Green fabricated zinc oxide nanoformulated media enhanced callus induction and regeneration dynamics of Panicum virgatum L.
ABSTRACT: The current study focuses on the usage of bio synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles to increase the tissue culture efficiency of important forage grass Panicum virgatum. Zinc being a micronutrient enhanced the callogenesis and regeneration efficiency of Panicum virgatum at different concentrations. Here, we synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles through Cymbopogon citratus leaves extract to evaluate the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on plant regeneration ability in switchgrass. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) validate phase purity of green synthesize Zinc oxide nanoparticles whereas, electron microscopy (SEM) has illustrated the average size of particle 50±4 nm with hexagonal rod like shape. Energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray (EDS) depicted major peaks of Zn (92.68%) while minor peaks refer to Oxygen (7.32%). ZnO-NPs demonstrated the incredibly promising results against callogenesis. Biosynthesized ZnO-NPs at optimum concentration showed very promising effect on plant regeneration ability. Both the explants, seeds and nodes showed dose dependent response and upon high doses exceeding 40 mg/L the results were recorded negative, whereas at 30 mg/L both explants demonstrated 70% and 76% regeneration frequency. The results conclude that ZnO-NPs enhance the plant growth and development and tailored the nutritive properties at nano-scale. Furthermore, eco-friendly approach of ZnO-NPs synthesis is strongly believed to improve in vitro regeneration frequencies in several other monocot plants.
Project description:Zinc oxide, an established inorganic metal oxide in nanoparticles form exhibits tremendous anti-bacterial activity. The present study focuses on determining the anti-bacterial activity of green synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). Results clearly validate the effective synthesis of spherical shaped nanoparticles with average size range of 60-80?nm. SEM and EDAX data buttresses the results obtained by XRD pattern in terms of size and purity. ZnO NPs exhibited dose-dependent anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and the IC50 value was calculated to be around 20??g/mL. Growth kinetics study was conducted in the presence of nanoparticles which demonstrated the bacteriostatic effect of ZnO NPs. The study recommends the potential use of ZnO NPs in industries like food, pharmaceutical, agriculture, cosmetic industries for its anti-bacterial activity.
Project description:Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are being rapidly developed for use in consumer products, wastewater treatment and chemotherapy providing several possible routes for ZnO NP exposure to humans and aquatic organisms. Recent studies have shown that ZnO NPs undergo rapid dissolution to Zn+2, but the relative contribution of Zn+2 to ZnO NP bioavailability and toxicity is not clear. Gene expression profiling of D. magna exposed to ZnO NPs or ZnSO4 at equitoxic concentrations demonstrated that the particles cause toxicity through a distinct mechanism compared with Zn+2. D. magna were also exposed to a SiO NPs as a particle control at equimolar concentrations. The SiO NPs resulted in few differentially expressed genes and there was very little overlap between the genes affected by the ZnO NPs and the SiO NPs, suggesting that ZnO NPs cause a distinct pattern of differentially expressed genes. In the ZnO NP exposures, effects were observed to genes involved in cytoskeletal transport, cellular respiration and reproduction. Three biomarker genes including a multi-cystatin, ferritin and a C1q containing gene were confirmed as differentially expressed in a specific pattern by ZnO NP and provide a suite of biomarkers for identifying environmental exposure to ZnO NP and differentiating between NP and ionic exposure. Overall design: We exposed Daphnia magna to the 1/10 LC50 and LC25 of ZnO nanoparticles and Zn++ as ZnSO4 for 24-h. For each exposure condition, we performed 3 exposures and 2 technical replicates (as dye swap) for each exposure (6 microarrays total). All exposures were compared to a unexposed laboratory control
Project description:BACKGROUND:With the development of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in the field of nanotechnology, their toxicological effects are attracting increasing attention, and the mechanisms for ZnO NPs neurotoxicity remain obscure. In an attempt to address concerns regarding neurotoxicity of ZnO NPs, we explored the relationship between free zinc ions, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neurotoxic mechanisms in ZnO NPs-exposed PC12 cells. RESULT:This study demonstrated the requirement of free zinc ions shed by ZnO NPs to over generation of intracellular ROS. Next, we identified autophagic cell death was the major mode of cell death induced by ZnO NPs, and autophagosome accumulation resulted from not only induction of autophagy, but also blockade of autophagy flux. We concluded that autophagic cell death, resulting from zinc ions-ROS-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-autophagy positive feedback loop and blockade of autophagosomal-lysosomal fusion, played a major role in the neurotoxicity of ZnO NPs. CONCLUSION:Our study contributes to a better understanding of the neurotoxicity of ZnO NPs and might be useful for designing and developing new biosafety nanoparticles in the future.
