Differential Effects of Post-Weaning Diet and Maternal Obesity on Mouse Liver and Brain Metabolomes.
ABSTRACT: Nutritional changes during developmental windows are of particular concern in offspring metabolic disease. Questions are emerging concerning the role of maternal weight changes before conception, particularly for weight loss, in the development of diet-related disorders. Understanding the physiological pathways affected by the maternal trajectories in the offspring is therefore essential, but a broad overview is still lacking. We recently reported both metabolic and behavioral negative outcomes in offspring born to obese or weight-loss mothers and fed a control of high-fat diet, suggesting long-term modeling of metabolic pathways needing to be further characterized. Using non-targeted LC-HRMS, we investigated the impact of maternal and post-weaning metabolic status on the adult male offspring's metabolome in three tissues involved in energy homeostasis: liver, hypothalamus and olfactory bulb. We showed that post-weaning diet interfered with the abundance of several metabolites, including 1,5-anhydroglucitol, saccharopine and ?hydroxybutyrate, differential in the three tissues. Moreover, maternal diet had a unique impact on the abundance of two metabolites in the liver. Particularly, anserine abundance, lowered by maternal obesity, was normalized by a preconceptional weight loss, whatever the post-weaning diet. This study is the first to identify a programming long-term effect of maternal preconception obesity on the offspring metabolome.
Project description:This study aimed to study the impact of a combination of maternal and post-weaning high-fat diets and whether resveratrol was beneficial. Sprague-Dawley dams were fed either chow or a high-fat diet, before mating, during pregnancy, and into lactation. At weaning, their offspring were randomly fed chow or a high-fat diet. Four experimental groups were generated: CC (maternal/postnatal chow diet), HC (maternal high-fat/postnatal chow diet), CH (maternal chow/postnatal high-fat diet), and HH (maternal/postnatal high-fat diet). A fifth group consisted of HH plus resveratrol. The 4 month-old offspring of HH group had higher body weight, higher levels of plasma triglycerides, leptin, angiotensin I and angiotensin II and abnormal intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test results, which fulfilled the features of metabolic syndrome. The dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin system was seen in multiple organs. Sirtuin 1 expression/abundance was reduced by a maternal/postnatal high-fat diet, in all the organs examined. Resveratrol ameliorated most of the features of metabolic syndrome and molecular alterations. The administration of a high-fat diet in both periods showed interactive metabolic effects in the plasma and many organs. Our results suggest that a maternal high-fat diet sensitizes offspring to the adverse effects of subsequent high-fat intake on multiple organs.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Early life nutrition is critical for the development of hypothalamic neurons involved in energy homeostasis. We previously showed that intrauterine and early postnatal overnutrition programmed hypothalamic neurons expressing the appetite stimulator neuropeptide Y (NPY) and suppressor proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in offspring at weaning. However, the long-term effects of such programming and its interactions with post-weaning high-fat-diet (HFD) consumption are unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to chow or HFD for 5 weeks before mating, throughout gestation and lactation. On postnatal day 1, litters were adjusted to 3/litter to induce postnatal overnutrition (vs. 12 in control). At postnatal day 20, half of the rats from each maternal group were weaned onto chow or HFD for 15 weeks. Hypothalamic appetite regulators, and fuel (glucose and lipid) metabolic markers were measured. RESULTS:Offspring from obese dams gained more weight than those from lean dams independent of post-weaning diet. Maternal obesity interacted with post-weaning HFD consumption to cause greater levels of hyperphagia, adiposity, hyperlipidemia, and glucose intolerance in offspring. This was linked to increased hypothalamic NPY signaling and leptin resistance in adult offspring. Litter size reduction had a detrimental impact on insulin and adiponectin, while hypothalamic NPY and POMC mRNA expression were suppressed in the face of normal energy intake and weight gain. CONCLUSIONS:Maternal obesity, postnatal litter size reduction and post-weaning HFD consumption caused obesity via different neuroendocrine mechanism. There were strong additive effects of maternal obesity and post-weaning HFD consumption to increase the metabolic disorders in offspring.
