Expression Changes and Impact of the Extracellular Matrix on Etoposide Resistant Human Retinoblastoma Cell Lines.
ABSTRACT: Retinoblastoma (RB) represents the most common malignant childhood eye tumor worldwide. Several studies indicate that the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a crucial role in tumor growth and metastasis. Moreover, recent studies indicate that the ECM composition might influence the development of resistance to chemotherapy drugs. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible expression differences in the ECM compartment of the parental human cell lines WERI-RB1 (retinoblastoma 1) and Y79 and their Etoposide resistant subclones via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Western blot analyses were performed to analyze protein levels. To explore the influence of ECM molecules on RB cell proliferation, death, and cluster formation, WERI-RB1 and resistant WERI-ETOR cells were cultivated on Fibronectin, Laminin, Tenascin-C, and Collagen IV and analyzed via time-lapse video microscopy as well as immunocytochemistry. We revealed a significantly reduced mRNA expression of the proteoglycans Brevican, Neurocan, and Versican in resistant WERI-ETOR compared to sensitive WERI-RB1 cells. Also, for the glycoproteins ?1-Laminin, Fibronectin, Tenascin-C, and Tenascin-R as well as Collagen IV, reduced expression levels were observed in WERI-ETOR. Furthermore, a downregulation was detected for the matrix metalloproteinases MMP2, MMP7, MMP9, the tissue-inhibitor of metalloproteinase TIMP2, the Integrin receptor subunits ITGA4, ITGA5 and ITGB1, and all receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase ?/? isoforms. Downregulation of Brevican, Collagen IV, Tenascin-R, MMP2, TIMP2, and ITGA5 was also verified in Etoposide resistant Y79 cells compared to sensitive ones. Protein levels of Tenascin-C and MMP-2 were comparable in both WERI cell lines. Interestingly, Fibronectin displayed an apoptosis-inducing effect on WERI-RB1 cells, whereas an anti-apoptotic influence was observed for Tenascin-C. Conversely, proliferation of WERI-ETOR cells was enhanced on Tenascin-C, while an anti-proliferative effect was observed on Fibronectin. In WERI-ETOR, cluster formation was decreased on the substrates Collagen IV, Fibronectin, and Tenascin-C. Collectively, we noted a different ECM mRNA expression and behavior of Etoposide resistant compared to sensitive RB cells. These findings may indicate a key role of ECM components in chemotherapy resistance formation of RB.
Project description:Chemotherapy resistance is one of the reasons for the loss of the eye in retinoblastoma (RB) pa-tients. RB chemotherapy resistance has been investigated in different cell culture models like WERI RB1. Furthermore, chemotherapy resistant RB subclones like the etoposide resistant WERI ETOR cell line have been established to improve understanding of chemotherapy resistance in RB. Ob-jective of this study was to characterize the cell line models of an etoposide sensitive WERI RB1 and its etoposide resistant subclone WERI ETOR by proteomics analysis. Subsequently, quantitative proteomic data served for correlation analysis with known drug perturbation profiles. . WERI RB1 and WERI ETOR were cultured and prepared for quantitative mass spectrometry. Comparative proteomic profiling was performed with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in data-independent acquisition mode (SWATH). The raw SWATH files were processed using neural networks in library free mode along with machine learning algorithms. Pathway enrichment was performed using the REACTOME pathway resource and correlated to the Molecular Signature Database (MSigDB) hallmark gene set collections for functional annotation. Also, a drug connec-tivity analysis using the L1000 database was used to correlate the mechanism-of-action (MOA) for different anticancer reagents to WERI RB1 / WERI ETOR signatures. A total 4,756 proteins were identified across all samples which revealed a distinct clustering between groups. Of these pro-teins, 64 proteins were significantly altered (q < 0.05 & log2FC |>2|, 22% higher in WERI ETOR). Pathway analysis showed an enriched metabolic pathway for retinoid metabolism and transport pathway in WERI ETOR and for sphingolipid de novo biosynthesis in WERI RB1. In addition, this study showed similar protein signatures of topoisomerase inhibitors and WERI ETOR as well as of ATPase inhibitors, acetylcholine receptor antagonists and VEGFR inhibitors and WERI RB1. In this study, WERI RB1 and WERI ETOR were characterized as a cell line model for chemotherapy re-sistance in RB by using data-independent mass spectrometry. The global proteome revealed the activation of sphingolipid de novo biosynthesis in WERI RB1 and potential treatment options for etoposide resistant RB.
