Costunolide Plays an Anti-Neuroinflammation Role in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced BV2 Microglial Activation by Targeting Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2.
ABSTRACT: Hyperactivation of microglia in the brain is closely related to neuroinflammation and leads to neuronal dysfunction. Costunolide (CTL) is a natural sesquiterpene lactone with wide pharmacological activities including anti-inflammation and antioxidation. In this study, we found that CTL significantly inhibited the production of inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide, IL-6, TNF-?, and PGE2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia. Moreover, CTL effectively attenuated IKK?/NF-?B signaling pathway activation. To identify direct cellular target of CTL, we performed high-throughput reverse virtual screening assay using scPDB protein structure library, and found cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) was the most specific binding protein for CTL. We further confirmed the binding ability of CTL with CDK2 using cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA) and drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) assays. Surface plasmon resonance analysis also supported that CTL specifically bound to CDK2 with a dissociation constant at micromole level. Furthermore, knocking down CDK2 obviously reversed the anti-inflammation effect of CTL via AKT/IKK?/NF-?B signaling pathway on BV-2 cells. Collectively, these results indicate that CTL inhibits microglia-mediated neuroinflammation through directly targeting CDK2, and provide insights into the role of CDK2 as a promising anti-neuroinflammation therapeutic target.
Project description:Costunolide is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactone that demonstrates various therapeutic actions such as anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. Costunolide has recently emerged as a potential anti-cancer agent in various types of cancer, including colon, lung, and breast cancer. However, its mode of action in skin cancer remains unclear. To determine the anti-cancer potential of costunolide in skin cancer, human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431 was treated with costunolide. A lactate dehydrogenase assay showed that costunolide diminished the viability of A431 cells. Apoptotic cells were detected by annexin V/propidium iodide double staining and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay assay, and costunolide induced cell apoptosis via activation of caspase-3 as well as induction of poly-ADP ribose polymerase cleavage in A431 cells. In addition, costunolide elevated the level of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax while lowering the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, including Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. To address the inhibitory effect of costunolide on cell proliferation and survival, various signaling pathways, including mitogen-activated protein kinases, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), and Akt, were investigated. Costunolide activated the p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathways while suppressing the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), STAT3, NF-?B, and Akt pathways in A431 cells. Consequently, it was inferred that costunolide suppresses cell proliferation and survival via these signaling pathways. Taken together, our data clearly indicated that costunolide exerts anti-cancer activity in A431 cells by suppressing cell growth via inhibition of proliferation and promotion of apoptosis. Therefore, it may be employed as a potentially tumor-specific candidate in skin cancer treatment.
Project description:Costunolide, a sesquiterpene isolated from Vladimiria souliei (Franch.) Ling, is known to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-tumor activities. However, the effects of costunolide on liver injury are poorly understood. The current study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of costunolide against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactosamine-induced acute liver injury (ALI) in mice. The results indicated that costunolide (40 mg/kg) could significantly improve the pathological changes of hepatic tissue, and reduced the LPS and D-galactosamine-induced increases of alanine aminotransferase (from 887.24 ± 21.72 to 121.67 ± 6.56 IU/L) and aspartate aminotransferase (from 891.01 ± 45.24 to 199.94 ± 11.53 IU/L) activities in serum. Further research indicated that costunolide significantly reduced malondialdehyde content (from 24.56 ± 1.39 to 9.17 ± 0.25 nmol/ml) and reactive oxygen species (from 203.34 ± 7.68 to 144.23 ± 7.12%), increased the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (from 153.74 ± 10.33 to 262.27 ± 8.39 U/ml), catalase (from 6.12 ± 0.30 to 12.44 ± 0.57 U/ml), and total anti-oxidant capacity (from 0.64 ± 0.06 to 6.29 ± 0.11 U/ml) in hepatic tissues. Western blot results revealed that costunolide may trigger the anti-oxidative defense system by inhibiting kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 and nuclear factor-related factor 2 (cytosol), increasing nuclear factor-related factor 2 (nucleus), heme oxygenase-1 and NAD (P) H quinone oxidoreductase 1 activity. Moreover, costunolide significantly decreased the protein expression of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin 1?, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor. Pretreatment with costunolide could reduce the expression of toll-like receptor 4, myeloid differentiation factor 88, p65 (Nucleus), phosphorylated I?B kinase ?/?, inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase, inhibitor kappa B? and prevent the expression of phosphorylated inhibitor kappa B kinase which repressed translocation of p65 from cytoplasm to nucleus. In addition, pretreatment with costunolide also inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis by reducing the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 associated X, cytochrome C, cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase 3, cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase 8 and cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase 9, and by increasing B-cell lymphoma 2. From the above analysis, the protective effects of costunolide against LPS and D-galactosamine-induced ALI in mice may be attributed to its anti-oxidative activity in nuclear factor-related factor 2 signaling pathways, anti-inflammatory suppression in nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathways, and inhibition of hepatocyte apoptosis. Thus, costunolide may be a potential therapeutic agent in attenuating LPS and D-galactosamine -induced ALI in the future.
