Study on Risk Factors of Diabetic Nephropathy in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
ABSTRACT: Purpose:The purpose of this study was to identify diabetic nephropathy risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus obese people based on community type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Patients and Methods:In the community in Shanghai, we conduct a questionnaire, physical examination, and biochemical examination. The 406 patients included in the analysis were divided into two groups based on whether or not they had diabetic nephropathy. The influencing factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus obese patients were screened by the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method, and then the influencing factors detected by the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method were included in the binary logistic regression analysis, and the risk factors for diabetic nephropathy in obese people with type 2 diabetes mellitus were obtained. Finally, the nomogram and forest plot are used to visualize the binary logistic regression results, and the calibration plot and receiver-operating characteristic curve are used to verify the result. Results:The results showed that family history of diabetes (OR= 2.091, P= 0.002), disease course (OR=1.050, P= 0.007). hypertension (OR=1.768, P=0.042), hyperuricemia (OR=2.263, P=0.003), systolic blood pressure (OR=1.027, P<0.001), and glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (OR=1.358, P<0.001) were risk factors for diabetic nephropathy. Conclusion:For obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, they should pay attention to family history of diabetes, disease course and hyperuricemia. Hypertension should be concerned and strictly controlled. Systolic blood pressure and glycosylated haemoglobin A1c will help prolong the survival of diabetic nephropathy patients.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The International Diabetes Mellitus Practice Study is a 5-year survey documenting changes in diabetes treatment practice in developing regions.<h4>Research design and methods</h4>Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors for achieving A1C <7% in 11,799 patients (1,898 type 1 diabetic and 9,901 type 2 diabetic) recruited by 937 physicians from 17 countries in Eastern Europe (n = 3,519), Asia (n = 5,888), Latin America (n = 2,116), and Africa (n = 276).<h4>Results</h4>Twenty-two percent of type 1 diabetic and 36% of type 2 diabetic patients never had A1C measurements. In those with values for A1C, blood pressure, and LDL cholesterol, 7.5% of type 1 diabetic (n = 696) and 3.6% of type 2 diabetic (n = 3,896) patients attained all three recommended targets (blood pressure <130/80 mmHg, LDL cholesterol <100 mg/dl, and A1C <7%). Self-monitoring of blood glucose was the only predictor for achieving the A1C goal in type 1 diabetes (odds ratios: Asia 2.24, Latin America 3.55, and Eastern Europe 2.42). In type 2 diabetes, short disease duration (Asia 0.97, Latin America 0.97, and Eastern Europe 0.82) and treatment with few oral glucose-lowering drugs (Asia 0.64, Latin America 0.76, and Eastern Europe 0.62) were predictors. Other region-specific factors included lack of microvascular complications and old age in Latin America and Asia; health insurance coverage and specialist care in Latin America; lack of obesity and self-adjustment of insulin dosages in Asia; and training by a diabetes educator, self-monitoring of blood glucose in patients who self-adjusted insulin, and lack of macrovascular complications in Eastern Europe.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In developing countries, factors pertinent to patients, doctors, and health care systems all impact on glycemic control.
Project description:In recent years, the genetic factor has become one of the important predisposing factors of nephropathy susceptibility. There is a high incidence of nephropathy in CCVd. The CYP2C19 enzyme metabolizes most the drugs, including proton pump inhibitors commonly used medicines to treat CCVd, CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms is association with multi-pathogenesis factors of nephropathy. The purpose of the study is to reveal the association between CYP2C19 genotype and the susceptibility of nephropathy in the CCVd patients. The study is composed of 623 samples from CCVd treated by anticoagulation. The patients were studied, including CCVd with hyperuricemia, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and other complication. Biochemical tests and CYP2C19 variants measurements were performed by the gene chip method. The association among CYP2C19 variants, complications, and nephropathy was analyzed in the CCVd. There is no correlation between nephropathy and complications in CCVd. In hyperuricemia, coronary heart disease and diabetes groups, the differences of renal function tests were significant between CYP2C19 mutant (P < 0.05). The nephropathy risk of wild genotype is 3.288 times higher than of mutation genotype in hyperuricemic group, 1.928 times higher than mutation genotype in coronary heart disease group, and 5.248 times higher than CYP2C19 mutation genotype in the diabetic group. There was significant correlation between the CYP2C19 wild type and the nephropathy susceptibility in CCVd patients. The CYP2C19 gene plays a potential maker to evaluate nephropathy in CCVd patients. We deduced that identification of CYP2C19 gene type may benefit for reducing and avoiding nephropathy caused by abnormal metabolism function in CCVd patients.
