A Scoping Review of Interactions between Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Genetic Variation in Relation to Cancer Risk.
ABSTRACT: This scoping review examines the interaction of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and genetic variants of various types of cancers. A comprehensive search was performed to identify controlled and observational studies conducted through August 2017. Eighteen unique studies were included: breast cancer (n = 2), gastric cancer (n = 1), exocrine pancreatic cancer (n = 1), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 1), prostate cancer (n = 7) and colorectal cancer (n = 6). An additional 13 studies that focused on fish intake or at-risk populations were summarized to increase readers' understanding of the topic based on this review, DHA and EPA interact with certain genetic variants to decrease breast, colorectal and prostate cancer risk, although data was limited and identified polymorphisms were heterogeneous. The evidence to date demonstrates that omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) may decrease cancer risk by affecting genetic variants of inflammatory pathways, oxidative stress and tumor apoptosis. Collectively, data supports the notion that once a genetic variant is identified, the benefits of a targeted, personalized therapeutic regimen that includes DHA and/or EPA should be considered.
Project description:Research suggests that long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have antineoplastic properties, yet evidence for association between LC-PUFAs and colorectal cancer (CRC) remains inconsistent. Using the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort, we evaluated how EPA/DHA intake, and its primary sources, fish oil supplement use and dark fish consumption, relate to CRC risk. A total of 68,109 Washington residents aged 50-76 completed a questionnaire between 2000-2002 and were followed for CRC through 2008 (n = 488). Persons using fish oil supplements on 4+ days/wk for 3+ yr experienced 49% lower CRC risk than nonusers (hazard ratio = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.26-1.00; P trend = 0.06). The association between fish oil use and decreased CRC risk was primarily observed for men (P interaction = 0.02; P trend men = 0.02; P trend women = 0.88) and for colon cancer (P difference = 0.05; P trend colon = 0.03; P trend rectum = 0.87). Although dark fish and total EPA + DHA intake were not associated with CRC risk overall, these associations varied by genetic risk (P interaction = 0.009 and 0.02, respectively), with inverse associations observed among low-moderate genetic risk groups and positive associations observed among high risk groups. Results suggest that associations between LC-PUFA intake and CRC may vary by gender, subsite, and genetic risk, providing additional insight into the potential role of LC-PUFAs in cancer prevention.
Project description:Endogenous synthesis of PUFAs is mediated by genes controlling fatty acid elongases 2 and 5 (ELOVL2 and ELOVL5) and by exogenous DHA intake. Associations between elongases and PUFA levels probably involve genetic variants of ELOVL and changes in DHA intake, but data about their combined effect on PUFA levels are sparse. We hypothesized that each factor would directly affect PUFAs and that interactions between haplotypes and DHA intake would influence PUFAs. We explored four levels of DHA intake in pregnant Chinese Han women and 10 SNPs in the ELOVL genes to determine associations with PUFAs in breast milk. The SNP rs3798713 and 3-SNP haplotype (rs2281591, rs12332786, and rs3798713) in ELOVL2 were associated with linoleic acid (LA) concentrations. However, carriers of the 3-SNP haplotype with higher DHA intake (second quartile: 14.58-43.15 mg/day) had higher concentrations of LA, arachidonic acid, EPA, and DHA compared with the interaction baseline. In ELOVL5, five SNPs (rs2294867, rs9357760, rs2397142, rs209512, and rs12207094) correlated with PUFA changes. Compared with those who had the 5-SNP haplotype C-A-C-G-A and low DHA intake (<14.58 mg/day), carriers with other haplotypes (A-A-C-A-A or C-A-C-A-A) and high DHA intake (?118.82 mg/day) had increased EPA levels after adjustments for age and BMI. This study showed that maternal genetic variants in ELOVL2 and ELOVL5 were associated with PUFA levels in breast milk and that the combination of SNP haplotypes and higher DHA intake increased PUFA concentrations.
Project description:In the last decades, the development of new technologies applied to lipidomics has revitalized the analysis of lipid profile alterations and the understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of lipid metabolism, together with their involvement in the occurrence of human disease. Of particular interest is the study of omega-3 and omega-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), notably EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3), DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6n-3), and ARA (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6), and their transformation into bioactive lipid mediators. In this sense, new families of PUFA-derived lipid mediators, including resolvins derived from EPA and DHA, and protectins and maresins derived from DHA, are being increasingly investigated because of their active role in the "return to homeostasis" process and resolution of inflammation. Recent findings reviewed in the present study highlight that the omega-6 fatty acid ARA appears increased, and omega-3 EPA and DHA decreased in most cancer tissues compared to normal ones, and that increments in omega-3 LC-PUFAs consumption and an omega-6/omega-3 ratio of 2-4:1, are associated with a reduced risk of breast, prostate, colon and renal cancers. Along with their lipid-lowering properties, omega-3 LC-PUFAs also exert cardioprotective functions, such as reducing platelet aggregation and inflammation, and controlling the presence of DHA in our body, especially in our liver and brain, which is crucial for optimal brain functionality. Considering that DHA is the principal omega-3 FA in cortical gray matter, the importance of DHA intake and its derived lipid mediators have been recently reported in patients with major depressive and bipolar disorders, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The present study reviews the relationships between major diseases occurring today in the Western world and LC-PUFAs. More specifically this review focuses on the dietary omega-3 LC-PUFAs and the omega-6/omega-3 balance, in a wide range of inflammation disorders, including autoimmune diseases. This review suggests that the current recommendations of consumption and/or supplementation of omega-3 FAs are specific to particular groups of age and physiological status, and still need more fine tuning for overall human health and well being.
