Dermatologists' Role in the Early Diagnosis of Psoriatic Arthritis: Expert Recommendations.
ABSTRACT: Psoriatic arthritis is a common type of inflammatory arthritis found in up to 40% of patients with psoriasis. Because skin involvement usually precedes joint involvement, dermatologists play a key role in early detection. Early diagnosis is important for reducing the risk of irreversible structural damage, attenuating the deterioration of physical function, and improving patients' quality of life. This consensus statement was drafted by a group of 9 dermatologists and 1 rheumatologist to provide simple recommendations to help dermatologists screen for psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis. The experts offer consensus-based guidelines that draw on a review of available scientific evidence and on experience acquired in routine clinical practice.
Project description:Psoriasis (skin psoriasis, PsO) is a chronic inflammatory condition. In about one-third of cases, the joints are affected (psoriatic arthritis, PsA). Both conditions, especially PsA, profoundly impact patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). To describe the impact of psoriasis on HRQoL and patients' contact with the healthcare system in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway, the NORdic PAtient survey of Psoriasis and Psoriatic arthritis (NORPAPP) asked 22,050 adults randomly selected in Sweden, Denmark and Norway if they had psoriasis. 1264 individuals who reported physician-diagnosed PsO/PsA were invited to the full survey; 1221 responded (74.6% diagnosed with PsO alone; 25.4% with PsA ± PsO). Respondents with PsA most frequently consulted a rheumatologist; however, 14.3% had never seen a rheumatologist. Respondents with PsO alone most frequently consulted a general practitioner and 10.7% had never seen a dermatologist (although those with severe symptoms visited dermatologists more often). Negative impacts on HRQoL were reported by 38.1% of respondents with PsO [mostly limitations on clothing (22.6%), sleep disorders (16%), and depression/anxiety (16%)] and by 73% of respondents with PsA [mostly limitations on clothing (41.8%), sports/leisure (44.0%), or daily routine (45.1%) and sleeping disorders]. Absence from work/education was more common with PsA ± PsO (51.9%) than PsO alone (15.1%). In this survey in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway, the impact of psoriasis on the respondents' HRQoL was profound and was greater for PsA than for PsO, as was sickness absence. Sleeping disorders and depression were common and should not be overlooked.
Project description:The perceived bother of skin and joint-related manifestations of psoriatic disease may differ among patients, rheumatologists, and dermatologists. This study identified and compared the patient and dermatologist/rheumatologist-perceived bother of psoriatic disease manifestations.Online surveys were administered to patients with both psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis and to dermatologists and rheumatologists. Object-case best-worst scaling was used to identify the most and least bothersome items from a set of five items in a series of questions. Each item set was drawn from 20 items describing psoriatic disease skin and joint symptoms and impacts on daily activities. Survey responses were analyzed using random-parameters logit models for each surveyed group, yielding a relative-bother weight (RBW) for each item compared with joint pain, soreness, or tenderness.Surveys were completed by 200 patients, 150 dermatologists, and 150 rheumatologists. Patients and physicians agreed that joint pain, soreness, and tenderness are among the most bothersome manifestations of psoriatic disease (RBW 1.00). For patients, painful, inflamed, or broken skin (RBW 1.03) was more bothersome, while both rheumatologists and dermatologists considered painful skin much less bothersome (RBW 0.17 and 0.22, respectively) than joint pain. Relative to joint pain, rheumatologists were more likely to perceive other joint symptoms as bothersome, while dermatologists were more likely to perceive other skin symptoms as bothersome.This study has identified important areas of discordance both between patients and physicians and between rheumatologists and dermatologists about the relative bother of a comprehensive set of psoriatic disease symptoms and functional impacts. Both physician specialists should ask patients which manifestations of psoriatic disease are most bothersome to them, as these discussions may have important implications for drug and other patient management options.