Project description:There are indications that pharmacological doses of ascorbate (Asc) used as an adjuvant improve the chemotherapeutic management of cancer. This favorable outcome stems from its cytotoxic effects due to prooxidative mechanisms. Since regulation of intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> levels contributes to the maintenance of cell viability, we hypothesized that one of the effects of Asc includes disrupting regulation of intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> homeostasis. Accordingly, we determined if Asc induced intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx through activation of pertussis sensitive Gi/o-coupled GPCR which in turn activated transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in both etoposide-resistant and -sensitive retinoblastoma (WERI-Rb1) tumor cells. Ca<sup>2+</sup> imaging, whole-cell patch-clamping, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) were performed in parallel with measurements of RB cell survival using Trypan Blue cell dye exclusion. TRPM7 gene expression levels were similar in both cell lines whereas TRPV1, TRPM2, TRPA1, TRPC5, TRPV4, and TRPM8 gene expression levels were downregulated in the etoposide-resistant WERI-Rb1 cells. In the presence of extracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup>, 1 mM Asc induced larger intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> transients in the etoposide-resistant WERI-Rb1 than in their etoposide-sensitive counterpart. With either 100 µM CPZ, 500 µM La<sup>3+</sup>, 10 mM NAC, or 100 µM 2-APB, these Ca<sup>2+</sup> transients were markedly diminished. These inhibitors also had corresponding inhibitory effects on Asc-induced rises in whole-cell currents. Pertussis toxin (PTX) preincubation blocked rises in Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx. Microscopic analyses showed that after 4 days of exposure to 1 mM Asc cell viability fell by nearly 100% in both RB cell lines. Taken together, one of the effects underlying oxidative mediated Asc-induced WERI-Rb1 cytotoxicity stems from its promotion of Gi/o coupled GPCR mediated increases in intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx through TRP channels. Therefore, designing drugs targeting TRP channel modulation may be a viable approach to increase the efficacy of chemotherapeutic treatment of RB. Furthermore, Asc may be indicated as a possible supportive agent in anti-cancer therapies.
Project description:The accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) and glial scar formation are considered important factors for the failure of regeneration in central nervous system (CNS) injury and multiple sclerosis. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME) as a model of multiple sclerosis served to evaluate the spatio-temporal course of ECM alterations in demyelinating conditions. Microarray analysis revealed only mildly upregulated gene expression of ECM molecules, their biosynthesis pathways and pro-fibrotic factors, while upregulation of matrix remodeling enzymes was more prominent. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated progressive accumulation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, glycoproteins and collagens within demyelinated TME lesions, paralleling the development of astrogliosis. Deposition of collagen IV, laminin, perlecan and tenascin-C started 28 days postinfection (dpi), collagen I, decorin, entactin and neurocan accumulated from 56 dpi on, and fibronectin from 98 dpi on. The basement membrane (BM) molecules collagen IV, entactin, fibronectin, laminin and perlecan showed perivascular and parenchymal deposition, while the non-BM components collagen I, decorin, neurocan and tenascin-C only accumulated in a nonvascular pattern in demyelinated areas. Contrary, phosphacan expression progressively decreased during TME. The immunoreactivity of aggrecan and brevican remained unchanged. The spatio-temporal association of matrix accumulation with astrogliosis suggests a mainly astrocytic origin of ECM deposits, which in turn may contribute to remyelination failure in TME.