Project description:Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are being rapidly developed for use in consumer products, wastewater treatment and chemotherapy providing several possible routes for ZnO NP exposure to humans and aquatic organisms. Recent studies have shown that ZnO NPs undergo rapid dissolution to Zn+2, but the relative contribution of Zn+2 to ZnO NP bioavailability and toxicity is not clear. Gene expression profiling of D. magna exposed to ZnO NPs or ZnSO4 at equitoxic concentrations demonstrated that the particles cause toxicity through a distinct mechanism compared with Zn+2. D. magna were also exposed to a SiO NPs as a particle control at equimolar concentrations. The SiO NPs resulted in few differentially expressed genes and there was very little overlap between the genes affected by the ZnO NPs and the SiO NPs, suggesting that ZnO NPs cause a distinct pattern of differentially expressed genes. In the ZnO NP exposures, effects were observed to genes involved in cytoskeletal transport, cellular respiration and reproduction. Three biomarker genes including a multi-cystatin, ferritin and a C1q containing gene were confirmed as differentially expressed in a specific pattern by ZnO NP and provide a suite of biomarkers for identifying environmental exposure to ZnO NP and differentiating between NP and ionic exposure. We exposed Daphnia magna to the 1/10 LC50 and LC25 of ZnO nanoparticles and Zn++ as ZnSO4 for 24-h. For each exposure condition, we performed 3 exposures and 2 technical replicates (as dye swap) for each exposure (6 microarrays total). All exposures were compared to a unexposed laboratory control
Project description:Prosthesis-associated infections and aseptic loosening are major causes of implant failure. There is an urgent need to improve the antibacterial ability and osseointegration of orthopedic implants. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are a common type of zinc-containing metal oxide nanoparticles that have been widely studied in many fields, such as food packaging, pollution treatment, and biomedicine. The ZnO-NPs have low toxicity and good biological functions, as well as antibacterial, anticancer, and osteogenic capabilities. Furthermore, ZnO-NPs can be easily obtained through various methods. Among them, green preparation methods can improve the bioactivity of ZnO-NPs and strengthen their potential application in the biological field. This review discusses the antibacterial abilities of ZnO-NPs, including mechanisms and influencing factors. The toxicity and shortcomings of anticancer applications are summarized. Furthermore, osteogenic mechanisms and synergy with other materials are introduced. Green preparation methods are also briefly reviewed.
Project description:Annually, tons and tons of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are produced in the world. And they are applied in almost all aspects of our life. Their release from the products into environment may pose issue for human health. Although many studies have reported the adverse effects of ZnO NPs on organisms, little is known about the effects on female reproductive systems or the related mechanisms. Quantitative proteomics have not been applied although quantitative transcriptomics have been used in zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) research. Genes are very important players however proteins are the real actors in the biological systems. By using hen's ovarian granulosa cells, it was found that ZnO-NP-5?g/ml and ZnSO4-10?g/ml treatments produced the same amount of intracellular Zn and resulted in similar cell growth inhibition. And NPs were found in the treated cells. However, ZnO-NP-5?g/ml specifically regulated the expression of genes and proteins compared with that in ZnSO4-10?g/ml treatment. For the first time, this investigation reports that intact NPs produce different impacts on the expression of genes and proteins involved in specific pathways compared to that by Zn2+. The findings enrich our knowledge for the molecular insights of zinc oxide nanoparticles effects on the female reproductive systems. This also may raise the health concern that ZnO NPs may adversely affect the female reproductive systems through regulation of specific signaling pathways.