Project description:AIMS/INTRODUCTION:The maximum value of home systolic blood pressure is correlated with damage to target organs, including diabetic nephropathy. However, the precise relationship between the development of diabetic nephropathy and maximum home systolic blood pressure has not been elucidated. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In this prospective 2-year cohort subanalysis of the KAMOGAWA-HBP study, the patient population was 477 Japanese patients with normoalbuminuria. We investigated the effects of mean and maximum home blood pressure on the development of diabetic nephropathy, which we defined as a urinary albumin excretion value ≥30 mg/g creatinine. Among the 477 patients, 67 developed diabetic nephropathy. RESULTS:In our multivariate logistic regression analyses, the maximum morning home systolic blood pressure was significantly positively associated with the development of diabetic nephropathy after adjusting for patient sex and age, smoking status, the diabetes mellitus duration, body mass index, creatinine, total cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and antihypertensive medication use (odds ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.42, P = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS:Maximum home blood pressure can be identified at a glance, and its measurement would thus be helpful to healthcare providers who treat patients with diabetes and normoalbuminuria.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to examine whether known genetic risk factors for type 1 diabetes (HLA-DRB1, -DQA1, and -DQB1 and insulin locus) play a role in the etiology of diabetic nephropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS; Genetic analysis of HLA-DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1 and the insulin gene (INS) was performed in the Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes (GoKinD) collection of DNA (European ancestry subset), which includes case patients with type 1 diabetes and nephropathy (n = 829) and control patients with type 1 diabetes but not nephropathy (n = 904). The availability of phenotypic and genotypic data on GoKinD participants allowed a detailed analysis of the association of these genes with diabetic nephropathy.Diabetic probands who were homozygous for HLA-DRB1*04 were 50% less likely to have nephropathy than probands without any DRB1*04 alleles. In heterozygous carriers, a protective effect of this allele was not as clearly evident; the mode of inheritance therefore remains unclear. This association was seen in probands with both short (<28 years, P = 0.02) and long (>/=28 years, P = 0.0001) duration of diabetes. A1C, a marker of sustained hyperglycemia, was increased in control probands with normoalbuminuira, despite long-duration diabetes, from 7.2 to 7.3 to 7.7% with 0, 1, and 2 copies of the DRB1*04 allele, respectively. This result is consistent with a protective effect of DRB1*04 that may allow individuals to tolerate higher levels of hyperglycemia, as measured by A1C, without developing nephropathy.These data suggest that carriers of DRB1*04 are protected from some of the injurious hyperglycemic effects related to nephropathy. Interestingly, DRB1*04 appears to be both a risk allele for type 1 diabetes and a protective allele for nephropathy.
Project description:Bariatric surgery is an emerging therapeutic approach for obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, with proven benefits for achieving target glucose control and even remission of diabetes. However, the effect of bariatric surgery upon diabetic retinopathy is still a subject of debate as some studies show a positive effect while others raise concerns about potential early worsening effects. We performed a systematic review, on PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science databases regarding the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy in obese T2DM patients who underwent weight-loss surgical procedures. A total of 6375 T2DM patients were analyzed. Most cases remained stable after bariatric surgery (89.6%). New onset of diabetic retinopathy (DR) was documented in 290 out of 5972 patients (4.8%). In cases with DR at baseline, progression was documented in 50 out of 403 (12.4%) and regression in 90 (22.3%). Preoperative careful preparation of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure, and lipidemia should be provided to minimize the expectation of DR worsening. Ophthalmologic follow-up should be continued regularly in the postoperative period even in the case of diabetic remission. Further randomized trials are needed to better understand the organ-specific risk factors for progression and provide personalized counseling for T2DM patients planned for bariatric surgery.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>This meta-analysis was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its association with hypertension in diabetics of sub-Saharan African countries.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 27 studies were included for the meta-analysis. The pooled overall prevalence of diabetic nephropathy was 35.3 (95% CI 27.46-43.14). In sub-group analyses by types of diabetes and regions, for instance, the prevalence was 41.4% (95% CI 32.2-50.58%) in type-2 diabetes mellitus and 29.7% (95% CI 14.3-45.1%) in Eastern Africa. Pooled point estimates from included studies revealed an increased risk of diabetic nephropathy with hypertension compared to without hypertension (OR?=?1.67, 95% CI 1.31, 2.14). Diabetic nephropathy is a common complication in diabetic patients. Diabetic nephropathy complication is significantly higher in hypertensive patients. A preventive strategy should be adopted or planned to reduce diabetes mellitus and its complication of neuropathy, particularly in hypertensive.