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Consensus among dermatologists and rheumatologists in the diagnosis and assessment of musculoskeletal diseases in psoriasis (PsO) patients is needed. This study assesses characteristics of musculoskeletal pain in patients with PsO for the presence of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and evaluation of a novel 16-item visual instrument (PsA-Disk).<h4>Methods</h4>Data were collected from eight dermatological/rheumatological centres across Italy. Patients with PsO completed PEST (Psoriasis Epidemiology Screening Tool) and PsA-Disk questionnaires during the first visit. A rheumatological visit was performed to confirm the presence of PsA. Both validity and reliability of PsA-Disk were assessed.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 573 patients with PsO were examined at the first visit, and 120 (21%) were diagnosed with PsA. Patients with PsA compared with patients with PsO (<i>n</i> = 119) presented statistically significant differences for: nail involvement, PEST score ?3, higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI)-feet, NAPSI-(hands + feet) and PsA-Disk scores (73.9?±?32.1 <i>versus</i> 58.1?±?39.8, <i>p?</i><?0.001). Patients with PsA with knee arthritis had higher PsA-Disk scores (98.4?±?26 <i>versus</i> 71.5?±?31.9, <i>p?</i>=?0.006) that were also correlated with number of swollen (<i>r?</i>=?0.2, <i>p</i> < 0.05) and tender joints (<i>r</i> = 0.24, <i>p</i> = 0.021), patient (<i>r</i> = 0.4, <i>p</i> < 0.001) and physician-pain-visual analogue scale (VAS; <i>r</i> = 0.33, <i>p</i> < 0.001), patient global assessment (PGA)-VAS (<i>r</i> = 0.23, <i>p</i> = 0.025), physician-health assessment questionnaire (HAQ; <i>r</i> = 0.38, <i>p</i> = 0.011), Disease Activity Score (DAS)-44 (<i>r</i> = 0.25, <i>p</i> = 0.023) and Disease Activity in Psoriatic Arthritis (DAPSA; <i>r</i> = 0.31, <i>p</i> = 0.005). The instrument had excellent reliability in terms of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.90) and stability (intraclass correlation = 0.98). Moderate agreement between PsA-Disk and PEST (Cohen's kappa = 0.46) was observed, while construct validity appeared appropriate [PsA + patients: PsA-Disk score (interquartile range; IQR) =71 (50-96); PsA-patients: PsA-Disk score (IQR)=50 (20-90); <i>p</i> < 0.001].<h4>Conclusion</h4>PsA-Disk may be considered a valid novel instrument aiding both dermatologists and rheumatologists in the rapid detection and assessment of musculoskeletal disease characteristics.
Project description:Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disease. Up to 40 % of patients with psoriasis will go on to develop PsA, usually within 5-10 years of cutaneous disease onset. Both conditions share common pathogenic mechanisms involving genetic and environmental factors. Because psoriasis is typically present for years before PsA-related joint symptoms emerge, dermatologists are in a unique position to detect PsA earlier in the disease process through regular, routine screening of psoriasis patients. Distinguishing clinical features of PsA include co-occurrence of psoriatic skin lesions and nail dystrophy, as well as dactylitis and enthesitis. Patients with PsA are usually seronegative for rheumatoid factor, and radiographs may reveal unique features such as juxta-articular new bone formation and pencil-in-cup deformity. Early treatment of PsA with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs has the potential to slow disease progression and maintain patient quality of life. Optimally, a single therapeutic agent will control both the skin and joint psoriatic symptoms. A number of traditional treatments used to manage psoriasis, such as methotrexate and cyclosporine, are also effective for PsA, but these agents are often inadequately effective, temporary in benefit and associated with significant safety concerns. Biologic anti-tumour necrosis factor agents, such as etanercept, infliximab and adalimumab, are effective for treating patients who have both psoriasis and PsA. However, a substantial number of patients may lose efficacy, have adverse effects or find intravenous or subcutaneous administration inconvenient. Emerging oral treatments, including phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors, such as apremilast, and new biologics targeting interleukin-17, such as secukinumab, brodalumab and ixekizumab, have shown encouraging clinical results in the treatment of psoriasis and/or PsA. Active and regular collaboration of dermatologists with rheumatologists in managing patients who have psoriasis and PsA is likely to yield more optimal control of psoriatic dermal and joint symptoms, and improve long-term patient outcomes.
