Adenosine-5'-Phosphosulfate- and Sulfite Reductases Activities of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria from Various Environments.
ABSTRACT: A comparative study of the kinetic characteristics (specific activity, initial and maximum rate, and affinity for substrates) of key enzymes of assimilatory sulfate reduction (APS reductase and dissimilatory sulfite reductase) in cell-free extracts of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) from various biotopes was performed. The material for the study represented different strains of SRB from various ecotopes. Microbiological (isolation and cultivation), biochemical (free cell extract preparation) and chemical (enzyme activity determination) methods served in defining kinetic characteristics of SRB enzymes. The determined affinity data for substrates (i.e., sulfite) were 10 times higher for SRB strains isolated from environmental (soil) ecotopes than for strains from the human intestine. The maximum rate of APS reductase reached 0.282-0.862 µmol/min×mg-1 of protein that is only 10 to 28% higher than similar initial values. The maximum rate of sulfite reductase for corrosive relevant collection strains and SRB strains isolated from heating systems were increased by 3 to 10 times. A completely different picture was found for the intestinal SRB Vmax in the strains Desulfovibrio piger Vib-7 (0.67 µmol/min × mg-1 protein) and Desulfomicrobium orale Rod-9 (0.45 µmol/min × mg-1 protein). The determinant in the cluster distribution of SRB strains is the activity of the terminal enzyme of dissimilatory sulfate reduction-sulfite reductase, but not APS reductase. The data obtained from the activity of sulfate reduction enzymes indicated the adaptive plasticity of SRB strains that is manifested in the change in enzymatic activity.
Project description:Sulfate is the predominant electron acceptor for anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine sediments. This process is carried out by a syntrophic consortium of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) through an energy conservation mechanism that is still poorly understood. It was previously hypothesized that ANME alone could couple methane oxidation to dissimilatory sulfate reduction, but a genetic and biochemical basis for this proposal has not been identified. Using comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses, we found the genetic capacity in ANME and related methanogenic archaea for sulfate reduction, including sulfate adenylyltransferase, APS kinase, APS/PAPS reductase and two different sulfite reductases. Based on characterized homologs and the lack of associated energy conserving complexes, the sulfate reduction pathways in ANME are likely used for assimilation but not dissimilation of sulfate. Environmental metaproteomic analysis confirmed the expression of 6 proteins in the sulfate assimilation pathway of ANME. The highest expressed proteins related to sulfate assimilation were two sulfite reductases, namely assimilatory-type low-molecular-weight sulfite reductase (alSir) and a divergent group of coenzyme F420-dependent sulfite reductase (Group II Fsr). In methane seep sediment microcosm experiments, however, sulfite and zero-valent sulfur amendments were inhibitory to ANME-2a/2c while growth in their syntrophic SRB partner was not observed. Combined with our genomic and metaproteomic results, the passage of sulfur species by ANME as metabolic intermediates for their SRB partners is unlikely. Instead, our findings point to a possible niche for ANME to assimilate inorganic sulfur compounds more oxidized than sulfide in anoxic marine environments.
Project description:Lateral gene transfer affects the evolutionary path of key genes involved in ancient metabolic traits, such as sulfate respiration, even more than previously expected. In this study, the phylogeny of the adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase was analyzed. APS reductase is a key enzyme in sulfate respiration present in all sulfate-respiring prokaryotes. A newly developed PCR assay was used to amplify and sequence a fragment ( approximately 900 bp) of the APS reductase gene, apsA, from a taxonomically wide range of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (n = 60). Comparative phylogenetic analysis of all obtained and available ApsA sequences indicated a high degree of sequence conservation in the region analyzed. However, a comparison of ApsA- and 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic trees revealed topological incongruences affecting seven members of the Syntrophobacteraceae and three members of the Nitrospinaceae, which were clearly monophyletic with gram-positive sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In addition, Thermodesulfovibrio islandicus and Thermodesulfobacterium thermophilum, Thermodesulfobacterium commune, and Thermodesulfobacterium hveragerdense clearly branched off between the radiation of the delta-proteobacterial gram-negative SRB and the gram-positive SRB and not close to the root of the tree as expected from 16S rRNA phylogeny. The most parsimonious explanation for these discrepancies in tree topologies is lateral transfer of apsA genes across bacterial divisions. Similar patterns of insertions and deletions in ApsA sequences of donor and recipient lineages provide additional evidence for lateral gene transfer. From a subset of reference strains (n = 25), a fragment of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes (dsrAB), which have recently been proposed to have undergone multiple lateral gene transfers (M. Klein et al., J. Bacteriol. 183:6028-6035, 2001), was also amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic comparison of DsrAB- and ApsA-based trees suggests a frequent involvement of gram-positive and thermophilic SRB in lateral gene transfer events among SRB.
