Association of Smoking Cessation and Survival Among Young Adults With Myocardial Infarction in the Partners YOUNG-MI Registry.
ABSTRACT: Importance:Despite significant progress in primary prevention, the rate of myocardial infarction (MI) continues to increase in young adults. Objectives:To identify the prevalence of tobacco use and to examine the association of both smoking and smoking cessation with survival in a cohort of adults who experienced an initial MI at a young age. Design, Setting, and Participants:The Partners YOUNG-MI registry is a retrospective cohort study from 2 large academic centers in Boston, Massachusetts, that includes patients who experienced an initial MI at 50 years or younger. Smoking status at the time of presentation and at 1 year after MI was determined from electronic medical records. Participants were 2072 individuals who experienced an MI at 50 years or younger between January 2000 and April 2016. The dates of analysis were October to December 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures:Deaths were ascertained from the Social Security Administration Death Master File, the Massachusetts Department of Vital Statistics, and the National Death Index. Cause of death was adjudicated independently by 2 cardiologists. Propensity score-adjusted Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the association between smoking cessation and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Results:Among the 2072 individuals (median age, 45 years [interquartile range, 42-48 years]; 1669 [80.6%] men), 1088 (52.5%) were smokers at the time of their index hospitalization. Of these, 910 patients were further classified into either the cessation group (343 [37.7%]) or the persistent smoking group (567 [62.3%]) at 1 year after MI. Over a median follow-up of 11.2 years (interquartile range, 7.3-14.2 years), individuals who quit smoking had a statistically significantly lower rate of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.35; 95% CI, 0.19-0.63; P?
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Type 2 myocardial infarction (MI) and myocardial injury are associated with increased short-term mortality. However, data regarding long-term mortality are lacking.<h4>Objectives</h4>This study compared long-term mortality among young adults with type 1 MI, type 2 MI, or myocardial injury.<h4>Methods</h4>Adults age 50 years or younger who presented with troponin >99th percentile or the International Classification of Diseases code for MI over a 17-year period were identified. All cases were adjudicated as type 1 MI, type 2 MI, or myocardial injury based on the Fourth Universal Definition of MI. Cox proportional hazards models were constructed for survival free from all-cause and cardiovascular death.<h4>Results</h4>The cohort consisted of 3,829 patients (median age 44 years; 30% women); 55% had type 1 MI, 32% had type 2 MI, and 13% had myocardial injury. Over a median follow-up of 10.2 years, mortality was highest for myocardial injury (45.6%), followed by type 2 MI (34.2%) and type 1 MI (12%) (p < 0.001). In an adjusted model, type 2 MI was associated with higher all-cause (hazard ratio: 1.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.2 to 2.7; p = 0.004) and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio: 2.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.4 to 5.1; p = 0.003) compared with type 1 MI. Those with type 2 MI or myocardial injury were younger and had fewer cardiovascular risk factors but had more noncardiovascular comorbidities. They were significantly less likely to be prescribed cardiovascular medications at discharge.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Young patients who experience a type 2 MI have higher long-term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality than those who experience type 1 MI, with nearly one-half of patients with myocardial injury and more than one-third of patients with type 2 MI dying within 10 years. These findings emphasize the need to provide more aggressive secondary prevention for patients who experience type 2 MI and myocardial injury.
