Progression-Dependent Altered Metabolism in Osteosarcoma Resulting in Different Nutrient Source Dependencies.
ABSTRACT: Osteosarcoma (OS) is a primary malignant bone tumor and OS metastases are mostly found in the lung. The limited understanding of the biology of metastatic processes in OS limits the ability for effective treatment. Alterations to the metabolome and its transformation during metastasis aids the understanding of the mechanism and provides information on treatment and prognosis. The current study intended to identify metabolic alterations during OS progression by using a targeted gas chromatography mass spectrometry approach. Using a female OS cell line model, malignant and metastatic cells increased their energy metabolism compared to benign OS cells. The metastatic cell line showed a faster metabolic flux compared to the malignant cell line, leading to reduced metabolite pools. However, inhibiting both glycolysis and glutaminolysis resulted in a reduced proliferation. In contrast, malignant but non-metastatic OS cells showed a resistance to glycolytic inhibition but a strong dependency on glutamine as an energy source. Our in vivo metabolic approach hinted at a potential sex-dependent metabolic alteration in OS patients with lung metastases (LM), although this will require validation with larger sample sizes. In line with the in vitro results, we found that female LM patients showed a decreased central carbon metabolism compared to metastases from male patients.
Project description:Background:Osteosarcoma (OS) is a malignant bone tumor that often develops during the period of rapid growth associated with adolescence. Despite successful primary tumor control accompanied by adjuvant chemotherapy, death from pulmonary metastases occurs in approximately 30% of patients within 5?years. As overall survival in patients remains unchanged over the last 30?years, urgent needs for novel therapeutic strategies exist. Cancer metastasis is characterized by complex molecular events which result from alterations in gene and protein expression/function. Recent studies suggest that metabolic adaptations, or "metabolic reprogramming," may similarly contribute to cancer metastasis. The goal of this study was to specifically interrogate the metabolic vulnerabilities of highly metastatic OS cell lines in a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments, in order to identify a tractable metabolically targeted therapeutic strategy for patients. Methods:Nutrient deprivation and drug treatment experiments were performed in MG63.3, 143B, and K7M2 OS cell lines to identify the impact of glutaminase-1 (GLS1) inhibition and metformin treatment on cell proliferation. We functionally validated the impact of drug treatment with extracellular flux analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. 13C-glucose and 13C-glutamine tracing was employed to identify specific contributions of these nutrients to the global metabolic profiles generated with GLS1 inhibition and metformin treatment in vivo. Results:Highly metastatic OS cell lines require glutamine for proliferation, and exposure to CB-839, in combination with metformin, induces both primary tumor growth inhibition and a distinct reduction in metastatic outgrowth in vivo. Further, combination-treated OS cells showed a reduction in cellular mitochondrial respiration, while NMR confirmed the pharmacodynamic effects of glutaminase inhibition in tumor tissues. We observed global decreases in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle functionality, alongside an increase in fatty acid oxidation and pyrimidine catabolism. Conclusions:This data suggests combination-treated cells cannot compensate for metformin-induced electron transport chain inhibition by upregulating glutaminolysis to generate TCA cycle intermediates required for cell proliferation, translating into significant reductions in tumor growth and metastatic progression. This therapeutic approach could be considered for future clinical development for OS patients presenting with or at high risk of developing metastasis.
Project description:Osteosarcoma (OS) is among the most frequently occurring primary bone tumors, primarily affecting adolescents and young adults. This malignant osteoid forming tumor is characterized by its metastatic potential, mainly to lungs. We recently demonstrated that WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) is frequently inactivated in human OS and that WWOX restoration in WWOX-negative OS cells suppresses tumorigenicity. Of note, WWOX levels are reduced in paired OS samples of post-treatment metastastectomies as compared to pre-treatment biopsies suggesting that decreased WWOX levels are associated with a more aggressive phenotype at the metastatic site. Nevertheless, little is known about WWOX function in OS metastasis. Here, we investigated the role of tumor suppressor WWOX in suppressing pulmonary OS metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that ectopic expression of WWOX in OS cells, HOS and LM-7, inhibits OS invasion and cell migration in vitro. Furthermore, WWOX expression reduced tumor burden in vivo and inhibited metastases' seeding and colonization. Mechanistically, WWOX function is associated with reduced levels of RUNX2 metastatic target genes implicated in adhesion and motility. Our results suggest that WWOX plays a critical role in determining the aggressive phenotype of OS, and its expression could be an attractive therapeutic target to combat this devastating adolescent disease.