Project description:Intestinal sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) growth and resultant hydrogen sulfide production may damage the gastrointestinal epithelium and thereby contribute to chronic intestinal disorders. However, the ecology and phylogenetic diversity of intestinal dissimilatory SRB populations are poorly understood, and endogenous or exogenous sources of available sulfate are not well defined. The succession of intestinal SRB was therefore compared in inbred C57BL/6J mice using a PCR-based metabolic molecular ecology (MME) approach that targets a conserved region of subunit A of the adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase gene. The APS reductase-based MME strategy revealed intestinal SRB in the stomach and small intestine of 1-, 4-, and 7-day-old mice and throughout the gastrointestinal tract of 14-, 21-, 30-, 60-, and 90-day-old mice. Phylogenetic analysis of APS reductase amplicons obtained from the stomach, middle small intestine, and cecum of neonatal mice revealed that Desulfotomaculum spp. may be a predominant SRB group in the neonatal mouse intestine. Dot blot hybridizations with SRB-specific 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probes demonstrated SRB colonization of the cecum and colon pre- and postweaning and colonization of the stomach and small intestine of mature mice only. The 16S rDNA hybridization data further demonstrated that SRB populations were most numerous in intestinal regions harboring sulfomucin-containing goblet cells, regardless of age. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis demonstrated APS reductase mRNA expression in all intestinal segments of 30-day-old mice, including the stomach. These results demonstrate for the first time widespread colonization of the mouse intestine by dissimilatory SRB and evidence of spatial-specific SRB populations and sulfomucin patterns along the gastrointestinal tract.
Project description:Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are widespread in various ecotopes despite their growth and enzymatic features not compared. In this study, the enzymatic parameters of ATP sulfurylase in cell-free extracts of sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from various ecotopes such as soils, corrosion products and human large intestine were determined. Comparative analysis of both enzyme characteristics and growth parameters were carried out and similar research has not been reported yet. The initial and maximum rates of enzymatic reaction catalyzed by ATP sulfurylase were significantly different (<i>p</i>?<?0.05) in the bacterial strains isolated from various environmental ecotopes. The specific activity of this enzyme in sulfate-reducing bacteria was determined for corrosive and intestinal strains 0.98-1.56 and 0.98-2.26 U?×?mg<sup>-1</sup> protein, respectively. The Michaelis constants were 1.55-2.29 mM for corrosive and 2.93-3.13 mM for intestinal strains and the affinity range were demonstrated. Based on cluster analysis, the parameters of physiological and biochemical characteristics of sulfate-reducing bacteria from different ecotopes are divided into 3 clusters corresponding to the location of their isolation (soils, heating systems and human intestine). Understanding the enzymatic parameters of the initial stages of sulfate consumption in the process of dissimilatory sulfate reduction will allow the development of effective methods for controlling the production of toxic metabolites, including hydrogen sulfide.