Project description:Exposure to maternal obesity during early development programmes adverse metabolic health in rodent offspring. We assessed the relative contributions of obesity during pregnancy and suckling on metabolic health post-weaning. Wistar rat offspring exposed to control (C) or cafeteria diet (O) during pregnancy were cross-fostered to dams on the same (CC, OO) or alternate diet during suckling (CO, OC) and weaned onto standard chow. Measures of offspring metabolic health included growth, adipose tissue mass, and 12-week glucose and insulin concentrations during an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (ipGTT). Exposure to maternal obesity during lactation was a driver for reduced offspring weight post-weaning, higher fasting blood glucose concentrations and greater gonadal adiposity (in females). Males displayed insulin resistance, through slower glucose clearance despite normal circulating insulin and lower mRNA expression of PIK3R1 and PIK3CB in gonadal fat and liver respectively. In contrast, maternal obesity during pregnancy up-regulated the insulin signalling genes IRS2, PIK3CB and SREBP1-c in skeletal muscle and perirenal fat, favouring insulin sensitivity. In conclusion exposure to maternal obesity during lactation programmes offspring adiposity and insulin resistance, overriding exposure to an optimal nutritional environment in utero, which cannot be alleviated by a nutritionally balanced post-weaning diet.
Project description:Low birth weight affects 1 in every 7 babies born globally and can predict a lifetime of increased risk for adverse health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Maternal low protein diet during pregnancy and lactation is a well-characterized rat model for low birth weight and the subsequent increase in chronic disease risk. However, mice have been relatively understudied in this paradigm and represent a critical resource for investigating the underlying molecular mechanisms that link adverse early life experience and the development of chronic disease.The present manuscript describes a mouse model of low birth weight (maternal consumption of low protein diet (8% protein) through pregnancy and lactation) and characterizes metabolic adaptations (food intake, locomotor activity, oxygen consumption, and glucose tolerance) in male and female offspring. At weaning, mice were maintained either on the control diet or a high fat diet. Notable sex differences were observed, with male mice from the low protein pregnancies showing increased food intake, hyperactivity and increased metabolic rate only when weaned to the high fat diet, while female mice consistently showed increased food intake and were hypometabolic, regardless of post-weaning diet.These data identify offspring sex and post-weaning diet as critical variables in the metabolic adaptations to early life protein deficiency, and suggest that females may be more vulnerable to the adverse long-term health consequences of low birth weight.
Project description:Male fertility and sperm quality are negatively impacted by obesity. Furthermore, recent evidence has shown that male offspring from obese rat mothers also have reduced sperm quality and fertility. Here, we extend work in this area by comparing the effects of both maternal obesity and offspring post-weaning diet-induced obesity, as well as their combination, on sperm quality in mice. We additionally tested whether administration of the NAD+-booster nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) can ameliorate the negative effects of obesity and maternal obesity on sperm quality. We previously showed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of NMN can reduce the metabolic deficits induced by maternal obesity or post-weaning dietary obesity in mice. In this study, female mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks until they were 18% heavier than a control diet group. Thereafter, HFD and control female mice were mated with control diet males, and male offspring were weaned into groups receiving control or HFD. At 30 weeks of age, mice received 500 mg/kg body weight NMN or vehicle PBS i.p. for 21 days. As expected, adiposity was increased by both maternal and post-weaning HFD but reduced by NMN supplementation. Post-weaning HFD reduced sperm count and motility, while maternal HFD increased offspring sperm DNA fragmentation and levels of aberrant sperm chromatin. There was no evidence that the combination of post-weaning and maternal HFD exacerbated the impacts in sperm quality suggesting that they impact spermatogenesis through different mechanisms. Surprisingly NMN reduced sperm count, vitality and increased sperm oxidative DNA damage, which was associated with increased NAD+ in testes. A subsequent experiment using oral NMN at 400 mg/kg body weight was not associated with reduced sperm viability, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction or increased NAD+ in testes, suggesting that the negative impacts on sperm could be dependent on dose or mode of administration.