Project description:Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequent malignant bone tumour in children and adolescents. In metastatic patients, the most common site of metastasis is the lung. There are relatively few cell lines of metastatic OS reported in the literature and the cytogenetic aspects of OS metastases are still controversial and inconclusive. Here we describe the establishment of a new OS cell line, M-OS, from a pulmonary metastasis of a typical osteoblastic OS of an 11-year-old boy with metastatic OS at diagnosis. M-OS cells have been maintained in culture for over 50 passages for more than 1 year. M-OS was characterized by immunohistochemistry, conventional cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In order to evaluate in vitro cell modification, the immunohistochemical analysis was performed in three different moments of the cell line: 10th, 30th and 50th passages. The conventional cytogenetic analysis revealed the ploidy of M-OS cell line as near-diploid, with most metaphases hyperdiploid and tetraploid. We found a copy number gain of MDM2 gene as the most frequent alteration in the FISH analysis. The immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that M-OS cell line maintained the osteogenic nature even after all passages for the cell line establishment in vitro.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) with leptomeningeal metastases (LM) has dismal survival. We aim to determine if modern systemic therapy, especially the bevacizumab, cisplatin, and etoposide (BEEP) regimen, is beneficial to MBC LM patients. METHODS:We excerpted data from a prospectively collected cytopathology database for MBC patients who were diagnosed with LM by positive cerebrospinal fluid cytology. The primary outcome was OS from cytologically confirmed LM until death. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to elucidate prognostic factors. RESULTS:We identified 34 patients with cytologically confirmed LM. Treatments after LM diagnosis included: intrathecal methotrexate (82.4%), systemic chemotherapy (68%; BEEP n?=?19, others n?=?4), and whole brain radiotherapy (n?=?5, 14.7%). Three of seven HER2-positive patients (43%) also received intrathecal trastuzumab. OS was improved in 2014-2016 compared with 2011-2013 (13.57 vs 3.20 months, p?=?0.004), when 12/17 (71%) versus 7/17 (41%) patients received BEEP, respectively. In the multivariate model including all treatments, BEEP (HR 0.24, p?=?0.003) and intrathecal trastuzumab (HR 0.22, p?=?0.035), but not intrathecal methotrexate (HR 0.86, p?=?0.78), remained significant prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS:MBC with LM is treatable-systemic BEEP are efficacious and may improve survival.
Project description:Osteosarcoma (OS) accounts for 56% of malignant bone cancers in children and adolescents. Patients with localized disease rarely develop metastasis; however, pulmonary metastasis occurs in approximately 50% of patients and leads to a 5-year survival rate of only 10-20%. Therefore, identifying the genes and pathways involved in metastasis, as new therapeutic targets, is crucial to improve long-term survival of OS patients. Novel markers that define metastatic OS were identified using comparative transcriptomic analyses of two highly metastatic (C1 and C6) and two poorly metastatic clonal variants (C4 and C5) isolated from the metastatic OS cell line, KHOS. Using this approach, we determined that the metastatic phenotype correlated with overexpression of thioredoxin reductase 2 (TXNRD2) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Validation in patient biopsies confirmed TXNRD2 and VEGF targets were highly expressed in 29-42% of metastatic OS patient biopsies, with no detectable expression in non-malignant bone or samples from OS patients with localised disease. Auranofin (AF) was used to selectively target and inhibit thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). At low doses, AF was able to inhibit TrxR activity without a significant effect on cell viability whereas at higher doses, AF could induce ROS-dependent apoptosis. AF treatment, in vivo, significantly reduced the development of pulmonary metastasis and we provide evidence that this effect may be due to an AF-dependent increase in cellular ROS. Thus, TXNRD2 may represent a novel druggable target that could be deployed to reduce the development of fatal pulmonary metastases in patients with OS.
Project description:KRAS mutant colorectal cancer (CRC) patients develop lung and brain metastases more frequently than KRAS wild-type (WT) counterpart. We retrospectively investigated the prognostic role of KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA (exon 20) mutations and loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in surgically resected lung metastases. Lung specimens from 75 metastatic CRC (mCRC) patients treated with one or more metastasectomies with curative intent were analyzed. Sixty-four percent of patients had KRAS WT lung metastases. PTEN loss-of-function was found in 75%. BRAF and PIK3CA exon 20 mutations were not found. Seven patients subsequently developed brain metastases and 43% of them had KRAS mutation. In univariate analysis, median overall survival (OS) for KRAS WT patients was longer, compared to KRAS mutant patients (median 60.9 vs. 36.6 months, P = 0.035). In addition, both progression-free survival (PFS) and lung disease-free survival (LDFS) between lung surgery and relapse were not associated with KRAS and PTEN status. In multivariate analysis, the risk of death was significantly increased by KRAS mutational status (OS Hazard ratio (HR) 2.17, 95% IC 1.19-3.96, P = 0.012) and lack of adjuvant chemotherapy (OS HR 0.10, 95% IC 0.01-0.74, P = 0.024). The proportion of KRAS mutations in lung metastases was similar to the expected proportion in primary tumors. Patients harboring KRAS mutation had a poorer survival rate compared to WT group both in univariate and multivariate analysis. Moreover, administration of adjuvant chemotherapy after lung metastasectomy (LM) significantly improved both PFS and OS. KRAS mutation is a negative prognostic factor in mCRC patients undergoing LM. Further larger and prospective studies are necessary to confirm these findings.