Project description:High-mobility group A2 (HMGA2) protein regulates retinoblastoma (RB) cancer cell proliferation. Here, a stable phosphorothioate-modified HMGA2 aptamer was used to block HMGA2 protein function in RB cells. HMGA2-aptamer internalisation in RB cells (Y79, Weri Rb1) and non-neoplastic human retinal cells (MIO-M1) were optimised. Aptamer induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity in RB cancer cells (0.25-1.5 µM). Increased expression of TGF?, SMAD4, CDH1, BAX, CASP 3, PARP mRNA and decreased SNAI1, Bcl2 mRNA levels in aptamer-treated RB cells suggests the activation of TGF?-SMAD4-mediated apoptotic pathway. Synergistic effect with etoposide was observed in aptamer treated RB cells (p value ?0.05). No significant toxicity was observed in non-neoplastic retinal cells.
Project description:Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and optic nerve fibers. Increased age and intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation are the main risk factors for developing glaucoma. Mice that are heterozygous (HET) for the mega-karyocyte protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (PTP-Meg2) show chronic and progressive IOP elevation, severe RGCs loss, and optic nerve damage, and represent a valuable model for IOP-dependent primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Previously, evidence accumulated suggesting that glaucomatous neurodegeneration is associated with the extensive remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. Unfortunately, little is known about the exact ECM changes in the glaucomatous retina and optic nerve. Hence, the goal of the present study was to comparatively explore ECM alterations in glaucomatous PTP-Meg2 HET and control wild type (WT) mice. Due to their potential relevance in glaucomatous neurodegeneration, we specifically analyzed the expression pattern of the ECM glycoproteins fibronectin, laminin, tenascin-C, and tenascin-R as well as the proteoglycans aggrecan, brevican, and members of the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta (RPTPβ/ζ) family. The analyses were carried out in the retina and optic nerve of glaucomatous PTP-Meg2 HET and WT mice using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), immunohistochemistry, and Western blot. Interestingly, we observed increased fibronectin and laminin levels in the glaucomatous HET retina and optic nerve compared to the WT group. RT-qPCR analyses of the laminins α4, β2 and γ3 showed an altered isoform-specific regulation in the HET retina and optic nerve. In addition, an upregulation of tenascin-C and its interaction partner RPTPβ/ζ/phosphacan was found in glaucomatous tissue. However, comparable protein and mRNA levels for tenascin-R as well as aggrecan and brevican were observed in both groups. Overall, our study showed a remodeling of various ECM components in the glaucomatous retina and optic nerve of PTP-Meg2 HET mice. This dysregulation could be responsible for pathological processes such as neovascularization, inflammation, and reactive gliosis in glaucomatous neurodegeneration.
Project description:Retinoids have been shown to serve promising therapeutic agents for human cancers, e.g. the treatment of neuroblastoma. Synthetic retinoids, specific for particular retinoic acid (RA) receptors, are tested as new therapy strategies. In the present study, application of recombinant retinoic acid (RA) lowers retinoblastoma (RB) cell viability and induces apoptosis in RB cell lines. Combined treatment of RA and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) increases the pro-apoptotic effect of RA in the RB cells lines WERI-Rb1, Y-79, RB355, RBL-30 and RBL-15, indicating an additive effect. We could show that in WERI-Rb1 cells RA/BMP-4 mediated cell death is at least partially caspase-dependent, whereby RA and BMP-4 additively increased (i) Apaf-1 mRNA levels, (ii) caspase-9 cleavage activity and (iii) the number of activated, cleaved caspase-3 positive cells. Compared to single application of RA and BMP-4, combined RA/BMP-4 treatment significantly augments mRNA levels of the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) RAR? and RARß and the retinoic X receptor (RXR) RXR? suggesting an interaction in the induction of these RA receptor subtypes in WERI-Rb1 cells. Agonist studies revealed that both, RARs and RXRs are involved in RA/BMP-4 mediated apoptosis in WERI-Rb1 retinoblastoma cells. Employing specific RAR subtype antagonists and a RXRß and RXR? knockdown, we proved that RA/BMP-4 apoptosis signaling in WERI-Rb1 cells requires the RA receptor subtypes RAR?, RARß, RXRß and RXR?. Deciphering signaling mechanisms underlying apoptosis induction of RA and BMP-4 in WERI-Rb1 cells, our study provides useful starting-points for future retinoid-based therapy strategies in retinoblastoma.