Project description:This scoping review examines the evidence for n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid [LCPUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] supplementation in clinical cancer therapy. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify relevant clinical intervention studies conducted through August 2020. Fifty-seven unique cancer trials, assessing EPA and/or DHA supplementation pre- or post-treatment, concomitant with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, radiation or surgery, or in palliative therapy were included. Breast, head and neck, gastrointestinal, gastric, colorectal/rectal, esophageal, leukemia/lymphoma, lung, multiple myeloma and pancreatic cancers were investigated. Across the spectrum of cancers, the evidence suggests that supplementation increased or maintained body weight, increased progression-free and overall survival, improved overall quality of life, resulted in beneficial change in immune parameters and decreased serious adverse events. Taken together, the data support that EPA and/or DHA could be used to improve outcomes important to the patient and disease process. However, before incorporation into treatment can occur, there is a need for randomized clinical trials to determine the dose and type of n-3 LCPUFA intervention required, and expansion of outcomes assessed and improved reporting of outcomes.
Project description:Several studies have suggested that the n-3 fatty acids Docosahexaenoic (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) have an important protective effect on colorectal cancer, and this could be at least partly due to their proapoptotic activity. It is unclear, however, how this phenomenon is triggered and what mechanisms are implicated. Here, we show that both DHA and EPA have an important proapoptotic effect on colorectal cancer cells with different molecular phenotypes but not in noncancerous cells. Apoptosis is caspase dependent, and both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways are implicated. The dimerization of Bax and Bak, the depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, and the subsequent release of cytochrome c and Smac/Diablo to the cytosol evidence the activation of the intrinsic pathway. The implication of the extrinsic pathway is shown by the activation of caspase-8, along with the down-regulation of FLIP. The timing of caspase-8 activation, and the oligomerization of Bid with Bax, suggest a cross-talk with the intrinsic pathway. None of the death receptors that commonly initiate the extrinsic pathway: FAS, TNF-R1, and TRAIL-R2 are found to be responsible for triggering the apoptosis cascade induced by DHA and EPA. Neither PPARgamma nor cyclooxygenase-2, two likely candidates to regulate this process, play a significant role. Our findings suggest that the down-regulation of two key regulatory elements of the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, FLIP and XIAP, respectively, is determinant in the induction of apoptosis by DHA and EPA. These fatty acids could potentially be useful adjuvant anticancer agents in combination with other chemotherapeutic elements.
Project description:Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are the major n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in fish oil that decrease the risk of prostate cancer. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the main leukocytes of intratumoral infiltration, and increased TAMs correlates with poor prostate cancer prognosis. However, the mechanism of n-3 PUFAs on prostate cancer cell progression induced by TAMs is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of EPA and DHA on modulating of migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells induced by TAMs-like M2-type macrophages. PC-3 prostate cancer cells were pretreated with EPA, DHA, or the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? antagonist, GW9662, before exposure to conditioned medium (CM). CM was derived from M2-polarized THP-1 macrophages. The migratory and invasive abilities of PC-3 cells were evaluated using a coculture system of M2-type macrophages and PC-3 cells. EPA/DHA administration decreased migration and invasion of PC-3 cells. The PPAR-? DNA-binding activity and cytosolic inhibitory factor ?B? (I?B?) protein expression increased while the nuclear factor (NF)-?B p65 transcriptional activity and nuclear NF-?B p65 protein level decreased in PC-3 cells incubated with CM in the presence of EPA/DHA. Further, EPA/DHA downregulated mRNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9, cyclooxygenase-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Pretreatment with GW9662 abolished the favorable effects of EPA/DHA on PC-3 cells. These results indicate that EPA/DHA administration reduced migration, invasion and macrophage chemotaxis of PC-3 cells induced by TAM-like M2-type macrophages, which may partly be explained by activation of PPAR-? and decreased NF-?B p65 transcriptional activity.