Project description:<h4>Aims/introduction</h4>We aimed to investigate whether there are differences in the risk factors or markers for the progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) in type 2 diabetes mellitus.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>We carried out a 3-year retrospective cohort study of 604 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The outcomes were the progression of DR (worsening of the DR stage) and DN (an estimated glomerular filtration rate decline >12%) at the 3-year follow up. The mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level and HbA1c variability (HbA1c-VAR) were calculated.<h4>Results</h4>The mean HbA1c and HbA1c-VAR levels were higher in the DR progressors (n = 67) than in the DR non-progressors (n = 537). The mean HbA1c was a significant predictor for DR progression independent of the duration of diabetes and HbA1c-VAR levels. The urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio at baseline and HbA1c-VAR levels were higher in the DN progressors (n = 34) than in the DN non-progressors (n = 570). The triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio at baseline tended to be higher in the DN progressors than in the DN non-progressors. HbA1c-VAR levels and the triglyceride-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio were significant predictors for DN progression independent of estimated glomerular filtration rate and the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Average glycemia was significantly associated with progression of DR, whereas glycemic variability and dyslipidemia were significantly associated with progression of DN in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>A previous 2-year cohort study has shown that isolated high home systolic blood pressure (IH-HSBP) may increase the risk of diabetic nephropathy, using normal HBP as a reference. However, this association has not been previously assessed in the medium to long term.<h4>Methods</h4>This prospective 5-year cohort study of 424 patients, with normal or mildly increased albuminuria, investigated the effect of IH-HSBP on the risk of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic nephropathy was defined as an advancement from normal or mildly increased albuminuira to moderate or severely increased albuminuria.<h4>Results</h4>Among 424 patients, 75 developed diabetic nephropathy during the study period. The adjusted odds ratio for developing diabetic nephropathy given IH-HSBP was 2.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.15-4.96, <i>p</i> = 0.02). The odds ratio for developing nephropathy in patients with IH-HSBP younger than 65 years was higher than that in patients with IH-HSBP older than 65 years.<h4>Conclusion</h4>IH-HSBP was associated with an increased risk of diabetic nephropathy among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with normal or mildly increased albuminuria in the medium to long term. The results support and strengthen previous reports. These findings suggest that IH-HSBP might be a useful marker in disease prognostication.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus and is associated with considerable morbidity and high mortality. There is increasing evidence to suggest that dysregulation of the epigenome is involved in diabetic nephropathy. We assessed whether epigenetic modification of DNA methylation is associated with diabetic nephropathy in a case-control study of 192 Irish patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). Cases had T1D and nephropathy whereas controls had T1D but no evidence of renal disease. METHODS:We performed DNA methylation profiling in bisulphite converted DNA from cases and controls using the recently developed Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip, that enables the direct investigation of 27,578 individual cytosines at CpG loci throughout the genome, which are focused on the promoter regions of 14,495 genes. RESULTS:Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) analysis indicated that significant components of DNA methylation variation correlated with patient age, time to onset of diabetic nephropathy, and sex. Adjusting for confounding factors using multivariate Cox-regression analyses, and with a false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.05, we observed 19 CpG sites that demonstrated correlations with time to development of diabetic nephropathy. Of note, this included one CpG site located 18 bp upstream of the transcription start site of UNC13B, a gene in which the first intronic SNP rs13293564 has recently been reported to be associated with diabetic nephropathy. CONCLUSION:This high throughput platform was able to successfully interrogate the methylation state of individual cytosines and identified 19 prospective CpG sites associated with risk of diabetic nephropathy. These differences in DNA methylation are worthy of further follow-up in replication studies using larger cohorts of diabetic patients with and without nephropathy.
Project description:With the widespread use of combination antiretroviral agents, the incidence of HIV-associated nephropathy has decreased. Currently, HIV-infected patients live much longer and often suffer from comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that concurrent HIV infection and diabetes mellitus may have a synergistic effect on the incidence of chronic kidney disease. To address this, we determined whether HIV-1 transgene expression accelerates diabetic kidney injury using a diabetic HIV-1 transgenic (Tg26) murine model. Diabetes was initially induced with low-dose streptozotocin in both Tg26 and wild-type mice on a C57BL/6 background, which is resistant to classic HIV-associated nephropathy. Although diabetic nephropathy is minimally observed on the C57BL/6 background, diabetic Tg26 mice exhibited a significant increase in glomerular injury compared with nondiabetic Tg26 mice and diabetic wild-type mice. Validation of microarray gene expression analysis from isolated glomeruli showed a significant upregulation of proinflammatory pathways in diabetic Tg26 mice. Thus, our study found that expression of HIV-1 genes aggravates diabetic kidney disease.