Project description:Maternal obesity increases the risk of metabolic dysregulation in rodent offspring, especially when offspring are exposed to a high-fat (HF), obesogenic diet later in life. We previously demonstrated that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) in HF-fed mouse dams during gestation prevents fetal overgrowth and excess adiposity. In this study, we examined the long-term metabolic influence of MCS. C57BL/6J mice were fed a HF diet with or without choline supplementation prior to and during gestation. After weaning, their pups were exposed to either a HF or control diet for 6 weeks before measurements. Prenatal and post-weaning dietary treatments led to sexually dimorphic responses. In male offspring, while post-weaning HF led to impaired fasting glucose and worse glucose tolerance (p < 0.05), MCS in HF dams (HFCS) attenuated these changes. HFCS (versus maternal normal fat control) appeared to improve metabolic functioning of visceral adipose tissue during post-weaning HF feeding, preventing the elevation in leptin and increasing (p < 0.05) mRNA expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (Irs1) that promotes peripheral insulin signaling in male offspring. In contrast, MCS had minimal effects on metabolic outcomes of female offspring. In conclusion, MCS during HF feeding in mice improves long-term blood glucose homeostasis in male offspring when they are faced with a postnatal obesogenic environment.
Project description:Aims:Obesity during pregnancy increases risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the offspring and individuals exposed to over-nutrition during fetal life are likely to be exposed to a calorie-rich environment postnatally. Here, we established the consequences of combined exposure to a maternal and post-weaning obesogenic diet on offspring cardiac structure and function using an established mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity. Methods and results:The impact of the maternal and postnatal environment on the offspring metabolic profile, arterial blood pressure, cardiac structure, and function was assessed in 8-week-old C57BL/6 male mice. Measurement of cardiomyocyte cell area, the transcriptional re-activation of cardiac fetal genes as well as genes involved in the regulation of contractile function and matrix remodelling in the adult heart were determined as potential mediators of effects on cardiac function. In the adult offspring: a post-weaning obesogenic diet coupled with exposure to maternal obesity increased serum insulin (P?<?0.0001) and leptin levels (P?<?0.0001); maternal obesity (P?=?0.001) and a post-weaning obesogenic diet (P?=?0.002) increased absolute heart weight; maternal obesity (P?=?0.01) and offspring obesity (P?=?0.01) caused cardiac dysfunction but effects were not additive; cardiac dysfunction resulting from maternal obesity was associated with re-expression of cardiac fetal genes (Myh7: Myh6 ratio; P?=?0.0004), however, these genes were not affected by offspring diet; maternal obesity (P?=?0.02); and offspring obesity (P?=?0.05) caused hypertension and effects were additive. Conclusions:Maternal diet-induced obesity and offspring obesity independently promote cardiac dysfunction and hypertension in adult male progeny. Exposure to maternal obesity alone programmed cardiac dysfunction, associated with hallmarks of pathological left ventricular hypertrophy, including increased cardiomyocyte area, upregulation of fetal genes, and remodelling of cardiac structure. These data highlight that the perinatal period is just as important as adult-onset obesity in predicting CVD risk. Therefore, early developmental periods are key intervention windows to reduce the prevalence of CVD.
Project description:Overweight and obesity accompanies up to 70% of pregnancies and is a strong risk factor for offspring metabolic disease. Maternal obesity-associated inflammation and lipid profile are hypothesized as important contributors to excess offspring liver and skeletal muscle lipid deposition and oxidative stress. Here, we tested whether dams expressing the fat-1 transgene, which endogenously converts omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid, could protect wild-type (WT) offspring against high-fat diet induced weight gain, oxidative stress, and disrupted mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Despite similar body mass at weaning, offspring from fat-1 high-fat-fed dams gained less weight compared with offspring from WT high-fat-fed dams. In particular, WT males from fat-1 high-fat-fed dams were protected from post-weaning high-fat diet induced weight gain, reduced fatty acid oxidation, or excess oxidative stress compared with offspring of WT high-fat-fed dams. Adult offspring of WT high-fat-fed dams exhibited greater skeletal muscle triglycerides and reduced skeletal muscle antioxidant defense and redox balance compared with offspring of WT dams on control diet. Fat-1 offspring were protected from the reduced fatty acid oxidation and excess oxidative stress observed in offspring of WT high-fat-fed dams. These results indicate that a maternal fat-1 transgene has protective effects against offspring liver and skeletal muscle lipotoxicity resulting from a maternal high-fat diet, particularly in males. Altering maternal fatty acid composition, without changing maternal dietary composition or weight gain with high-fat feeding, may highlight important strategies for n-3-based prevention of developmental programming of obesity and its complications.