Project description:To investigate the association between smoking status and smoking cessation with mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).An incident cohort of patients with RA was identified using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a database of UK primary care electronic medical records. Time-varying smoking status, years of cessation, and amount smoked were determined from patients' medical records. The date and underlying cause of death were identified by linkage with Office for National Statistics records. The associations between smoking status and smoking cessation with all-cause and cause-specific mortality (circulatory disease, all cancers, lung cancer, respiratory disease, and respiratory infection) were investigated using adjusted Cox (all-cause mortality) and Fine-Gray (cause-specific mortality) regression.The cohort comprised 5,677 patients (median age 61.4 years, 68% women), with 40% as never smokers, 34% former smokers, and 26% current smokers at baseline. Compared to never smoking, current smoking was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.98 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.56, 2.53]), and mortality due to circulatory disease (subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR] 1.96 [95% CI 1.33, 2.90]) and lung cancer (SHR 23.2 [95% CI 5.15, 105]). Each year of smoking cessation was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality (former heavy smokers SHR 0.85 [95% CI 0.77, 0.94], former light smokers SHR 0.90 [95% CI 0.84, 0.97]).Current smoking is associated with an increased risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and lung cancer mortality in patients with RA. Each year of cessation is associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality. This information may prove helpful in smoking cessation programs for patients with RA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Life-style interventions, including smoking cessation and weight control are of importance for managing future escalating prevalence of obesity. Smoking habits and obesity have jointly great impact on mortality, however mechanisms behind the effect and variables involved in the obesity paradox is still unknown. OBJECTIVES:This study examines risk factors for all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in males and females with high cardiovascular risk, mediated by smoking habits, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), and serum phosphate (S-P) levels. METHODS:Patients were admitted to the Vindeln Patient Education Center in groups of 30 for a four-week residential comprehensive program (114 hours) focusing on smoking cessation, stress reduction, food preferences and selections, and physical exercise. The follow-up, in years from 1984 to 2014 corresponds to 30 years. This study included 2,504 patients (1,408 females and 1,096 males). Cox regression analysis was used to assess mortality risk associated with smoking habits, low and high BMI, and low and high S-P levels. RESULTS:High BMI (>34,2 kg/m2), current smoking, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), high serum calcium (S-Ca), mmol/L and high systolic blood pressure (SBP, mmHg) were associated with all-cause mortality irrespective of sex. Former and current smoking females had a high all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.581; 95% CI 1.108-2.256, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.935; 95% CI 1.461-2.562, respectively) while current smoking and high BMI increased risk for cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 3.505; 95% CI 2.140-5.740 and [HR] 1.536; 95% CI 1.058-2.231, respectively). Neither low nor high levels of S-P predicted all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality in males or females while low levels of S-P predicted all-cause mortality in smokers (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.713; 95% CI 1.211-2.424). In non-smokers, low BMI (<27.6 kg/m2) was protecting and high BMI a risk for all-cause mortality. In males, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and low serum albumin (S-Alb) were associated with all-cause mortality. In females, an interaction between high BMI and smoking (HbmiSM) decreased the cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.410; 95% CI 0.179-0.937, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:High BMI and current smoking were associated with all-cause mortality in both males and females in the present high cardiovascular-risk cohort. In current smokers and non-smokers, T2DM and high S-Ca were associated with an increase in all-cause mortality, while low S-P was associated with all-cause mortality in smokers. Interaction between high BMI and smoking contribute to the obesity paradox by being protective for cardiovascular mortality in females.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Smoking is considered the single most important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, contributing to increased incidence and severity of disabling conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of chronic conditions to the disability burden across smoking categories in middle-aged adults in Belgium. METHODS:Data from 10,224 individuals aged 40 to 60 years who participated in the 1997, 2001, 2004, or 2008 Health Interview Surveys in Belgium were used. Smoking status was defined as never, former (cessation ?2 years), former (cessation <2 years), occasional light (<20 cigarettes/day), daily light, and daily heavy (?20 cigarettes/day). To attribute disability to chronic conditions, binomial additive hazards models were fitted separately for each smoking category adjusted for gender, except for former (cessation <2 years) and occasional light smokers due to the small sample size. RESULTS:An increasing trend in the disability prevalence was observed across smoking categories in men (never = 4.8%, former (cessation ?2 years) = 5.8%, daily light = 7.8%, daily heavy = 10.7%) and women (never = 7.6%, former (cessation ?2 years) = 8.0%, daily light = 10.2%, daily heavy = 12.0%). Musculoskeletal conditions showed a substantial contribution to the disability burden in men and women across all smoking categories. Other important contributors were depression and cardiovascular diseases in never smokers; depression, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes in former smokers (cessation ?2 years); chronic respiratory diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases in daily light smokers; cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases in men and depression and diabetes in women daily heavy smokers. CONCLUSIONS:Beyond the well-known effect of smoking on mortality, our findings showed an increasing trend of the disability prevalence and different contributors to the disability burden across smoking categories. This information can be useful from a public health perspective to define strategies to reduce disability in Belgium.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Whether weight gain after smoking cessation attenuates the health benefits of quitting is unclear. METHODS:In three cohort studies involving men and women in the United States, we identified those who had reported quitting smoking and we prospectively assessed changes in smoking status and body weight. We estimated risks of type 2 diabetes, death from cardiovascular disease, and death from any cause among those who had reported quitting smoking, according to weight changes after smoking cessation. RESULTS:The risk of type 2 diabetes was higher among recent quitters (2 to 6 years since smoking cessation) than among current smokers (hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 1.32). The risk peaked 5 to 7 years after quitting and then gradually decreased. The temporary increase in the risk of type 2 diabetes was directly proportional to weight gain, and the risk was not increased among quitters without weight gain (P<0.001 for interaction). In contrast, quitters did not have a temporary increase in mortality, regardless of weight change after quitting. As compared with current smokers, the hazard ratios for death from cardiovascular disease were 0.69 (95% CI, 0.54 to 0.88) among recent quitters without weight gain, 0.47 (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.63) among those with weight gain of 0.1 to 5.0 kg, 0.25 (95% CI, 0.15 to 0.42) among those with weight gain of 5.1 to 10.0 kg, 0.33 (95% CI, 0.18 to 0.60) among those with weight gain of more than 10.0 kg, and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.46 to 0.55) among longer-term quitters (>6 years since smoking cessation). Similar associations were observed for death from any cause. CONCLUSIONS:Smoking cessation that was accompanied by substantial weight gain was associated with an increased short-term risk of type 2 diabetes but did not mitigate the benefits of quitting smoking on reducing cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.).