Project description:SCOPE:The fatty acid profile of dietary lipids is reflected in mammary adipose tissue and may influence mammary gland biology and cancer risk. To determine the effects of fish consumption on breast adipose tissue fatty acids, we conducted a study of fish versus n-3 PUFA supplements in women at increased risk of breast cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS:High risk women were randomized to comparable doses of marine n-3 PUFAs as canned salmon + albacore or capsules for 3 months. Pre- and posttreatment fatty acid profiles were obtained by GC. Dietary fish (n = 12) and n-3 PUFA capsules (n = 13) yielded increased eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plasma (p < 0.0001), erythrocyte membranes (p < 0.0001), and breast fat (p < 0.01) at 3 months. Women taking capsules had higher plasma and erythrocyte membrane EPA changes (?four versus twofold, p = 0.002), without significant differences in DHA. Increases in breast adipose EPA, DHA were similar for both groups. Higher BMI correlated with smaller changes in plasma, erythrocyte membrane EPA, and breast adipose EPA, DHA. Adherence was excellent at 93.9% overall and higher in the fish arm (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION:Fish provides an excellent source of n-3 PUFAs that increases breast adipose EPA, DHA similar to supplements and represents a well-tolerated intervention for future studies of the impact of n-3 PUFAs and dietary patterns on breast cancer.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Evidence about ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?-3 PUFAs) and oral cancer risk were limited. We aimed to evaluate the association of erythrocyte ?-3 PUFAs with the risk of oral cancer in a population from China. METHODS:Erythrocyte ?-3 PUFAs of 236 oral cancer patients and 300 controls were determined by gas chromatography. Restricted cubic spline and logistic regression were used to analyze the association between erythrocyte ?-3 PUFAs and oral cancer risk. The crude and adjusted OR with 95% CI was calculated. Stratification analysis was performed to explore the potential interaction between ?-3 PUFAs and other traditional risk factors such as smoking and drinking. RESULTS:Eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA), docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) and ?-3 index were negatively but non-linearly related to risk of oral cancer as observed by restricted cubic spline. The adjusted OR of EPA, DHA, and ?-3 index were 0.52 (95% CI: 0.35-0.76), 0.19 (95% CI: 0.08-0.44), 0.20 (95% CI: 0.09-0.44), respectively. Stratification analysis showed that the adverse correlation between EPA and oral cancer was only significant in the non-smoking group, while the adverse correlation of ?-linolenic acid (ALA), EPA, and DHA were only significant in the non-drinking group. General multiplicative interactions were observed between ?-3 PUFAs and smoking or drinking. CONCLUSIONS:Adverse but non-linear associations were observed between erythrocyte EPA, DHA, ?-3 index, and oral cancer risk. Additionally, there were multiplicative interactions between ?-3 PUFAs and other behavior factors such as smoking and drinking. The protective effect of ?-3 PUFAs maybe more significant in the non-smoking or non-drinking population.
Project description:Colorectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer related death in the world. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that there is an association between consumption of dietary fat and colon cancer risk. Not only the amount but also the type and the ratio of fatty acids comprising dietary fats consumed have been implicated in the etiology and pathogenesis of colon cancer. Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), have been known to inhibit development of colon cancer by downregulating the expression of genes involved in colon carcinogenesis and also by altering the membrane lipid composition. Data from laboratory, epidemiological, and clinical studies substantiate the beneficial role of n-3 PUFAs in preventing colitis and subsequent development of colon cancer. In addition, recent studies suggest that some n-3 PUFAs can be effective as an adjuvant with chemotherapeutic agents and other natural anticancer compounds in the management of colon cancer. In this review, we discuss chemopreventive and therapeutic effects of fish oil derived long chain n-3 PUFAs, particularly EPA and DHA, with focus on synergetic effects of which they exert when combined with chemotherapeutic agents and other natural compounds.
Project description:Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2J2 is the primary epoxygenase in the heart and is responsible for the epoxidation of arachidonic acid (AA), an ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), into anti-inflammatory epoxide metabolites. It also epoxidizes other PUFAs such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid (LA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Herein, we have performed detailed thermodynamic and kinetic analyses to determine how DHA, LA, and EPA modulate the metabolism of AA by CYP2J2. We use the Nanodisc system to stabilize CYP2J2 and its redox partner, CYP reductase (CPR). We observe that DHA strongly inhibits CYP2J2-mediated AA metabolism, LA only moderately inhibits AA metabolism, and EPA exhibits insignificant inhibition. We also characterized the binding of these molecules using ebastine competitive binding assays and show that DHA binds significantly tighter to CYP2J2 than AA, EPA, or LA. Furthermore, we utilize a combined approach of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and docking to predict key residues mediating the tight binding of DHA. We show that although all the tested fatty acids form similar contacts to the active site residues, the affinity of DHA for CYP2J2 is tighter because of the interaction of DHA with residues Arg-321, Thr-318, and Ser-493. To demonstrate the importance of these residues in binding, we mutated these residues to make two mutant variants, CYP2J2-T318A and CYP2J2-T318V/S493A. Both mutant variants showed weaker binding than the wild type (WT) to DHA and AA; DHA inhibition of AA was also mitigated in the mutants compared to the WT. Therefore, using a combined experimental and MD simulation approach, we establish that CYP2J2 inhibition of AA metabolism by DHA, EPA, and LA is asymmetric because of tighter binding of DHA to select residues in the active site.