Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) and Dentistry-A Comprehensive Review of Literature.
ABSTRACT: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has become a real challenge for healthcare providers around the world and has significantly affected the dental professionals in practices, universities and research institutions. The aim of this article was to review the available literature on the relevant aspects of dentistry in relation to COVID-19 and to discuss potential impacts of COVID-19 outbreak on clinical dentistry, dental education and research. Although the coronavirus pandemic has caused many difficulties for provision of clinical dentistry, there would be an opportunity for the dental educators to modernize their teaching approaches using novel digital concepts in teaching of clinical skills and by enhancement of online communication and learning platforms. This pandemic has also highlighted some of the major gaps in dental research and the need for new relevant knowledge to manage the current crisis and minimize the impact of such outbreaks on dentistry in the future. In conclusion, COVID-19 has had many immediate complications for dentistry of which some may have further long-term impacts on clinical practice, dental education and dental research.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The corona disease (COVID-19) is developing into one of the greatest challenges for healthcare professionals around the world. In this article, we report the detailed actions taken in the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU), Munich, Germany, during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS:After a joint on-site inspection of the dental clinic with the Department of Clinical Microbiology and Hospital Hygiene, existing clinical and hygiene protocols were adapted for COVID-19 patients. RESULTS:A comprehensive summary of the preparation of the facilities as well as pre- treatment, treatment and posttreatment protocols are described and arising problems are being discussed. CONCLUSIONS:The importance of rigorous hygiene and treatment protocols as well as a sufficient supply of PPE for dental offices and hospitals is highlighted. The measures reported may be subject to change due to the dynamics of the pandemic. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:The modes of transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (e.g., droplets, aerosols, and fomites) can pose a risk for dental healthcare professionals and patients alike. The presented measures may guide dental faculties and dental practices during the early stage of the COVID-19 crisis.
Project description:Background:The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a new viral respiratory illness, first identified in Wuhan province, China. Dental professionals and dental students are at an increased risk for these viruses from dental patients, as dental practice involves face-to-face communication with the patients and frequent exposure to saliva, blood, and other body fluids. Dental education can play an important role in the training of dental students, adequate knowledge and adopting attitudes regarding infection control measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and clinical education of dental students about COVID-19 pandemic. Methods:A total of 355 pre-clinical and clinical dental students (242 and 113, respectively, comprising 190 females and 165 males) at F?rat University Dentistry Faculty, in Elaz??, Turkey answered an online questionnaire about the biosafety procedures for and their attitudes to and knowledge of COVID-19. The study was conducted in March 2020, Turkey. The data gained were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods and chi-square test. Results:Both the clinical and preclinical students were found to be afraid of infecting themselves and their environment with COVID-19, and the difference between them was statistically significant. Three quarters (74.9%) of the participants responded yes to the question of whether they thought that experiences related to COVID-19 affected them psychologically, with the differences between gender and clinical status were statistically significant. Responses to the question of which clinical rotation worried them more were 29.9% endodontics, 25.1% oral and maxillofacial surgery, 16.3% prosthesis, 15.2% periodontology, 6.8% restorative dentistry, 3.9% oral diagnosis and radiology, 1.7% pedodontics, and 1.1% orthodontics, with a significant difference between the preclinical and clinical students. Regarding the measures applied by the clinical students in their clinical rotation, the responses were 100% gloves and 100% mask (with 11.5% FFP3/N95 mask), 73.6% face protective shield and 37.1% safety glasses, and 49% bonnet and 16.8% disposable box, with 90.2% frequent hand washing, and 86.7% frequent hand antiseptic usage. Conclusions:While students gave good responses regarding the standard measures they take to protect against transmission of COVID-19, their knowledge and attitudes about the extra measures they can take should be improved. For students to be least affected by fears associated with the disease, dental faculties should be ready to provide psychological services to those in need.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite the availability of prevention guidelines and recommendations on infection control, many dental practices lack the minimum requirements for infection control. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to assess the level of awareness, perception, and attitude regarding the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and infection control among Jordanian dentists. METHODS:The study population consisted of dentists who worked in private clinics, hospitals, and health centers in Jordan. An online questionnaire was sent to a sample of Jordanian dentists in March 2020. The questionnaire was comprised of a series of questions about dentists' demographic characteristics; their awareness of the incubation period, the symptoms of the disease, mode of transmission of COVID-19 and infection control measures for preventing COVID-19; and their attitude toward treating patients with COVID-19. RESULTS:This study included a total of 368 dentists aged 22-73 years (mean 32.9 years, SD 10.6 years). A total of 112 (30.4%) dentists had completed a master or residency program in dentistry, 195 (53.0%) had received training in infection control in dentistry, and 28 (7.6%) had attended training or lectures regarding COVID-19. A total of 133 (36.1%) dentists reported that the incubation period is 1-14 days. The majority of dentists were aware of COVID-19 symptoms and ways of identifying patients at risk of having COVID-19, were able to correctly report known modes of transmission, and were aware of measures for preventing COVID-19 transmission in dental clinics. A total of 275 (74.7%) believed that it was necessary to ask patients to sit far from each other, wear masks while in the waiting room, and wash hands before getting in the dental chair to decrease disease transmission. CONCLUSIONS:Jordanian dentists were aware of COVID-19 symptoms, mode of transmission, and infection controls and measures in dental clinics. However, dentists had limited comprehension of the extra precautionary measures that protect the dental staff and other patients from COVID-19. National and international guidelines should be sent by the regional and national dental associations to all registered dentists during a crisis, including the COVID-19 pandemic, to make sure that dentists are well informed and aware of best practices and recommended disease management approaches.