Project description:The sesquiterpene costunolide has a broad range of biological activities and is the parent compound for many other biologically active sesquiterpenes such as parthenolide. Two enzymes of the pathway leading to costunolide have been previously characterized: germacrene A synthase (GAS) and germacrene A oxidase (GAO), which together catalyse the biosynthesis of germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oic acid. However, the gene responsible for the last step toward costunolide has not been characterized until now. Here we show that chicory costunolide synthase (CiCOS), CYP71BL3, can catalyse the oxidation of germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oic acid to yield costunolide. Co-expression of feverfew GAS (TpGAS), chicory GAO (CiGAO), and chicory COS (CiCOS) in yeast resulted in the biosynthesis of costunolide. The catalytic activity of TpGAS, CiGAO and CiCOS was also verified in planta by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Mitochondrial targeting of TpGAS resulted in a significant increase in the production of germacrene A compared with the native cytosolic targeting. When the N. benthamiana leaves were co-infiltrated with TpGAS and CiGAO, germacrene A almost completely disappeared as a result of the presence of CiGAO. Transient expression of TpGAS, CiGAO and CiCOS in N. benthamiana leaves resulted in costunolide production of up to 60 ng.g(-1) FW. In addition, two new compounds were formed that were identified as costunolide-glutathione and costunolide-cysteine conjugates.
Project description:Costunolide being a sesquiterpene lactone, is known to have anticancer properties. The present study investigated the anticancer effects of costunolide against the H1299 human non?small?cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line. Inhibition of cell viability by costunolide was assessed via a MTT assay. Furthermore, the apoptotic rate was detected using Annexin V/propidium iodide labeling. A colony forming cell assay was performed to investigate the antiproliferative effects of costunolide. Wound healing and Transwell assays were performed to determine the inhibitory effects of costunolide on migration and invasion, respectively. Western blot analysis was undertaken to determine protein expression, and reverse transcription?quantitative PCR was performed to assess mRNA expression levels. The results demonstrated that costunolide inhibited the viability of H1299 cells, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration value of 23.93±1.67 µM and induced cellular apoptosis in a dose?dependent manner. Furthermore, the colony formation, migrative and invasive abilities of the H1299 cells were inhibited in a dose? or time?dependent manner. The protein expression levels of E?cadherin increased and those of N?cadherin decreased following treatment with costunolide, which suggested that costunolide inhibited epithelial?to?mesenchymal transition. The mRNA levels of B?Raf, E?cadherin, N?cadherin, integrins ?2 and ?1, as well as matrix metalloproteinases 2 were also found to be regulated costunolide. These findings indicate the potential of costunolide in the treatment of NSCLC.