Project description:PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW:To provide a general overview and current challenges regarding the genetics of psoriatic disease. With the use of integrative medicine, multiple candidate loci identified to date in psoriatic disease will be annotated, summarized, and visualized. Recent studies reporting differences in genetic architecture between psoriatic arthritis and cutaneous-only psoriasis will be highlighted. RECENT FINDINGS:Focusing on functional pathways that connect previously identified genetic variants can increase our understanding of psoriatic diseases. The genetic architecture differs between psoriatic arthritis and cutaneous-only psoriasis with arthritis-specific signals in linkage disequilibrium independent of the published psoriasis signals. Integrative medicine is helpful in understanding cellular mechanisms of psoriatic diseases. Careful selection of the psoriatic disease cohort has translated into mechanistic differences among psoriatic arthritis and cutaneous psoriasis.
Project description:IMPORTANCE: While "omics" studies have advanced our understanding of inflammatory skin diseases, metabolomics is mostly an unexplored field in dermatology. OBJECTIVE: We sought to elucidate the pathogenesis of psoriatic diseases by determining the differences in metabolomic profiles among psoriasis patients with or without psoriatic arthritis and healthy controls. DESIGN: We employed a global metabolomics approach to compare circulating metabolites from patients with psoriasis, psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, and healthy controls. SETTING: Study participants were recruited from the general community and from the Psoriasis Clinic at the University of California Davis in United States. PARTICIPANTS: We examined metabolomic profiles using blood serum samples from 30 patients age and gender matched into three groups: 10 patients with psoriasis, 10 patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis and 10 control participants. Main outcome(s) and measures(s): Metabolite levels were measured calculating the mean peak intensities from gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses of metabolomics profiles revealed altered serum metabolites among the study population. Compared to control patients, psoriasis patients had a higher level of alpha ketoglutaric acid (Pso: 288 ± 88; CONTROL: 209 ± 69; p=0.03), a lower level of asparagine (Pso: 5460 ± 980; CONTROL: 7260 ± 2100; p=0.02), and a lower level of glutamine (Pso: 86000 ± 20000; CONTROL: 111000 ± 27000; p=0.02). Compared to control patients, patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis had increased levels of glucuronic acid (Pso + PsA: 638 ± 250; CONTROL: 347 ± 61; p=0.001). Compared to patients with psoriasis alone, patients with both psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis had a decreased level of alpha ketoglutaric acid (Pso + PsA: 186 ± 80; Pso: 288 ± 88; p=0.02) and an increased level of lignoceric acid (Pso + PsA: 442 ± 280; Pso: 214 ± 64; p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The metabolite differences help elucidate the pathogenesis of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis and they may provide insights for therapeutic development.
Project description:(1) Background: In literature it is reported that 20-30% of psoriatic patients evolve to psoriatic arthritis over time. Currently, no specific biochemical markers can either predict progression to psoriatic arthritis or response to therapies. This study aimed to identify osteoimmunological markers applicable to clinical practice, giving a quantitative tool for evaluating pathological status and, eventually, to provide prognostic support in diagnosis. (2) Methods: Soluble (serum) bone and cartilage markers were quantified in 50 patients with only psoriasis, 50 psoriatic patients with psoriatic arthritis, and 20 healthy controls by means of multiplex and enzyme-linked immunoassays. (3) Results: Differences in the concentrations of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B- ligand (RANK-L), procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx-I), dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1), and sclerostin (SOST) distinguished healthy controls from psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis patients. We found that MMP2, MMP12, MMP13, TIMP2, and TIMP4 distinguished psoriasis from psoriatic arthritis patients undergoing a systemic treatment, with a good diagnostic accuracy (Area under the ROC Curve (AUC) > 0.7). Then, chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1) and MMP10 distinguished psoriasis from psoriatic arthritis not undergoing systemic therapy and, in the presence of onychopathy, MMP8 levels were higher in psoriasis than in psoriatic arthritis. However, in these latter cases, the diagnostic accuracy of the identified biomarkers was low (0.5 < AUC < 0.7). (4) Conclusions. By highlighting never exploited differences, the wide osteoimmunological biomarkers panel provides a novel clue to the development of diagnostic paths in psoriasis and psoriasis-associated arthropathic disease.