Project description:The world is currently changing due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the field of dentistry is no stranger to this. The care of patients in the dental office involves very strict biosafety protocols, and patients must be aware of the protection barriers implemented to allow satisfactory, safe dental care. The purpose of this study was to synthesize and analyze the management of the current biosafety standards for dental patients since the arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic. A bibliographic search of the main sources of information including MEDLINE (by means of PubMed), Scopus, Science Direct, SCIELO, and Google Scholar was carried out. Articles published without language restriction, systematic reviews, literature reviews, and observational studies were included. We identified the biosafety measures that must be taken before, during, and after dental practice following the arrival of COVID-19. The main measures include telephone triage, temperature taking on arrival at the office, the organization of the waiting room, washing hands before entering the office, knowing the auxiliary radiographic exams of choice and what type of treatment can be performed, albeit with restrictions. In conclusion, dental patients must comply with all the biosafety measures established by international protection standards and implemented by dentists before, during, and after dental practice to reduce the possibility of COVID-19 infection.
Project description:<b>Objectives: </b>To present a comprehensive review of current literature available on Corona virus disease and dentistry, modifications required in dental and laboratory settings; and recommended disinfection protocols in current scenario. Special emphasis has been given to discuss guidelines for handling different prosthodontic procedures and implications of this pandemic on prosthodontic practice, education and research.<br><br><b>Materials and methods: </b>Relevant literature pertaining to COVID-19 and dentistry was scrutinized on electronic search engines including PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane. Guidelines given by various organizations, institutions, national and international regulatory bodies and Indian Prosthodontic Society were also consulted to gather information pertaining to the objectives of our review.<br><br><b>Results: </b>and observations: A total of 160 articles including cross-sectional studies, in vitro study, narrative reviews, letters to the editor and opinions were found to be relevant in accordance with our search strategy. Documented literature revealed that Covid-19 pandemic has culminated in serious clinical, financial and psychological implications in the field of dentistry. Certain steps such as adoption of teledentistry, judicious use of protective equipment, use of rubber dams, pre-procedural rinses have been suggested unanimously. However, there is a dearth of evidence-based recommendations in literature. Data regarding consequences of delaying prosthodontic procedures and patients' perspectives is also sparse.<br><br><b>Conclusion: </b>The COVID-19 necessitates the need to adopt a balanced approach while treating patients and safeguarding the dental professionals at the same time. Risk-benefit ratio has to be assessed along with stringent following of guidelines and disinfection protocols to combat this unprecedented situation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The COVID-19 pandemic posed a great challenge to paediatric dentistry, which confronted with the restriction of service and resource shortage. AIM:To retrospectively analyse the information of children's dental online health consultation during the COVID-19 pandemic in China, and to provide methods to distinguish between dental emergencies and non-emergencies as well as their management. DESIGN:We collected all the online consultation information in Dept. of Paediatric dentistry, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University from February 2 to March 31, 2020, and extracted the information of age, gender, reason for consultation, description of symptom and preliminary diagnosis of the children. RESULTS:A total of 474 online consultations of paediatric dentistry were included within 59 days during lockdown, and 190 (40.1%) were dental emergencies and 284 (59.9%) non-emergencies. Of 190 emergency consultations, 186 (97.9%) showed swelling, pain, trauma with or without systemic symptoms. Among 284 non-emergency consultations, retained primary teeth (n=126) and orthodontic consultation (n=53) were the most common reasons for consultation. CONCLUSION:The paediatric emergency and non-emergency problems should be clearly distinguished and sufficient instructions provided in the special period of COVID-19. Priorities also should be set to deal with urgent conditions after the release of lockdown.