Project description:Microglial-mediated neuroinflammation has been established as playing a vital role in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Thus, rational regulation of microglia functions to inhibit inflammation injury may be a logical and promising approach to neurodegenerative disease therapy. The purposes of the present study were to explore the neuroprotective effects and potential molecular mechanism of Schizandrin A (Sch A), a lignin compound isolated from Schisandra chinesnesis. Our observations showed that Sch A could significantly down-regulate the increased production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-6 induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) both in BV-2 cells and primary microglia cells. Moreover, Sch A exerted obvious neuroprotective effects against inflammatory injury in neurons when exposed to microglia-conditioned medium. Investigations of the mechanism showed the anti-inflammatory effect of Sch A involved the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression levels and inhibition of the LPS-induced TRAF6-IKK?-NF-?B pathway. Furthermore, inhibition of Jak2-Stat3 pathway activation and Stat3 nuclear translocation also was observed. In conclusion, SchA can exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects by alleviating microglia-mediated neuroinflammation injury through inhibiting the TRAF6-IKK?-NF-?B and Jak2-Stat3 signaling pathways.
Project description:Detyrosinated tubulin, a post-translational modification of ?-tubulin and a hallmark of stable microtubules, has gained recent attention given its association with tumor progression, invasiveness, and chemoresistance. We also recently reported that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) promotes tubulin detyrosination through tubulin tyrosine ligase (TTL) suppression. Furthermore, detyrosinated tubulin-enriched membrane protrusions, termed microtentacles (McTN), facilitate tumor cell reattachment to endothelial layers. Given the induction of EMT associated with inflammation and cancer progression, we tested anti-inflammatory nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) inhibitors on a panel of human breast carcinoma cells to examine their effects on detyrosinated tubulin to identify more specific tubulin-directed anti-cancer treatments.Using metastatic human breast carcinoma cells MDA-MB-157, MDA-MB-436, and Bt-549, we measured the impact of NF-?B inhibitors parthenolide, costunolide, and resveratrol on detyrosinated tubulin using protein expression analysis and immunofluorescence. A luciferase reporter assay and a viability screen were performed to determine if the effects were associated with their NF-?B inhibitory properties or were a result of apoptosis. Real-time monitoring of cell-substratum attachment was measured utilizing electrical impedance across microelectronic sensor arrays. We compared the selectivity of the NF-?B inhibitors to specifically target detyrosinated tubulin with traditional tubulin-targeted therapeutics, paclitaxel and colchicine, throughout the study.Sesquiterpene lactones, parthenolide and costunolide, selectively decrease detyrosinated tubulin independent of their inhibition of NF-?B. Live-cell scoring of suspended cells treated with parthenolide and costunolide show reduction in the frequency of microtentacles and inhibition of reattachment. Structural analysis shows that parthenolide and costunolide can decrease detyrosinated microtubules without significantly disrupting the overall microtubule network or cell viability. Paclitaxel and colchicine display indiscriminate disruption of the microtubule network.Our data demonstrate that selective targeting of detyrosinated tubulin with parthenolide and costunolide can reduce McTN frequency and inhibit tumor cell reattachment. These actions are independent of their effects on NF-?B inhibition presenting a novel anti-cancer property and therapeutic opportunity to selectively target a stable subset of microtubules in circulating tumor cells to reduce metastatic potential with less toxicity in breast cancer patients.
Project description:The management of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is challenging, attributable to a lack of efficacious therapies. Chemotherapy is one of the most important treatments for CRPC. Doxorubicin has been extensively used in many different tumors and is often combined with other drugs to enhance effects and reduce toxicity. Costunolide is a natural sesquiterpene lactone with anti-cancer properties. In this study, we first demonstrated that the combination of costunolide and doxorubicin induced apoptosis significantly more than either drug alone in prostate cancer cell lines. Costunolide combined with doxorubicin induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis through a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and modulation of Bcl-2 family proteins. We found that this drug combination significantly increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, which play upstream roles in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Further studies showed that N-acetyl cysteine blocked JNK and p38 phosphorylation, suggesting that ROS were upstream activators of JNK and p38. However, a JNK inhibitor, but not a p38 inhibitor, blocked the increase in ROS observed in cells treated with a combination of costunolide and doxorubicin, suggesting that ROS and JNK could activate each other. In vivo, inhibition of tumor growth and induction of apoptosis were greater in mice treated with the costunolide and doxorubicin combination than in mice treated with either drug alone, without an increase in toxicity. Therefore, we suggested that costunolide in combination with doxorubicin was a new potential chemotherapeutic strategy for treating prostate cancer.