Project description:Acute myocardial infarction remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. While iron deficient heart failure patients are at increased risk of future cardiovascular events and see improvement with intravenous supplementation, the clinical relevance of iron deficiency in acute coronary syndrome remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of iron deficiency in the acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Levels of ferritin, iron, and transferrin were measured at baseline in 836 patients with ACS. A total of 29.1% was categorized as iron deficient. The prevalence of iron deficiency was clearly higher in women (42.8%), and in patients with anemia (42.5%). During a median follow-up of 4.0 years, 111 subjects (13.3%) experienced non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and cardiovascular mortality as combined endpoint. Iron deficiency strongly predicted non-fatal MI and cardiovascular mortality with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.52 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-2.26; p = 0.037) adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, smoking status, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, body-mass-index (BMI) This association remained significant (HR 1.73 (95% CI 1.07?2.81; p = 0.026)) after an additional adjustment for surrogates of cardiac function and heart failure severity (N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, NT-proBNP), for the size of myocardial necrosis (troponin), and for anemia (hemoglobin). Survival analyses for cardiovascular mortality and MI provided further evidence for the prognostic relevance of iron deficiency (HR 1.50 (95% CI 1.02?2.20)). Our data showed that iron deficiency is strongly associated with adverse outcome in acute coronary syndrome.
Project description:In this single-center, retrospective study, we aimed to compare early and late outcomes after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) between younger and elderly patients and to investigate the impact of patient age on the overall incidence of cardiovascular events after CEA.A total of 613 patients with 675 CEAs between January 2007 and December 2014 were stratified by patient age into 2 groups: younger (≤60 years, n = 103 CEAs, 15.3%) and elderly (>60 years, n = 572 CEAs, 84.7%) groups. The study outcomes were defined as the occurrence of major adverse events (MAEs), including fatal or nonfatal stroke or myocardial infarction (MI), or any-cause mortality, and overall cardiovascular events (meaning the composite incidence of stroke or MI) during the perioperative period and within 4 years after CEA.Although there were no significant differences in the incidence of 30-day MAEs and any of the individual MAE manifestations between the 2 groups, the differences in the MAE incidence (P = .006) and any-cause mortality (P = .023) within 4 years after CEA were significantly greater in patients in the elderly group. For overall incidence of cardiovascular events, no significant difference was noted between the 2 groups (P = .096). On multivariate analysis, older age (>60 years) did not affect the incidence of perioperative MAEs and individual MAE manifestations; however, older age was significantly associated with an increased risk of 4-year MAEs (hazard ratio [HR], 3.68, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-10.0; P = .011) and any-cause mortality (HR, 3.26, 95% CI, 1.02-10.5; P = .047). With regard to the 4-year overall incidence of cardiovascular events, older age was not an independent predictor of increased risk of these cardiovascular events.Our study indicates that the risks of perioperative MAEs and the 4-year overall incidence of cardiovascular events do not significantly differ between younger and elderly Korean patients undergoing CEA, although there was a higher risk of 4-year any-cause mortality in the elderly patients. Older age does not appear to be an independent risk factor for perioperative MAEs and overall cardiovascular events within 4 years after CEA.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Smoking-attributed mortality is increasing steadily in most developing countries. The aim of the study is to assess the reduction in smoking-associated mortality following cessation.<h4>Methods</h4>Death data were collected from 2016 to 2017. Cases were deaths from pre-defined diseases of interest (65298); controls were deaths from pre-defined non-smoking-related diseases (13527). Case versus control odds ratios for ex-smokers versus smokers were calculated by age, sex, marital status and education with standardized logistic regression. These are described as mortality rate ratios (RRs, calculated as odds ratios), with a group-specific confidence interval (CI). The statistical analysis of the data was conducted from June to August 2019.