Project description:The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), characterized by symptoms of fever and pneumonia, was reported in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019 (Phelan, Katz, & Gostin, 2020). Given the likely transmission of COVID-19 via droplets and aerosols during dental clinical procedures, dental practitioners are at a high risk of COVID-19 infections (Ather, Patel, Ruparel, Diogenes, & Hargreaves, 2020). According to the guidelines of the Chinese Stomatological Association (CSA), dental clinics in China suspended the routine dental services and only provided emergency dental care between January and April 2020 (CSA, 2020). The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of COVID-19 on patients' utilization of dental services during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Project description:Dental services are significantly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Almost all dental procedures carry a high infection risk for providers and patients due to the spread of aerosols. As a consequence, public health agencies and professional associations have issued guidelines for enhanced infection control and personal protection equipment and have also limited care to urgent or emergency services. However, there is no dental service concept for pandemic disaster preparedness or response that might be applied. Moreover, pathways to dental care provision in a post-pandemic future with persisting risks are needed. We propose Safer Aerosol-Free Emergent Dentistry (SAFER Dentistry) as one approach to dental services during and emerging from the pandemic. The concept's starting point is the identification of the most common patient needs. The next step is to replace common treatments addressing the most frequent needs with alternative interventions involving a lower infection risk because they do not generate aerosols. SAFER Dentistry is innovative, avoids risk, and responds to the requirements of a pandemic and post-pandemic emergency where the risk of airborne disease transmission remains high. SAFER Dentistry thereby ensures continuity of dental services while protecting providers and patients from infectious pathogens. Moreover, SAFER Dentistry allows dental service providers to remain operational and generate income even under pandemic conditions. Potential implementation and policy options for SAFER Dentistry include universal availability without co-payments by patients and a uniform bundled payment scheme for providers to simplify budgeting, reimbursement, and administration during a pandemic. Adaptations and adjustments of the concept are possible and encouraged as long as the principle of avoiding aerosol-generating procedures is maintained.
Project description:The rapid and abrupt transmission pattern of the SARS-CoV-2 unleashed the current COVID-19 pandemic, as recognized by the World Health Organization in March 2020. Considering the high risk of transmission of the virus in dental environments and the specificities in clinical practice, COVID-19 posed immediate challenges for dental care and education. Due to the need to establish infection prevention and control guidance in dental health settings to enable a safe clinical practice, this review aims to list the challenges and perspectives in managing dental care in services and schools. This review employed materials collected from PubMed and the main guidelines and studies on the novel coronavirus to provide an overview of the clinical procedures and decisions made by health care personnel in dental offices and dental schools. We expect the COVID-19 scenario to promote significant changes in clinical practice and dental education; dentists should seek specific and particular regulations for dental practice established by their state or country. Biosafety checklists are strongly recommended for appointments at dental services and face-to-face activities in dental schools.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has disrupted the delivery of health care services, including dental care. The objective of this study was to quantify and describe US adults who delayed dental care due to the COVID-19 pandemic.<h4>Methods</h4>We analyzed cross-sectional responses collected from a nationally representative and long-running panel survey of US adults conducted in late May and early June 2020 (response rate = 70%). The survey included questions about dental care delayed due to the COVID-19 pandemic, purpose of the delayed dental visits, timing of future dental visits, and demographic information. Pearson's chi-square tests were used to determine if rates of delayed dental care varied by subgroup. A multivariable regression model, adjusted for age, race, Hispanic ethnicity, census division, and rurality, was estimated to predict the odds of reporting delayed dental care.<h4>Results</h4>Nearly half of respondents (46.7%) reported delaying going to the dentist or receiving dental care due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Among adults who reported delaying dental care due to the pandemic, 74.7% reported delaying a checkup, 12.4% reported delaying care to address something that was bothering them, and 10.5% reported delaying care to get planned treatment. About 44.4% of adults reported that they planned to visit the dentist within the next 3 mo. In the multivariable regression model, only living in an urban (vs. rural) area was associated with significantly higher odds of delayed dental care due to the pandemic (odds ratio: 1.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.1).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Nearly half of US adults reported delaying dental care due to the COVID-19 pandemic during the spring of 2020. Our results offer insight into the experiences of patients seeking dental care this spring and the economic challenges faced by dental providers due to the pandemic.<h4>Knowledge transfer statement</h4>This article describes US adults who delayed dental care due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Results can be used by clinicians and policymakers to understand delayed care during the pandemic.