Project description:Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Although its pathogenesis remains unclear, growing evidencce suggests that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation contributes greatly to the progression of PD. P7C3, an aminopropyl carbazole, possesses significant neuroprotective effects in several neurodegenerative disease animal models, including PD. In this study, we designed to investigate the effects of P7C3 on neuroinflammation. We showed that P7C3 specially suppressed the expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory factors but not influenced the anti-inflammatory factors in microglia. The inhibition of the nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) signaling pathway was involved in the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects by P7C3. LPS-induced activation of I?B kinase (IKK), degradation of the inhibitory ?B alpha (I?B?) and nuclear translocation of NF-?B can be attenuated by the pretreatment of P7C3 in microglia. Furthermore, in LPS-treated microglia, P7C3-pretreatment decreased the toxicity of conditioned media to MES23.5 cells (a dopaminergic (DA) cell line). Most importantly, the anti-inflammatory effects of P7C3 were observed in LPS-stimulated mouse model. In general, our study demonstrates that P7C3 inhibits LPS-induced microglial activation through repressing the NF-?B pathway both <i>in vivo</i> and <i>in vitro</i>, providing a theoretical basis for P7C3 in anti-inflammation.
Project description:Background:Microglia activation is a crucial event in neurodegenerative disease. The depression of microglial inflammatory response is considered a promising therapeutic strategy. NF?B signaling, including IKK/I?B phosphotylation, p65 nucelus relocalization and NF?B-related genes transcription are prevalent accepted to play important role in microglial activation. (+)-JQ1, a BRD4 inhibitor firstly discovered as an anti-tumor agent, was later confirmed to be an anti-inflammatory compound. However, its anti-inflammatory effect in microglia and central neural system remains unclear. Results:In the current work, microglial BV2 cells were applied and treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammation and later administered with (+)-JQ1. In parallel, LPS and (+)-JQ1 was intracerebroventricular injected in IL-1?-luc transgenic mice, followed by fluorescence evaluation and brain tissue collection. Results showed that (+)-JQ1 treatment could significantly reduce LPS induced transcription of inflammatory cytokines both in vitro and in vivo. (+)-JQ1 could inhibit LPS induced MAPK but not PI3K signaling phosphorylation, NF?B relocalization and transcription activity. In animal experiments, (+)-JQ1 postponed LPS induced microglial and astrocytes activation, which was also dependent on MAPK/NF?B signaling. Conclusions:Thus, our data demonstrated that (+)-JQ1 could inhibit LPS induced microglia associated neuroinflammation, via the attenuation of MAPK/NF?B signaling.
Project description:Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is an endogenous protein with potent anti-inflammatory properties in the brain. Although ANXA1 has been predominantly studied for its binding to formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) on plasma membranes, little is known regarding whether this protein has an anti-inflammatory effect in the cytosol. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which the ANXA1 peptide Ac2-26 decreases high TNF-? production and IKK? activity, which was caused by oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R)-induced neuronal conditioned medium (NCM) in microglia. We found that exogenous Ac2-26 crosses into the cytoplasm of microglia and inhibits both gene expression and protein secretion of TNF-?. Ac2-26 also causes a decrease in IKK? protein but not IKK? mRNA, and this effect is inverted by lysosome inhibitor NH4CL. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Ac2-26 induces IKK? accumulation in lysosomes and that lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2A (LAMP-2A), not LC-3, is enhanced in microglia exposed to Ac2-26. We hypothesize that Ac2-26 mediates IKK? degradation in lysosomes through chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Interestingly, ANXA1 in the cytoplasm does not interact with IKK? but with HSPB1, and Ac2-26 promotes HSPB1 binding to IKK?. Furthermore, both ANXA1 and HSPB1 can interact with Hsc70 and LAMP-2A, but IKK? only associates with LAMP-2A. Downregulation of HSPB1 or LAMP-2A reverses the degradation of IKK? induced by Ac2-26. Taken together, these findings define an essential role of exogenous Ac2-26 in microglia and demonstrate that Ac2-26 is associated with HSPB1 and promotes HSPB1 binding to IKK?, which is degraded by CMA, thereby reducing TNF-? expression.