Project description:Nail psoriasis is considered a significant psychological and social problem causing functional impairment in affected patients. Nail changes hamper their daily and occupational activities and contribute to a worse quality of life. Almost 50% of patients with psoriasis vulgaris and up to 80% of patients with psoriatic arthritis are afflicted with nail lesions. The important correlation between psoriatic arthritis and nail changes is well established - the presence of the latter is a strong predictor of the development of arthritis. There is a broad spectrum of nail dystrophies associated with psoriasis, ranging from the common pitting, subungual hyperkeratosis and loosening of the nail plate to less frequent discolouration and splinter haemorrhages. Some of these symptoms are also observed in other nail diseases, and further diagnostics should be performed. The assessment tools NAPSI (Nail Psoriasis Severity Index), mNAPSI (Modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index), and PNSS (Psoriasis Nail Severity Score) are most commonly used to grade the severity of nail involvement in psoriasis and enable the evaluation of therapy effectiveness. The treatment of nail psoriasis is a major clinical challenge. It should be adjusted to the extent of dermal, articular and ungual lesions. Systemic therapies of psoriasis, especially biological agents, are most likely to be effective in treating nail psoriasis. However, as their use is limited in scope and safety, topical therapy remains a mainstay, and the combination of corticosteroids and vitamin D3 analogues is considered to be most helpful.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Information on the factors that influence treatment management decisions for psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is limited. OBJECTIVE:Our objective was to evaluate the impact of clinical specialty setting and geographic region on the management of patients with PsA in the USA. METHODS:LOOP was a multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study conducted across 44 sites in the USA. Patients were aged???18 years with a suspected or established diagnosis of PsA and were routinely visiting a rheumatologist or dermatologist. All patients enrolled in the study were assessed by both a rheumatologist and a dermatologist. Primary outcomes were the times from symptom onset to PsA diagnosis; PsA diagnosis to first conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (csDMARD); PsA diagnosis to first biologic DMARD (bDMARD); and first csDMARD to first bDMARD. RESULTS:Of 681 patients enrolled in the study, 513 had a confirmed diagnosis of PsA and were included in this analysis. More patients were recruited by rheumatologists (71.3%) than by dermatologists (28.7%). The median time from symptom onset to diagnosis of PsA was significantly shorter for patients enrolled by rheumatologists than for those enrolled by dermatologists (1.0 vs. 2.6 years; p?<?0.001). Disease activity and burden were generally similar across enrolling specialties. However, patients in western areas of the USA had less severe disease than those in central or eastern areas, including measures of joint involvement, enthesitis, and dactylitis. CONCLUSIONS:There was a substantial delay in the time from symptom onset to diagnosis in this study population, and this was significantly longer for patients enrolled in the dermatology versus the rheumatology setting. This supports the need for collaboration across specialties to ensure faster recognition and treatment of PsA.
Project description:Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is underdiagnosed and has a substantial impact on quality of life, disability, and work productivity. The population-based Multinational Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (MAPP) survey examined the impact of PsA on patients' activities of daily living and unmet treatment needs.This large-scale, random digit dialing, telephone survey of patients self-reporting a diagnosis of psoriasis and/or PsA was conducted in North America and Europe.In all, 3426 patients participated in the survey, including 712 (21%) who identified themselves as having PsA. Over half of the patients reported severe PsA involving more than four joints. Eighty-three percent of patients with PsA visited a health-care provider within the past 12 months. Approximately one-quarter saw their primary care provider or dermatologist most often for their disease; 37% responded that their rheumatologist was the health-care provider seen most often for PsA. Patients with PsA reported a substantial impact of disease on physical function. One-third of patients with PsA reported missing work because of their disease and PsA impacted their ability to work full time. Over half of the patients with PsA (58%) reported receiving no treatment or topical therapy only, leaving their joint disease untreated. Factors associated with lack of adherence were perceived lack of efficacy and concerns about long-term safety.The MAPP survey confirms that PsA has a significant impact on physical function and activities of daily living. Undertreatment of PsA suggests a need for improved screening and diagnosis as well as education about treatment options and adherence.Celgene Corporation.