Project description:The present work describes the in vitro synthesis and characterization of Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using an enzyme alpha amylase, the synthesized nanoparticles were used to study their beneficial effect in the growth and development of Brassica juncea. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) image reveals the average size of ZnO NPs was 11?nm and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) suggests nanoparticles were crystalline in nature. In-silico study confirmed lysine, glutamine and tyrosine present in alpha amylase enzyme, plays a crucial role in the reduction of Zinc acetate dihydrate to ZnO NPs. The biochemical parameters and oxidative enzymes of Brassica juncea were compared with ZnO NPs treated plants. The effect of ZnO NPs on the cellular expression of metal tolerant protein (BjMTP) and cation efflux transporter gene (BjCET2) was also studied. The results indicate that nanoparticles can be used as a replacement for traditional harmful chemical fertilizers.
Project description:Abstract: Nanoparticles (NPs) are expected to make their way into the aquatic environment where sedimentation of particles will likely occur, putting benthic organisms at particular risk. Therefore, organisms such as Hyalella azteca, an epibenthic crustacean which forages at the sediment surface, is likely to have a high potential exposure. Here we show that Zinc Oxide (ZnO) NPs are more toxic to H. azteca compared with the corresponding metal ion, Zn2+. Dissolution of ZnO NPs contributes about 50% of the Zn measured in the ZnO NP suspensions, and cannot account for the toxicity of these particles to H. azteca. However, gene expression analysis is unable to distinguish between the ZnO NP exposures and Zinc Sulfate (ZnSO4) exposures at equitoxic concentrations. These results lead us to hypothesize that ZnO NPs provide and an enhanced exposure route for Zn2+ uptake into H. azteca, and possibly other sediment dwelling organisms. Our study supports the prediction that sediment dwelling organisms are highly susceptible to the effects of ZnO NPs and should be considered in the risk assessment of these nanomaterials. This experiment included four different treatments and an untreated control. Each treatment or control, consisted of ten independent replicates of twenty Hyalella azteca. Of these, six were randomly chosen to be used for the microarray analysis.
Project description:The toxicity and accumulation of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), ZnO microparticles (ZnO-MPs) and Zn ions were evaluated after long-term feeding with zinc-replenished food (1600 mg zinc equivalent per kg food) for 270 consecutive days. It was difficult for ZnO-NPs, ZnO-MPs and Zn ions were difficult to pass through the intestine barrier, and most of them were excreted mainly through feces. The distribution results showed that there was no noticeable difference among the distribution profiles of ZnO-NPs, ZnO-MPs and Zn ions in mice. Zn accumulated only in the digestive tract organs after the exposure to all three samples. However, the biomedical parameters and pathological investigations showed liver lesions induced by ZnO-MPs, but fewer by ZnO-NPs or Zn ions. The reason for the remarkably low in vivo toxicity of ZnO-NPs is discussed. Our findings suggest that ZnO-NPs are relatively biocompatible as the nutritional additive at the commonly used dose.
Project description:Despite a decade of engineering and process improvements, bacterial infection remains the primary threat to implanted medical devices. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have demonstrated antimicrobial properties. Their microbial selectivity, stability, ease of production, and low cost make them attractive alternatives to silver NPs or antimicrobial peptides. Here we sought to (1) determine the relative efficacy of ZnO-NPs on planktonic growth of medically relevant pathogens; (2) establish the role of bacterial surface chemistry on ZnO-NP effectiveness; (3) evaluate NP shape as a factor in the dose-response; and (4) evaluate layer-by-layer (LBL) ZnO-NP surface coatings on biofilm growth. ZnO-NPs inhibited bacterial growth in a shape-dependent manner not previously seen or predicted. Pyramid shaped particles were the most effective and contrary to previous work, larger particles were more effective than smaller particles. Differential susceptibility of pathogens may be related to their surface hydrophobicity. LBL ZnO-NO coatings reduced staphylococcal biofilm burden by >95%. From the Clinical Editor: The use of medical implants is widespread. However, bacterial colonization remains a major concern. In this article, the authors investigated the use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) to prevent bacterial infection. They showed in their experiments that ZnO-NPs significantly inhibited bacterial growth. This work may present a new alternative in using ZnO-NPs in medical devices.