Gut Microbiota Abrogates Anti-?-Gal IgA Response in Lungs and Protects against Experimental Aspergillus Infection in Poultry.
ABSTRACT: Naturally occurring human antibodies (Abs) of the isotypes IgM and IgG and reactive to the galactose-?-1,3-galactose (?-Gal) epitope are associated with protection against infectious diseases, caused by pathogens expressing the glycan. Gut microbiota bacteria expressing ?-Gal regulate the immune response to this glycan in animals lacking endogenous ?-Gal. Here, we asked whether the production of anti-?-Gal Abs in response to microbiota stimulation in birds, confers protection against infection by Aspergillus fumigatus, a major fungal pathogen that expresses ?-Gal in its surface. We demonstrated that the oral administration of Escherichia coli O86:B7 strain, a bacterium with high ?-Gal content, reduces the occurrence of granulomas in lungs and protects turkeys from developing acute aspergillosis. Surprisingly, the protective effect of E. coli O86:B7 was not associated with an increase in circulating anti-?-Gal IgY levels, but with a striking reduction of anti-?-Gal IgA in the lungs of infected turkeys. Subcutaneous immunization against ?-Gal did not induce a significant reduction of lung anti-?-Gal IgA and failed to protect against an infectious challenge with A. fumigatus. Oral administration of E. coli O86:B7 was not associated with the upregulation of lung cytokines upon A. fumigatus infection. We concluded that the oral administration of bacteria expressing high levels of ?-Gal decreases the levels of lung anti-?-Gal IgA, which are mediators of inflammation and lung damage during acute aspergillosis.
Project description:Glycosylation processes are under high natural selection pressure, presumably because these can modulate resistance to infection. Here, we asked whether inactivation of the UDP-galactose:β-galactoside-α1-3-galactosyltransferase (α1,3GT) gene, which ablated the expression of the Galα1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc-R (α-gal) glycan and allowed for the production of anti-α-gal antibodies (Abs) in humans, confers protection against Plasmodium spp. infection, the causative agent of malaria and a major driving force in human evolution. We demonstrate that both Plasmodium spp. and the human gut pathobiont E. coli O86:B7 express α-gal and that anti-α-gal Abs are associated with protection against malaria transmission in humans as well as in α1,3GT-deficient mice, which produce protective anti-α-gal Abs when colonized by E. coli O86:B7. Anti-α-gal Abs target Plasmodium sporozoites for complement-mediated cytotoxicity in the skin, immediately after inoculation by Anopheles mosquitoes. Vaccination against α-gal confers sterile protection against malaria in mice, suggesting that a similar approach may reduce malaria transmission in humans.
Project description:Escherichia coli O86:B7 has long been used as a model bacterial strain to study the generation of natural blood group antibody in humans, and it has been shown to possess high human blood B activity. The O-antigen structure of O86:B7 was solved recently in our laboratory. Comparison with the published structure of O86:H2 showed that both O86 subtypes shared the same O unit, yet each of the O antigens is polymerized from a different terminal sugar in a different glycosidic linkage. To determine the genetic basis for the O-antigen differences between the two O86 strains, we report the complete sequence of O86:B7 O-antigen gene cluster between galF and hisI, each gene was identified based on homology to other genes in the GenBank databases. Comparison of the two O86 O-antigen gene clusters revealed that the encoding regions between galF and gnd are identical, including wzy genes. However, deletion of the two wzy genes revealed that wzy in O86:B7 is responsible for the polymerization of the O antigen, while the deletion of wzy in O86:H2 has no effect on O-antigen biosynthesis. Therefore, we proposed that there must be another functional wzy gene outside the O86:H2 O-antigen gene cluster. Wzz proteins determine the degree of polymerization of the O antigen. When separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of O86:B7 exhibited a modal distribution of LPS bands with relatively short O units attached to lipid A-core, which differs from the LPS pattern of O86:H2. We proved that the wzz genes are responsible for the different LPS patterns found in the two O86 subtypes, and we also showed that the very short type of LPS is responsible for the serum sensitivity of the O86:B7 strain.