Project description:The sulfur isotope record provides key insight into the history of Earth's redox conditions. A detailed understanding of the metabolisms driving this cycle, and specifically microbial sulfate reduction (MSR), is crucial for accurate paleoenvironmental reconstructions. This includes a precise knowledge of the step-specific sulfur isotope effects during MSR. In this study, we aim at resolving the cellular-level fractionation factor during dissimilatory sulfite reduction to sulfide within MSR, and use this measured isotope effect as a calibration to enhance our understanding of the biochemistry of sulfite reduction. For this, we merge measured isotope effects associated with dissimilatory sulfite reduction with a quantitative model that explicitly links net fractionation, reaction reversibility, and intracellular metabolite levels. The highly targeted experimental aspect of this study was possible by virtue of the availability of a deletion mutant strain of the model sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris (strain Hildenborough), in which the sulfite reduction step is isolated from the rest of the metabolic pathway owing to the absence of its QmoABC complex (?Qmo). This deletion disrupts electron flux and prevents the reduction of adenosine phosphosulfate (APS) to sulfite. When grown in open-system steady-state conditions at 10% maximum growth rate in the presence of sulfite and lactate as electron donor, sulfur isotope fractionation factors averaged -15.9‰ (1 ? = 0.4), which appeared to be statistically indistinguishable from a pure enzyme study with dissimilatory sulfite reductase. We coupled these measurements with an understanding of step-specific equilibrium and kinetic isotope effects, and furthered our mechanistic understanding of the biochemistry of sulfite uptake and ensuing reduction. Our metabolically informed isotope model identifies flavodoxin as the most likely electron carrier performing the transfer of electrons to dissimilatory sulfite reductase. This is in line with previous work on metabolic strategies adopted by sulfate reducers under different energy regimes, and has implications for our understanding of the plasticity of this metabolic pathway at the center of our interpretation of modern and palaeo-environmental records.
Project description:Diverse microbial assemblages inhabit subglacial aquatic environments. While few of these environments have been sampled, data reveal that subglacial organisms gain energy for growth from reduced minerals containing nitrogen, iron, and sulfur. Here we investigate the role of microbially mediated sulfur transformations in sediments from Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW), Antarctica, by examining key genes involved in dissimilatory sulfur oxidation and reduction. The presence of sulfur transformation genes throughout the top 34 cm of SLW sediments changes with depth. SLW surficial sediments were dominated by genes related to known sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophs. Sequences encoding the adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase gene, involved in both dissimilatory sulfate reduction and sulfur oxidation, were present in all samples and clustered into 16 distinct operational taxonomic units. The majority of APS reductase sequences (74%) clustered with known sulfur oxidizers including those within the "Sideroxydans" and Thiobacillus genera. Reverse-acting dissimilatory sulfite reductase (rDSR) and 16S rRNA gene sequences further support dominance of "Sideroxydans" and Thiobacillus phylotypes in the top 2 cm of SLW sediments. The SLW microbial community has the genetic potential for sulfate reduction which is supported by experimentally measured low rates (1.4 pmol cm(-3)d(-1)) of biologically mediated sulfate reduction and the presence of APS reductase and DSR gene sequences related to Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfotomaculum. Our results also infer the presence of sulfur oxidation, which can be a significant energetic pathway for chemosynthetic biosynthesis in SLW sediments. The water in SLW ultimately flows into the Ross Sea where intermediates from subglacial sulfur transformations can influence the flux of solutes to the Southern Ocean.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The dissimilatory adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase (cofactors flavin adenine dinucleotide, FAD, and two [4Fe-4S] centers) catalyzes the transformation of APS to sulfite and AMP in sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP); in sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) it has been suggested to operate in the reverse direction. Recently, the three-dimensional structure of the Archaeoglobus fulgidus enzyme has been determined in different catalytically relevant states providing insights into its reaction cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Full-length AprBA sequences from 20 phylogenetically distinct SRP and SOB species were used for homology modeling. In general, the average accuracy of the calculated models was sufficiently good to allow a structural and functional comparison between the beta- and alpha-subunit structures (78.8-99.3% and 89.5-96.8% of the AprB and AprA main chain atoms, respectively, had root mean square deviations below 1 A with respect to the template structures). Besides their overall conformity, the SRP- and SOB-derived models revealed the existence of individual adaptations at the electron-transferring AprB protein surface presumably resulting from docking to different electron donor/acceptor proteins. These structural alterations correlated with the protein phylogeny (three major phylogenetic lineages: (1) SRP including LGT-affected Archaeoglobi and SOB of Apr lineage II, (2) crenarchaeal SRP Caldivirga and Pyrobaculum, and (3) SOB of the distinct Apr lineage I) and the presence of potential APS reductase-interacting redox complexes. The almost identical protein matrices surrounding both [4Fe-4S] clusters, the FAD cofactor, the active site channel and center within the AprB/A models of SRP and SOB point to a highly similar catalytic process of APS reduction/sulfite oxidation independent of the metabolism type the APS reductase is involved in and the species it has been originated from. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the comparative models, there are no significant structural differences between dissimilatory APS reductases from SRP and SOB; this might be indicative for a similar catalytic process of APS reduction/sulfite oxidation.
