Developing of Low-Cost Air Pollution Sensor-Measurements with the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Poland.
ABSTRACT: This article presents the capabilities and selected measurement results from the newly developed low-cost air pollution measurement system mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The system is designed and manufactured by the authors and is intended to facilitate, accelerate, and ensure the safety of operators when measuring air pollutants. It allows the creation of three-dimensional models and measurement visualizations, thanks to which it is possible to observe the location of leakage of substances and the direction of air pollution spread by various types of substances. Based on these models, it is possible to create area audits and strategies for the elimination of pollution sources. Thanks to the usage of a multi-socket microprocessor system, the combination of nine different air quality sensors can be installed in a very small device. The possibility of simultaneously measuring several different substances has been achieved at a very low cost for building the sensor unit: 70 EUR. The very small size of this device makes it easy and safe to mount it on a small drone (UAV). Because of this device, many harmful chemical compounds such as ammonia, hexane, benzene, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide, as well as flammable substances such as hydrogen and methane, can be detected. Additionally, a very important function is the ability to perform measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 suspended particulates. Thanks to the use of UAV, the measurement is carried out remotely by the operator, which allows us to avoid the direct exposure of humans to harmful factors. A big advantage is the quick measurement of large spaces, at different heights above the ground, in different weather conditions. Because of the three-dimensional positioning from GPS receiver, users can plot points and use colors reflecting a concentration of measured features to better visualize the air pollution. A human-friendly data output can be used to determine the mostly hazardous regions of the sampled area.
Project description:Air quality data collection near pollution sources is difficult, particularly when sites are complex, have physical barriers, or are themselves moving. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) offer new approaches to air pollution and atmospheric studies. However, there are a number of critical design decisions which need to be made to enable representative data collection, in particular the location of the air sampler or air sensor intake. The aim of this research was to establish the best mounting point for four gas sensors and a Particle Number Concentration (PNC) monitor, onboard a hexacopter, so to develop a UAV system capable of measuring point source emissions. The research included two different tests: (1) evaluate the air flow behavior of a hexacopter, its downwash and upwash effect, by measuring air speed along three axes to determine the location where the sensors should be mounted; (2) evaluate the use of gas sensors for CO?, CO, NO? and NO, and the PNC monitor (DISCmini) to assess the efficiency and performance of the UAV based system by measuring emissions from a diesel engine. The air speed behavior map produced by test 1 shows the best mounting point for the sensors to be alongside the UAV. This position is less affected by the propeller downwash effect. Test 2 results demonstrated that the UAV propellers cause a dispersion effect shown by the decrease of gas and PN concentration measured in real time. A Linear Regression model was used to estimate how the sensor position, relative to the UAV center, affects pollutant concentration measurements when the propellers are turned on. This research establishes guidelines on how to develop a UAV system to measure point source emissions. Such research should be undertaken before any UAV system is developed for real world data collection.
Project description:Air pollution is defined as a phenomenon harmful to the ecological system and the normal conditions of human existence and development when some substances in the atmosphere exceed a certain concentration. In the face of increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, scholars have conducted a significant quantity of related research, and in those studies, the forecasting of air pollution has been of paramount importance. As a precaution, the air pollution forecast is the basis for taking effective pollution control measures, and accurate forecasting of air pollution has become an important task. Extensive research indicates that the methods of air pollution forecasting can be broadly divided into three classical categories: statistical forecasting methods, artificial intelligence methods, and numerical forecasting methods. More recently, some hybrid models have been proposed, which can improve the forecast accuracy. To provide a clear perspective on air pollution forecasting, this study reviews the theory and application of those forecasting models. In addition, based on a comparison of different forecasting methods, the advantages and disadvantages of some methods of forecasting are also provided. This study aims to provide an overview of air pollution forecasting methods for easy access and reference by researchers, which will be helpful in further studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Some experimental studies revealed that exposure to air pollution increases the expression of tissue factor (TF) in atherosclerotic lesions. We aimed to investigate the role of TF +5466A>G (rs3917643) polymorphism in the association of air pollution on serum levels of TF as a biomarker of vascular injury in children. METHODS:This cross-sectional study was conducted among 110 children, consisting of 58 (52.8%) girls and 52 (47.2%) boys with a mean age of 12.7 ± 2.3 years, living in Isfahan, Iran. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for measurement of serum TF. Genotype of +5466A>G (rs3917643) polymorphism was determined by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction length fragment polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. RESULTS:We identified 2 individuals with +5466AG genotype and 108 homozygous for the +5466A allele (no +5466GG homozygotes). The mean pollution standards index (PSI) value was at moderate level, the mean particular matter measuring up to 10 ?m (PM(10)) was more than twice the normal level. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that after adjustment for confounding factors (weight status, dietary and physical activity pattern), serum TF level had significant relationship with PSI (beta: 0.55, SE: 0.07, p<0.000) and PM(10) (beta: 0.51, SE: 0.03, p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS:In spite of similar genetic polymorphism of TF, air pollutants might have an independent association with systemic inflammatory and coagulation responses. The harmful effects of air pollutants on the first stages of atherosclerosis in the pediatric age group should be underscored in primordial and primary prevention of chronic diseases.