Project description:Maternal obesity and consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy has a negative impact on offspring, including an increased risk for the development of obesity in adolescence. The mechanism for this transferred metabolic risk is unclear, but many studies have focused on the brain due to its important role in appetite and body-weight regulation. Two main pathways regulate appetite in the brain; homeostatic regulation that occurs predominantly in hypothalamic circuits and hedonic regulation of feeding that occurs via dopaminergic pathways. The current proposal examined the impact of early HFD exposure on the dopaminergic control of hedonic feeding pathways in a translational nonhuman primate model. Japanese macaque offspring from mothers consuming a control (CTR) or HFD were weaned onto control or HFD at an average 8 months of age yielding four groups: maternal and post-weaning control diet (mCTRpCTR), maternal control diet and post-weaning HFD (mCTRpHFD), maternal HFD and post-weaning control diet (mHFDpCTR) and maternal and post-weaning HFD (mHFDpHFD). Brains from 13-month-old offspring were evaluated for expression of neuropeptides that regulate dopaminergic pathways including orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) in the lateral hypothalamus (LH), and tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Orexin cell numbers in the LH were significantly increased in animals exposed to a post-weaning HFD, while no difference was observed for orexin mRNA content or MCH cell numbers. Orexin fiber projections to the rostral VTA were significantly reduced in mCTRpHFD, mHFDpCTR, and mHFDpHFD groups, but these differences were not significant in the caudal VTA. There was no difference in the percentage of dopamine neurons receiving close appositions from orexin fibers in either the rostral or caudal VTA, nor was there any difference between groups in the number of orexin contacts per TH cell. In conclusion, the current study finds that prolonged early exposure to HFD during the in utero and postnatal period causes alterations at several levels in the dopaminergic circuits regulating reward.
Project description:Epidemiological data suggest an inverse relationship between birth weight and long-term metabolic deficits, which is exacerbated by postnatal catch-up growth. We have previously demonstrated that rat offspring subject to maternal protein restriction (MPR) followed by catch-up growth exhibit impaired hepatic function and ER stress. Given that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with various metabolic pathologies, we hypothesized that altered expression of p66Shc, a gatekeeper of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function, contributes to the hepatic defects observed in MPR offspring. To test this hypothesis, pregnant Wistar rats were fed a control (20% protein) diet or an isocaloric low protein (8%; LP) diet throughout gestation. Offspring born to control dams received a control diet in postnatal life, while MPR offspring remained on a LP diet (LP1) or received a control diet post weaning (LP2) or at birth (LP3). At four months, LP2 offspring exhibited increased protein abundance of both p66Shc and the cis-trans isomerase PIN1. This was further associated with aberrant markers of oxidative stress (i.e. elevated 4-HNE, SOD1 and SOD2, decreased catalase) and aerobic metabolism (i.e., increased phospho-PDH and LDHa, decreased complex II, citrate synthase and TFAM). We further demonstrated that tunicamycin-induced ER stress in HepG2 cells led to increased p66Shc protein abundance, suggesting that ER stress may underlie the programmed effects observed in vivo. In summary, because these defects are exclusive to adult LP2 offspring, it is possible that a low protein diet during perinatal life, a period of liver plasticity, followed by catch-up growth is detrimental to long-term mitochondrial function.