Project description:The diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in brackish sediment was investigated using small-subunit rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) gene clone libraries and cultivation. The phylogenetic affiliation of the most commonly retrieved clones for both genes was strikingly similar and produced Desulfosarcina variabilis-like sequences from the inoculum but Desulfomicrobium baculatum-like sequences from a high dilution in natural media. Related organisms were subsequently cultivated from the site. PCR bias appear to be limited (or very similar) for the two primersets and target genes. However, the DSR primers showed a much higher phylogenetic specificity. DSR gene analysis is thus a promising and specific approach for investigating SRB diversity in complex habitats.
Project description:A gene was cloned from Burkholderia cepacia DBO1 that is homologous with Escherichia coli cysH encoding 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate (PAPS) reductase. The B. cepacia gene is the most recent addition to a growing list of cysH homologs from a diverse group of sulfate-assimilating bacteria whose products show greater homology to plant 5'-adenylylsulfate (APS) reductase than they do to E. coli CysH. The evidence reported here shows that the cysH from one of the species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, encodes APS reductase. It is able to complement an E. coli cysH mutant and a cysC mutant, indicating that the enzyme is able to bypass PAPS, synthesized by the cysC product. Insertional knockout mutation of P. aeruginosa cysH produced cysteine auxotrophy, indicating its role in sulfate assimilation. Purified P. aeruginosa CysH expressed as a His-tagged recombinant protein is able to reduce APS, but not PAPS. The enzyme has a specific activity of 5.8 micromol. min(-1). mg of protein(-1) at pH 8.5 and 30 degrees C with thioredoxin supplied as an electron donor. APS reductase activity was detected in several bacterial species from which the novel type of cysH has been cloned, indicating that this enzyme may be widespread. Although an APS reductase from dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria is known, it shows no structural or sequence homology with the assimilatory-type APS reductase reported here. The results suggest that the dissimilatory and assimilatory APS reductases evolved convergently.
Project description:Abundance and seasonal dynamics of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), in general, and of extreme halophilic SRB (belonging to Desulfocella halophila) in particular, were examined in highly saline industrial wastewater evaporation ponds over a forty one month period. Industrial wastewater was sampled and the presence of SRB was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) with a set of primers designed to amplify the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) gene. SRB displayed higher abundance during the summer (10(6)-10(8) targets ml(-1)) and lower abundance from the autumn-spring (10(3)-10(5) targets ml(-1)). However, addition of concentrated dissolved organic matter into the evaporation ponds during winter immediately resulted in a proliferation of SRB, despite the lower wastewater temperature (12-14 degrees C). These results indicate that the qPCR approach can be used for rapid measurement of SRB to provide valuable information about the abundance of SRB in harsh environments, such as highly saline industrial wastewaters. Low level of H2S has been maintained over five years, which indicates a possible inhibition of SRB activity, following artificial salination (approximately 16% w/v of NaCl) of wastewater evaporation ponds, despite SRB reproduction being detected by qPCR.