Project description:Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most prevalent childhood intraocular cancer type. Previous studies have demonstrated that c-myc (a proto-oncogene) is associated with tumorigenesis. However, at present, the influence of the expression profile and bioactivity of c-Myc on RB occurrence and progression is yet to be characterised. Notably, the present study demonstrated that c-myc is downregulated in the RB cell line WERI-Rb1. However, treatment with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) was revealed to significantly upregulate the expression of c-Myc mRNA and protein in WERI-Rb1 cells. Moreover, TSA increased the activity of the c-myc promoter in WERI-Rb1 cells, and the expression of c-Myc was also regulated by other HDAC inhibitors, including vorinostat (SAHA), valproic acid sodium salt (VPA) and entinostat. Notably, although c-myc was silenced in the Y79 cell line, the HDAC inhibitor TSA did not induce upregulation of mRNA and protein in Y79 cells. By contrast, certain HDAC inhibitors (TSA, VPA and SAHA) were discovered to significantly decrease the activity of the c-myc promoter in Y79 cells. Furthermore, the current data indicated that exogenous c-myc expression has a mild inhibitory effect on WERI-Rb1 and Y79 cell viability. Therefore, the present study revealed novel insights into the expression mechanism and bioactivity of c-Myc in RB cells.
Project description:The miR-17?92. or oncomiR-1, cluster encodes oncogenic microRNAs (miRNAs), and it also promotes retinoblastoma (RB) tumor formation. Antagomir and miRNA mimics based approaches are widely tried against oncogenic and tumor suppressive miRNAs. Other methods for targeting cancer related miRNAs are still under development. In the current study, we focused on the pri-miRNA-17?92 aptamer (pri-apt), which can potentially replace the mix of five antagomirs by one aptamer that function to abrogate the maturation of miR-17, miR-18a, and miR-19b (P<0.05) for targeting RB. We used RB cell lines WERI-Rb1 and Y79 as an in vitro model. Cellular changes upon transfecting the pri-apt led to S-phase arrest in WERI-Rb1 cells and onset of apoptosis in both Y79 and WERI-Rb1 cell lines. There was increased cytotoxicity as measured by lactate dehydrogenase activity in pri-apt treated Y79 cells (P<0.05), and significant inhibition of cell proliferation was observed in both of the cell lines. Thus we showed the antiproliferative property of pri-apt in RB cell lines, which can be readily modified by developing appropriate vectors for the delivery of the aptamer specifically to cancer cells.
Project description:Extracellular matrix (ECM) underlies a complicated multicellular architecture that is subjected to significant forces from mechanical environment. Although various components of the ECM have been enumerated, mechanisms that evolve the sophisticated ECM architecture remain to be addressed. Here we show that periostin, a matricellular protein, promotes incorporation of tenascin-C into the ECM and organizes a meshwork architecture of the ECM. We found that both periostin null mice and tenascin-C null mice exhibited a similar phenotype, confined tibial periostitis, which possibly corresponds to medial tibial stress syndrome in human sports injuries. Periostin possessed adjacent domains that bind to tenascin-C and the other ECM protein: fibronectin and type I collagen, respectively. These adjacent domains functioned as a bridge between tenascin-C and the ECM, which increased deposition of tenascin-C on the ECM. The deposition of hexabrachions of tenascin-C may stabilize bifurcations of the ECM fibrils, which is integrated into the extracellular meshwork architecture. This study suggests a role for periostin in adaptation of the ECM architecture in the mechanical environment.