Project description:One of our era's greatest scourges is air pollution, on account not only of its impact on climate change but also its impact on public and individual health due to increasing morbidity and mortality. There are many pollutants that are major factors in disease in humans. Among them, Particulate Matter (PM), particles of variable but very small diameter, penetrate the respiratory system via inhalation, causing respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, reproductive and central nervous system dysfunctions, and cancer. Despite the fact that ozone in the stratosphere plays a protective role against ultraviolet irradiation, it is harmful when in high concentration at ground level, also affecting the respiratory and cardiovascular system. Furthermore, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), dioxins, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are all considered air pollutants that are harmful to humans. Carbon monoxide can even provoke direct poisoning when breathed in at high levels. Heavy metals such as lead, when absorbed into the human body, can lead to direct poisoning or chronic intoxication, depending on exposure. Diseases occurring from the aforementioned substances include principally respiratory problems such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiolitis, and also lung cancer, cardiovascular events, central nervous system dysfunctions, and cutaneous diseases. Last but not least, climate change resulting from environmental pollution affects the geographical distribution of many infectious diseases, as do natural disasters. The only way to tackle this problem is through public awareness coupled with a multidisciplinary approach by scientific experts; national and international organizations must address the emergence of this threat and propose sustainable solutions.
Project description:Household air pollution is estimated to be responsible for nearly three million premature deaths annually. Measuring fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) may improve the limited understanding of the association of household air pollution and airway inflammation. We evaluated the cross-sectional association of FeNO with exposure to household air pollution (24-h average kitchen and personal fine particulate matter and black carbon; stove type) among 139 women in rural Honduras using traditional stoves or cleaner-burning Justa stoves. We additionally evaluated interaction by age. Results were generally consistent with a null association; we did not observe a consistent pattern for interaction by age. Evidence from ambient and household air pollution regarding FeNO is inconsistent, and may be attributable to differing study populations, exposures, and FeNO measurement procedures (e.g., the flow rate used to measure FeNO).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Air pollution is a leading cause of global disease burden. Lack of suitable methods for long term measuring exposure level at individual level is crippling environmental epidemiology research of air pollution. METHODS:We report an integrative system, Bio3Air, for long term measurement of individual level air pollution exposure, currently focusing on ambient particulate matter (PM). The novel system in real-time quantifies individual's outdoor/indoor status, geological location, lung ventilation rate and PM concentration of individual's surrounding environment, and these metrics are subsequently incorporated in calculating PM exposure. RESULTS:The system is fully developed and tested in China, USA and Canada, and has been successfully applied in epidemiology study. Bio3Air offers high reliability, sensitivity, reproducibility (>99%) and accuracy. It has high time- and spatial- resolution (? 2?min and ? 20?m, respectively). Bio3Air achieved 91.89% consistency with "gold-standard" method (membrane collection and off-line analysis). CONCLUSIONS:Bio3Air represents a substantial methodological advance in environmental health research of air pollution. It captures information relevant in measuring individual's PM exposure (e.g. real-time outdoor/indoor status, location and lung ventilation rate). Such information is typically missed by conventional approaches. Additional features of Bio3Air include easy-to-use, cost-effectiveness and automated data collection, making it a powerful tool facilitating studies of air pollution exposure and health consequences.