Project description:The protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease (ChD), has a cell surface covered by immunogenic glycoconjugates. One of the immunodominant glycotopes, the trisaccharide Gal?(1,3)Gal?(1,4)GlcNAc?, is expressed on glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored mucins of the infective trypomastigote stage of T. cruzi and triggers high levels of protective anti-?-Gal antibodies (Abs) in infected individuals. Here, we have efficiently synthesized the mercaptopropyl glycoside of that glycotope and conjugated it to maleimide-derivatized bovine serum albumin (BSA). Chemiluminescent-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that Gal?(1,3)Gal?(1,4)GlcNAc?-BSA is recognized by purified anti-?-Gal Abs from chronic ChD patients ?230-fold more strongly than by anti-?-Gal Abs from sera of healthy individuals (NHS anti-?-Gal). Similarly, the pooled sera of chronic Chagas disease patients (ChHSP) recognized Gal?(1,3)Gal?(1,4)GlcNAc? ?20-fold more strongly than pooled NHS. In contrast, the underlying disaccharide Gal?(1,4)GlcNAc? and the monosaccharide GlcNAc? or GlcNAc? conjugated to BSA are poorly or not recognized by purified anti-?-Gal Abs or sera from Chagasic patients or healthy individuals. Our results highlight the importance of the terminal Gal? moiety for recognition by Ch anti-?-Gal Abs and the lack of Abs against nonself Gal?(1,4)GlcNAc? and GlcNAc? glycotopes. The substantial difference in binding of Ch vs. NHS anti-?-Gal Abs to Gal?(1,3)Gal?(1,4)GlcNAc?-BSA suggests that this neoglycoprotein (NGP) might be suitable for experimental vaccination. To this end, the Gal?(1,3)Gal?(1,4)GlcNAc?-BSA NGP was then used to immunize ?1,3-galactosyltransferase-knockout mice, which produced antibody titers 40-fold higher as compared with pre-immunization titers. Taken together, our results indicate that the synthetic Gal?(1,3)Gal?(1,4)GlcNAc? glycotope coupled to a carrier protein could be a potential diagnostic and vaccine candidate for ChD.
Project description:Humoral deficiencies represent a broad group of disorders. The aim of the study was to compare the levels of antibodies against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides (anti-PCP) and natural anti-galactosyl (anti-Gal) antibodies in (1) patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), (2) patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), and (3) a healthy population and to explore their diagnostic and prognostic potential. Serum immunoglobulin levels and levels of anti-Gal IgG, IgA, and IgM and anti-PCP IgG and IgG2 were determined in 59 CLL patients, 30 CVID patients, and 67 healthy controls. Levels of IgG, IgA, IgM, anti-Gal IgA, anti-Gal IgM, and anti-PCP IgA were lower in CLL and CVID patients than in healthy controls (p value for all parameters <?0.0001). Decrease in the levels of IgA, IgM, anti-Gal IgA, and anti-PCP IgA was less pronounced in the CLL group than in the CVID group. IgA decline, anti-Gal IgA, anti-PCP IgA, and anti-PCP IgG2 were negatively correlated with CLL stage. We devise the evaluation of anti-Gal antibodies to be a routine test in humoral immunodeficiency diagnostics, even in cases of immunoglobulin substitution therapy. Significant reductions, mainly in anti-Gal IgA, IgM, and anti-PCP IgA levels, may have prognostic importance in CLL patients.
Project description:Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a life-threatening lung disease of hematological malignancy or bone marrow transplant patients caused by the ubiquitous environmental fungus <i>Aspergillus fumigatus</i>. Current diagnostic tests for the disease lack sensitivity as well as specificity, and culture of the fungus from invasive lung biopsy, considered the gold standard for IPA detection, is slow and often not possible in critically ill patients. In a previous study, we reported the development of a novel non-invasive procedure for IPA diagnosis based on antibody-guided positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (immunoPET/MRI) using a [<sup>64</sup>Cu]DOTA-labeled mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb), mJF5, specific to <i>Aspergillus</i>. To enable translation of the tracer to the clinical setting, we report here the development of a humanised version of the antibody (hJF5), and pre-clinical imaging of lung infection using a [<sup>64</sup>Cu]NODAGA-hJF5 tracer. The humanised antibody tracer shows a significant increase in <i>in vivo</i> biodistribution in <i>A. fumigatus</i> infected lungs compared to its radiolabeled murine counterpart [<sup>64</sup>Cu]NODAGA-mJF5. Using reverse genetics of the pathogen, we show that the antibody binds to the antigenic determinant ?1,5-galactofuranose (Gal<i>f</i>) present in a diagnostic mannoprotein antigen released by the pathogen during invasive growth in the lung. The absence of the epitope Gal<i>f</i> in mammalian carbohydrates, coupled with the enhanced imaging capabilities of the hJF5 antibody, means that the [<sup>64</sup>Cu]NODAGA-hJF5 tracer developed here represents an ideal candidate for the diagnosis of IPA and translation to the clinical setting.
Project description:Exposure to the mold Aspergillus fumigatus may result in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, or invasive aspergillosis (IA), depending on the host's immune status. Neutrophil deficiency is the predominant risk factor for the development of IA, the most life-threatening condition associated with A. fumigatus exposure. Here we demonstrate that in addition to neutrophils, eosinophils are an important contributor to the clearance of A. fumigatus from the lung. Acute A. fumigatus challenge in normal mice induced the recruitment of CD11b+ Siglec F+ Ly-6G(lo) Ly-6C(neg) CCR3+ eosinophils to the lungs, which was accompanied by an increase in lung Epx (eosinophil peroxidase) mRNA levels. Mice deficient in the transcription factor dblGATA1, which exhibit a selective deficiency in eosinophils, demonstrated impaired A. fumigatus clearance and evidence of germinating organisms in the lung. Higher burden correlated with lower mRNA expression of Epx (eosinophil peroxidase) and Prg2 (major basic protein) as well as lower interleukin 1? (IL-1?), IL-6, IL-17A, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and CXCL1 levels. However, examination of lung inflammatory cell populations failed to demonstrate defects in monocyte/macrophage, dendritic cell, or neutrophil recruitment in dblGATA1-deficient mice, suggesting that the absence of eosinophils in dlbGATA1-deficient mice was the sole cause of impaired lung clearance. We show that eosinophils generated from bone marrow have potent killing activity against A. fumigtaus in vitro, which does not require cell contact and can be recapitulated by eosinophil whole-cell lysates. Collectively, our data support a role for eosinophils in the lung response after A. fumigatus exposure.