Project description:Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequent primary malignant bone cancer in children and adolescents with a high propensity for lung metastasis. Therefore, it is of great importance to identify molecular markers leading to increased metastatic potential in order to devise more effective therapeutic strategies that suppress metastasis, the major cause of death in OS. CD44, the principal receptor for the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan (HA), is frequently found overexpressed in tumor cells and has been implicated in metastatic spread in various cancer types. Here, we investigated the effects of stable shRNA-mediated silencing of CD44 gene products on in vitro and in vivo metastatic properties of the highly metastatic human 143-B OS cell line. In vitro, CD44 knockdown resulted in a 73% decrease in the adhesion to HA, a 57% decrease in the migration rate in a trans-filter migration assay, and a 28% decrease in the cells' capacity for anchorage-independent growth in soft agar compared to the control cells, implicating that CD44 expression contributes to the metastatic activity of 143-B cells. However, making use of an orthotopic xenograft OS mouse model, we demonstrated that reduced CD44 expression facilitated primary tumor growth and formation of pulmonary metastases. The enhanced malignant phenotype was associated with decreased adhesion to HA and reduced expression of the tumor suppressor merlin in vivo. In conclusion, our study identified CD44 as a metastasis suppressor in this particular experimental OS model.
Project description:Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequent malignant bone tumor with a high propensity for metastases. Through the tissue-specific alteration of p53 status, we have developed a genetically engineered mouse model of localized and metastatic OS. Gene expression analysis revealed naked cuticle homolog 2 (NKD2), a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, to be significantly downregulated in metastatic OS. An assessment of human OS tumors revealed downregulation of NKD2 in metastatic and recurrent OS. We determined that downregulation was secondary to methylation of the NKD2 promoter region for both mouse and human tumors. Furthermore, in vivo investigations indicate that NKD2 overexpression significantly diminishes OS tumor growth and metastasis and small molecule Wnt inhibitors can decrease OS growth and metastatic potential. Overall design: Development of novel osteoblast-specific alteration of a p53 mouse model that forms de novo localized and gross, macroscopic osteosarcoma that mimics the human disease allowing determination of novel genetic alterations involved in OS progression. Gene expression profiling of primary osteosarcomas (OS) and OS metastases to lung and liver. In order to identify genes and pathways that regulate OS metastasis, we performed an initial screen comparing the gene expression profiles of six localized, non-metastatic OS with those of 12 primary OS that produced metastatic lesions. In addition, seven lung metastatic lesion gene expression profiles were compared to those of the primary tumor from which they originated. multiple group comparison
Project description:Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in adolescents and young adults. The essential mechanisms underlying osteosarcomagenesis and progression continue to be obscure. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have far-reaching effects on the cellular biology of development and cancer. We recently reported that unique miRNA signatures associate with the pathogenesis and progression of OS. Of particular interest, we found that higher expression of miR-27a is associated with clinical metastatic disease. We report here that overexpression of miR-27a/miR-27a*, a microRNA pair derived from a single precursor, promotes pulmonary OS metastases formation. By contrast, sequestering miR-27a/miR-27a* by sponge technology suppressed OS cells invasion and metastases formation. miR-27a/miR-27a* directly repressed CBFA2T3 expression among other target genes. We demonstrated that CBFA2T3 is downregulated in majority of OS samples and its over expression significantly attenuated OS metastatic process mediated by miR-27a/miR-27a* underscoring CBFA2T3 functions as a tumor suppressor in OS. These findings establish that miR-27a/miR-27a* pair plays a significant role in OS metastasis and proposes it as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target in managing OS metastases.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Brain metastases explain the majority of mortality associated with lung cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer death. Cytology analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) remains the diagnostic gold standard, however, the circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in CSF (CSF-CTCs) are not well defined at the molecular and transcriptome levels.<h4>Methods</h4>We established an effective CSF-CTCs collection procedure and isolated individual CSF cells from five lung adenocarcinoma leptomeningeal metastases (LUAD-LM) patients and three controls. Three thousand seven hundred ninety-two single-cell transcriptomes were sequenced, and single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) gene expression analysis was used to perform a comprehensive characterization of CSF cells.<h4>Results</h4>Through clustering and expression analysis, we defined CSF-CTCs at the transcriptome level based on epithelial markers, proliferation markers, and genes with lung origin. The metastatic-CTC signature genes are enriched for metabolic pathway and cell adhesion molecule categories, which are crucial for the survival and metastases of tumor cells. We discovered substantial heterogeneity in patient CSF-CTCs. We quantified the degree of heterogeneity and found significantly greater among-patient heterogeneity compared to among-cell heterogeneity within a patient. This observation could be explained by spatial heterogeneity of metastatic sites, cell-cycle gene, and cancer-testis antigen (CTA) expression profiles as well as the proportion of CTCs displaying mesenchymal and cancer stem cell properties. In addition, our CSF-CTCs transcriptome profiling allowed us to determine the biomarkers during the progression of an LM patient with cancer of unknown primary site (CUP).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results will provide candidate genes for an RNA-based digital detection of CSF-CTCs from LUAD-LM and CUP-LM cases, and shed light on the therapy and mechanism of LUAD-LM.