp core of mandible slices and subsequently cultured for up to 10 d. Histology reveals minimal disruption of tissue architecture adjacent to MDP scaffolds injected into the pulp core or odontoblast space. Additionally, the odontoblast layer is structurally preserved in apposition to the MDP scaffold, despite being separated from the dentin. Alizarin red staining suggests mineralization at the periphery of MDP scaffolds injected into the odontoblast space. Immunohistochemistry reveals deposition of dentin sialophosphoprotein by odontoblasts into the adjacent MDP hydrogel, indicating continued functionality. In contrast, no mineralization or dentin sialophosphoprotein deposition is evident around MDP scaffolds injected into the pulp core. Collagen III expression is seen in apposition to gels at all experimental time points. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 expression is observed associated with centrally injected MDP scaffolds at early time points, indicating proteolytic digestion of scaffolds. Thus, MDP scaffolds delivered centrally and peripherally within whole dental pulp tissue are shown to be biocompatible, preserving local tissue architecture. Additionally, odontoblast function and pulp vitality are sustained when MDP scaffolds are intercalated between dentin and the odontoblast region, a finding that has significant implications when considering these materials as pulp-capping agents.
Project description:The NLRP3/caspase-1 inflammasome pathway plays an important role in cellular immune defence against bacterial infection; however, its function in human dental pulp tissue and human dental pulp fibroblasts remains poorly understood. We demonstrate that NLRP3 protein expression occurs to a greater extent in pulp tissue with irreversible pulpitis than in normal pulp tissue and in tissue with reversible pulpitis. Caspase-1 is present in its active (cleaved) form only in pulp tissue with irreversible pulpitis. NLRP3 and caspase-1 are expressed in the odontoblast layers in normal human dental pulp tissue, whereas in inflamed pulp tissue, the odontoblast layers are disrupted and dental pulp cells are positive for NLRP3 and caspase-1. Additionally, we investigate the role of the NLRP3/caspase-1 inflammasome pathway in human dental pulp fibroblasts and show that ATP activates the P2X7 receptor on the cell membrane triggering K(+) efflux and inducing the gradual recruitment of the membrane pore pannexin-1. Extracellular lipopolysaccharide is able to penetrate the cytosol and activate NLRP3. Furthermore, the low intracellular K(+) concentration in the cytosol triggers reactive oxygen species generation, which also induces the NLRP3 inflammasome. Thus, the NLRP3/caspase-1 pathway has a biological role in the innate immune response mounted by human dental pulp fibroblasts.
Project description:The presence of stem cells within the dental-pulp tissue as well as their differentiation into a new generation of functional odontoblast-like cells constitutes an important step of the dentin-pulp regeneration. Recent investigations demonstrated that the complement system activation participates in 2 critical steps of dentin-pulp regeneration: pulp progenitor's recruitment and pulp nerve sprouting. Surprisingly, its implication in odontoblastic differentiation has not been addressed yet. Since the complement receptor C5a receptor-like 2 (C5L2) is expressed by different stem cells, the aim of this study is to investigate if the dental pulp stem cells express C5L2 and if this receptor participates in odontoblastic differentiation. Immunohistochemistry performed on human third molar pulp sections showed a perivascular co-localization of the mesenchymal stem cell markers STRO1 and C5L2. In vitro immunofluorescent staining confirmed that hDPSCs express C5L2. Furthermore, we determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction that the expression of C5L2 is highly modulated in human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) undergoing odontoblastic differentiation. Moreover, we showed that this odontogenesis-regulated expression of C5L2 is specifically potentiated by the proinflammatory cytokine TNF?. Using a C5L2-siRNA silencing strategy, we provide direct evidence that C5L2 constitutes a negative regulator of the dentinogenic marker DMP1 (dentin matrix protein 1) expression by hDPSCs. Our findings suggest a direct correlation between the odontoblastic differentiation and the level of C5L2 expression in hDPSCs and identify C5L2 as a negative regulator of DMP1 expression by hDPSCs during the odontoblastic differentiation and inflammation processes. This work is the first to demonstrate the involvement of C5L2 in the biological function of stem cells, provides an important knowledge in understanding odontoblastic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells, and may be useful in future dentin-pulp engineering strategies.
Project description:Dental pulpal nerve fibers express ionotropic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) receptors, suggesting that ATP signaling participates in the process of dental nociception. In this study, we investigated if the principal enzymes responsible for extracellular ATP hydrolysis, namely, nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases), are present in human dental pulp. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence experiments showed that NTPDase2 was predominantly expressed in pulpal nerve bundles, Raschkow's nerve plexus, and in the odontoblast layer. NTPDase2 was expressed in pulpal Schwann cells, with processes accompanying the nerve fibers and projecting into the odontoblast layer. Odontoblasts expressed the gap junction protein, connexin43, which can form transmembrane hemichannels for ATP release. NTPDase2 was localized close to connexin43 within the odontoblast layer. These findings provide evidence for the existence of an apparatus for ATP release and degradation in human dental pulp, consistent with the involvement of ATP signaling in the process of dentin sensitivity and dental pain.