Project description:Invasive aspergillosis is a leading cause of infectious death in immunosuppressed patients. Here, we adapted a phage display library-based selection to screen and identify binding peptides to the surface of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia and hyphae. We identified a peptide (sequence CGGRLGPFC) that reliably binds to the surface of Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae. Binding was not Aspergillus strain specific, as it was also observed in hyphae of other Aspergillus clinical isolates. Furthermore, CGGRLGPFC-displaying phage targets Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded histopathology sections of lung tissue recovered from mice with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. This approach may yield reagents such as peptidomimetics for novel diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in invasive aspergillosis.
Project description:Invasive aspergillosis (IA) resulting from infection by Aspergillus fumigatus is a leading cause of death in immunosuppressed populations. There are limited therapeutic options for this disease and currently no vaccine. There is evidence that some anti-A. fumigatus mAbs can provide protection against IA. However, vaccine development has been impeded by a paucity of immunological targets on this organism demonstrated to provide protective responses. Sialylated oligosaccharide epitopes found on a variety of pathogens, including fungi and group B streptococci (GBS), are thought to be major virulence factors of these organisms facilitating pathogen attachment to host cells and modulating complement activation and phagocytosis. Because some of these oligosaccharide structures are conserved across kingdoms, we screened a panel of mAbs raised against GBS serotypes for reactivity to A. fumigatus. This approach revealed that SMB19, a GBSIb type-specific mAb, reacts with A. fumigatus conidia and hyphae. The presence of this Ab in mice, as a result of passive or active immunization, or by enforced expression of the SMB19 H chain as a transgene, results in significant protection in both i.v. and airway-induced models of IA. This study demonstrates that some Abs generated against bacterial polysaccharides engage fungal pathogens and promote their clearance in vivo and thus provide rationale of alternative strategies for the development of vaccines or therapeutic mAbs against these organisms.
Project description:Exposure to the mold, Aspergillus, is ubiquitous and generally has no adverse consequences in immunocompetent persons. However, invasive and allergic aspergillosis can develop in immunocompromised and atopic individuals, respectively. Previously, we demonstrated that mouse lung eosinophils produce IL-17 in response to stimulation by live conidia and antigens of A. fumigatus. Here, we utilized murine models of allergic and acute pulmonary aspergillosis to determine the association of IL-23, IL-23R and RORγt with eosinophil IL-17 expression. Following A. fumigatus stimulation, a population of lung eosinophils expressed RORγt, the master transcription factor for IL-17 regulation. Eosinophil RORγt expression was demonstrated by flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, western blotting and an mCherry reporter mouse. Both nuclear and cytoplasmic localization of RORγt in eosinophils were observed, although the former predominated. A population of lung eosinophils also expressed IL-23R. While expression of IL-23R was positively correlated with expression of RORγt, expression of RORγt and IL-17 was similar when comparing lung eosinophils from A. fumigatus-challenged wild-type and IL-23p19-/- mice. Thus, in allergic and acute models of pulmonary aspergillosis, lung eosinophils express IL-17, RORγt and IL-23R. However, IL-23 is dispensable for production of IL-17 and RORγt.
Project description:Because of a loss-of-function mutation in the GGTA1 gene, humans are unable to synthetize ?1,3-Galactose (Gal) decorated glycans and develop high levels of circulating anti-?1,3-Galactose antibodies (anti-Gal Abs). Anti-Gal Abs have been identified as a major obstacle of organ xenotransplantation and play a role in several host-pathogen relationships including potential susceptibility to infection. Anti-Gal Abs are supposed to stem from immunization against the gut microbiota, an assumption derived from the observation that some pathogens display ?1,3-Gal and that antibiotic treatment decreases the level of anti-Gal. However, there is little information to date concerning the microorganisms producing ?1,3-Gal in the human gut microbiome. Here, available ?1,3-Galactosyltransferase (GT) gene sequences from gut bacteria were selectively quantified for the first time in the gut microbiome shotgun sequences of 163 adult individuals from three published population-based metagenomics analyses. We showed that most of the gut microbiome of adult individuals contained a small set of bacteria bearing ?1,3-GT genes. These bacteria belong mainly to the Enterobacteriaceae family, including Escherichia coli, but also to Pasteurellaceae genera, Haemophilus influenza and Lactobacillus species. ?1,3-Gal antigens and ?1,3-GT activity were detected in healthy stools of individuals exhibiting ?1,3-GT bacterial gene sequences in their shotgun data.