Project description:The World Health Organization in 2016 estimated that over 20% of the global disease burden and deaths were attributed to modifiable environmental factors. However, data clearly characterizing the impact of environmental exposures and health endpoints in African populations is limited. To describe recent progress and identify important research gaps, we reviewed literature on environmental health research in African populations over the last decade, as well as research incorporating both genomic and environmental factors. We queried PubMed for peer-reviewed research articles, reviews, or books examining environmental exposures and health outcomes in human populations in Africa. Searches utilized medical subheading (MeSH) terms for environmental exposure categories listed in the March 2018 US National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, which includes chemicals with worldwide distributions. Our search strategy retrieved 540 relevant publications, with studies evaluating health impacts of ambient air pollution (n=105), indoor air pollution (n = 166), heavy metals (n = 130), pesticides (n = 95), dietary mold (n = 61), indoor mold (n = 9), per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs, n = 0), electronic waste (n = 9), environmental phenols (n = 4), flame retardants (n = 8), and phthalates (n = 3), where publications could belong to more than one exposure category. Only 23 publications characterized both environmental and genomic risk factors. Cardiovascular and respiratory health endpoints impacted by air pollution were comparable to observations in other countries. Air pollution exposures unique to Africa and some other resource limited settings were dust and specific occupational exposures. Literature describing harmful health effects of metals, pesticides, and dietary mold represented a context unique to Africa. Studies of exposures to phthalates, PFASs, phenols, and flame retardants were very limited. These results underscore the need for further focus on current and emerging environmental and chemical health risks as well as better integration of genomic and environmental factors in African research studies. Environmental exposures with distinct routes of exposure, unique co-exposures and co-morbidities, combined with the extensive genomic diversity in Africa may lead to the identification of novel mechanisms underlying complex disease and promising potential for translation to global public health.
Project description:Indian cities struggle with some of the highest ambient air pollution levels in the world. While national efforts are building momentum towards concerted action to reduce air pollution, individual cities are taking action on this challenge to protect communities from the many health problems caused by this harmful environmental exposure. In 2017, the city of Ahmedabad launched a regional air pollution monitoring and risk communication project, the Air Information and Response (AIR) Plan. The centerpiece of the plan is an air quality index developed by the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology’s System for Air Quality and Weather Forecasting and Research program that summarizes information from 10 new continuous air pollution monitoring stations in the region, each reporting data that can help people avoid harmful exposures and inform policy strategies to achieve cleaner air. This paper focuses on the motivation, development, and implementation of Ahmedabad’s AIR Plan. The project is discussed in terms of its collaborative roots, public health purpose in addressing the grave threat of air pollution (particularly to vulnerable groups), technical aspects in deploying air monitoring technology, and broader goals for the dissemination of an air quality index linked to specific health messages and suggested actions to reduce harmful exposures. The city of Ahmedabad is among the first cities in India where city leaders, state government, and civil society are proactively working together to address the country’s air pollution challenge with a focus on public health. The lessons learned from the development of the AIR Plan serve as a template for other cities aiming to address the heavy burden of air pollution on public health. Effective working relationships are vital since they form the foundation for long-term success and useful knowledge sharing beyond a single city.
Project description:Human exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution has been linked with respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases, in addition to various cancers. Consistent among all of these associations is the hypothesis that PM induces inflammation and oxidative stress in the affected tissue. Consequently, a variety of assays have been developed to quantify the oxidative activity of PM as a means to characterize its ability to induced oxidative stress. The vast majority of these assays rely on high-volume, fixed-location sampling methods due to limitations in assay sensitivity and detection limit. As a result, our understanding of how personal exposure contributes to the intake of oxidative air pollution is limited. To further this understanding, we present a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (?PAD) for measuring PM oxidative activity on filters collected by personal sampling. The ?PAD is inexpensive to fabricate and provides fast and sensitive analysis of aerosol oxidative activity. The oxidative activity measurement is based on the dithiothreitol assay (DTT assay), uses colorimetric detection, and can be completed in the field within 30 min following sample collection. The ?PAD assay was validated against the traditional DTT assay using 13 extracted aerosol samples including urban aerosols, biomass burning PM, cigarette smoke, and incense smoke. The results showed no significant differences in DTT consumption rate measured by the two methods. To demonstrate the utility of the approach, personal samples were collected to estimate human exposures to PM from indoor air, outdoor air on a clean day, and outdoor air on a wildfire-impacted day in Fort Collins, CO. Filter samples collected on the wildfire day gave the highest oxidative activity on a mass normalized basis, whereas typical ambient background air showed the lowest oxidative activity.
Project description:Air pollution with PM2.5 (particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micro-metres in diameter) is a major health hazard in many cities worldwide, but since measuring instruments have traditionally been expensive, monitoring sites are rare and generally show only background concentrations. With the advent of low-cost, wirelessly connected sensors, air quality measurements are increasingly being made in places where many people spend time and pollution is much worse: on streets near traffic. In the interests of enabling members of the public to measure the air that they breathe, we took an open-source approach to designing a device for measuring PM2.5. Parts are relatively cheap, but of good quality and can be easily found in electronics or hardware stores, or on-line. Software is open source and the free LoRaWAN-based "The Things Network" the platform. A number of low-cost sensors we tested had problems, but those selected performed well when co-located with reference-quality instruments. A network of the devices was deployed in an urban centre, yielding valuable data for an extended time. Concentrations of PM2.5 at street level were often ten times worse than at air quality stations. The devices and network offer the opportunity for measurements in locations that concern the public.