<h4>Results</h4>For deaths from pre-defined non-smoking-related diseases at age 35-59 years, the RRs for quitting smoking 0-4, 5-9 or ?10 years ago and never smoking were 0.66 (95% CI: 0.55-0.78), 0.58 (95% CI: 0.38-0.88), 0.61 (95% CI: 0.45-0.82), and 0.43 (95% CI: 0.39-0.46), respectively. The same trend was found at ages 60-69 years and 70-79 years. Younger age of quitting (25-44 or 45-64 years) appeared to be associated with greater protection among the age groups: RR was 0.55 (95% CI: 0.42-0.74) and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.56-0.79), respectively, at age 35-59 years. Among the patients who died of lung cancer, the strong protective effect can only be observed when the duration of quitting is ?10 years. The effect of smoking cessation on the risk of death from cardiovascular disease can be observed when the duration of quitting is 1-5 years.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Longer durations of smoking cessation are associated with progressively lower mortality rates from the diseases of interest, such as lung cancer and other smoking related cancers. For sustainable monitoring of tobacco-attributed mortality, smoking information over decades, such as smoking duration and quit smoking years, should be recorded during registration of death.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the effects of smoking habit change on the risks of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) among patients with newly diagnosed diabetes using the Korean National Sample Cohort data. Survival regression analyses for the risks of all-cause mortality and CVDs were performed. Quitters without body mass index (BMI) change (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46-1.00) and quitters with BMI loss (aHR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.13-2.73) showed significantly reduced and substantially the increased risk of all-cause mortality, respectively, compared with sustained smokers. Smoking reduction after diabetes diagnosis may have potential positive effects. However, definite benefits on the health outcomes were not identified in this study. Participants who started smoking after diabetes diagnosis had higher risks of all-cause mortality and CVDs than those who were never smokers or ex-smokers, although not statistically significant. In conclusion, smoking cessation after diabetes diagnosis could reduce the risks of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events among patients with newly diagnosed diabetes when accompanied by proper weight management. Therefore, physicians should advice patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes on the importance of smoking cessation in combination with long-term weight management to maximize the benefits of smoking cessation.
Project description:<b>Objectives: </b>The aim of this study was to mechanistically investigate associations among cigarette smoking, microvascular pathology, and longer term health outcomes in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI).<br><br><b>Background: </b>The pathophysiology of myocardial reperfusion injury and prognosis in smokers with acute ST-segment elevation MI is incompletely understood.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>Patients were prospectively enrolled during emergency percutaneous coronary intervention. Microvascular function in the culprit artery was measured invasively. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (1.5-T) was performed 2 days and 6 months post-MI. Infarct size and microvascular obstruction were assessed using late gadolinium enhancement imaging. Myocardial hemorrhage was assessed with T2* mapping. Pre-specified endpoints included: 1) all-cause death or first heart failure hospitalization; and 2) cardiac death, nonfatal MI, or urgent coronary revascularization (major adverse cardiovascular events). Binary logistic regression (odds ratio [OR] with 95% confidence interval [CI]) with smoking status was used.<br><br><b>Results: </b>In total, 324 patients with ST-segment elevation MI were enrolled (mean age 59 years, 73% men, 60% current smokers). Current smokers were younger (age 55 ± 11 years vs. 65 ± 10 years, p < 0.001), with fewer patients with hypertension (52 ± 27% vs. 53 ± 41%, p = 0.007). Smokers had better TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) flow grade (?2 vs. ?1, p = 0.024) and ST-segment resolution (none vs. partial vs. complete, p = 0.010) post-percutaneous coronary intervention. On day 1, smokers had higher circulating C-reactive protein, neutrophil, and monocyte levels. Two days post-MI, smoking independently predicted infarct zone hemorrhage (OR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.42 to 5.37; p = 0.003). After a median follow-up period of 4 years, smoking independently predicted all-cause death or heart failure events (OR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.07 to 4.54) and major adverse cardiovascular events (OR: 2.79; 95% CI: 2.30 to 5.99).<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>Smoking is associated with enhanced inflammation acutely, infarct-zone hemorrhage subsequently, and longer term adverse cardiac outcomes. Inflammation and irreversible myocardial hemorrhage post-MI represent mechanistic drivers for adverse long-term prognosis in smokers. (Detection and Significance of Heart Injury in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction. [BHF MR-MI]; NCT02072850).