Recent advances in managing axial spondyloarthritis.
ABSTRACT: Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease that predominantly affects the axial skeleton. The advent of biologic drugs has transformed the management of patients with axSpA. However, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs remain the first-line drug treatment for axSpA. The optimal management of patients with axSpA requires a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment modalities, namely exercise and physical therapy. This review looks at novel therapeutic options in patients with axSpA. It also summarises current evidence regarding radiographic progression and treat-to-target in axSpA.
Project description:The triggers and pathogenesis of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) are not yet completely understood. However, therapeutic agents targeting tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-17 inflammatory pathways have proven successful in suppressing many of the clinical symptoms and signs of axSpA, giving us an indication of which pathways are responsible for initiating and maintaining the inflammation. The mechanisms that eventuate in syndesmophytes and ankyloses are less clear. This review addresses these two critical pathways of inflammation, discussing their nature and these factors that may activate or enhance the pathways in patients with axSpA. In addition, genetic and other markers important to the inflammatory pathways implicated in axSpA are explored, and prognostic biomarkers are discussed. Treatment options available for the management of axSpA and their associated targets are highlighted.
Project description:Axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA) is an inflammatory spondyloarthritis (SpA) that has significant impact on a patient's life. Symptoms, including fatigue, sleep problems, depression, and sexual dysfunction, can profoundly impact health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and limit work, leisure, and daily activities. Available therapies effectively manage pain and inflammation in early-stage disease, but patients often continue to experience impaired HRQoL. Thus, there remains a need for new therapies with novel mechanisms that can stop disease progression, potentially reverse damage caused by AxSpA and improve HRQoL in patients with AxSpA. Newer biologic agents, such as those targeting the interleukin 17-interleukin 23 axis, have promising efficacy and may improve HRQoL for patients with AxSpA. The AxSpA has many negative effects on HRQoL. By targeting disease pathways responsible for the development of AxSpA, approved and emerging therapies potentially reduce disease activity and improve the functional status of patients with AxSpA. This narrative review reflects on the findings of studies evaluating HRQoL of individuals with AxSpA and the role of newer therapies.
Project description:The Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society (ASAS) health index (HI) is a novel tool for approaching disability, health, and functioning in spondyloarthritis (SpA). In the present study we compared ASAS HI between patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and those with nonradiographic axial SpA (nr-axSpA). In addition, we identified predictors of ASAS HI. We designed this cross-sectional study using data from the Catholic Axial Spondyloarthritis COhort (CASCO), a prospective cohort from a single tertiary hospital. We compared baseline characteristics, including ASAS HI, between AS and nr-axSpA, and determined the frequency of each item constituting the ASAS HI. We used linear regression analysis to identify factors associated with ASAS HI. Total of 357 patients with axSpA-261 with AS and 96 with nr-axSpA-were included in analysis. AS patients were older and had higher ASAS HI than nr-axSpA. Among ASAS HI items, pain (item No. 1) and energy/drive (item No. 5) were the most common areas for which axSpA patients experienced discomfort. ASAS HI correlated with other SpA-related parameters such as BASDAI, ASDAS, and BASFI. Multivariable regression analysis of the axSpA group showed that high NSAID intake and mSASSS were positively associated with ASAS HI, whereas higher economic status and alcohol consumption were negatively associated with ASAS HI. Results were consistent in the AS group on subgroup analysis, whereas alcohol consumption was the only factor significantly associated with ASAS HI in the nr-axSpA group. In the present cohort study, patients with AS had poorer health status (higher ASAS HI) than those with nr-axSpA. Items proposed by AS patients (items No. 1 and 5) were the most frequently checked areas as axSpA patients feel discomfort, and this support that ASAS HI could practically assess actual discomfort of axSpA patient. ASAS HI was well correlated with known disease parameters, including activity, function, and quality of life; therefore, ASAS HI could be used in the future to represent the health status of SpA in a systematic way. Spinal structural damage (higher mSASSS), high NSAID intake, alcohol consumption, and economic status were predictors of ASAS HI in patients with axSpA, especially those with AS.
Project description:Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is a chronic inflammatory condition that encompasses ankylosing spondylitis (AS) as well as non-radiographic axial disease (nr-axSpA) and can lead to chronic pain, structural damage and disability. The introduction of tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) drugs for AS heralded a new era of drug therapeutics for what was previously a largely untreatable disease. This has now been expanded with the licensing of secukinumab, an interleukin 17A (IL-17A) inhibitor for the treatment of AS. Although biologic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) are not a first line treatment option in AS or axSpA, they are highly effective following incomplete or no response to physiotherapy and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Current research strategies aim to test whether the desired treatment goal of disease remission may now be achievable with early and stratified use of bDMARDs in both AS and nr-axSpA. This review summarizes the current literature on axSpA including pathophysiology, treatment indications, radiographic progression and the evidence for new developments in the treatment of both AS and nr-axSpA.
Project description:Two main treatment targets in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) could be currently defined: (1) reduction of inflammation resulting in control of signs and symptoms such as pain and stiffness and (2) prevention or retardation of structural damage progression in the spine resulting in preservation of functional status and improvement in the long-term outcome. A good control of signs and symptoms could be successfully achieved nowadays in the majority of patients treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs-the first-line therapy in axSpA) and with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) ? blockers (the second-line therapy, if NSAIDs fail). Several pipeline drugs including interleukin (IL) 17 and IL-23 antagonists might be helpful in the immediate future in achievement of this treatment target in case of inefficacy of NSAIDs and TNF? blockers. Retardation of radiographical spinal progression in axSpA-disease modification-is currently a much more challenging task than a good symptom control. In this review, we discuss symptomatic and possible disease-modifying properties of current and forthcoming treatment options for axSpA.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, as well as the association between body mass index (BMI) and disease activity in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). METHODS:Norwegian axSpA patients from the European Map of Axial Spondyloarthritis (EMAS) survey were included in this analysis. Sociodemographic, anthropomorphic, and disease-related variables (HLA-B27, comorbidities, BASDAI, and self-reported spinal stiffness) were reported. Patients were categorized into under/normal weight (BMI?<?25 kg/m2), overweight (BMI???25 to <?30 kg/m2), and obese (??30 kg/m2). RESULTS:Of the 509 participants in the EMAS survey, 35% were categorized as under/normal weight, 39% overweight, and 26% obese. Compared to under/normal-weight patients, overweight patients had significantly higher degree of spinal stiffness (mean (SD) 7.91?±?2.02 vs 7.48 (2.15) and number of comorbidities (2.45?±?2.11, vs 1.94), both p?<?0.001. Obese patients had significantly higher disease activity (BASDAI mean (SD) 5.87?±?1.78 vs 4.99?±?2.08, p?<?0.001), degree of spinal stiffness (8.18?±?2.03 vs 7.48?±?2.15, p?=?0.006), and number of comorbidities (3.43?±?2.43 vs 1.94.?±?.38, p?<?0.001) than under/normal weight patients. After adjusting for gender and age, obesity proved to be independently associated with disease activity. CONCLUSION:Obesity was associated with higher reported BASDAI score, and being overweight or obese was associated with a higher degree of spinal stiffness and number of comorbidities compared to under/normal weight respondents. The results highlight the serious impact of obesity on health status, and obesity should therefore be considered as a modifiable risk factor for disease activity within the disease management of axSpA.
Project description:Non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) is a recently described form of axial inflammatory arthritis that has not caused substantial erosive damage to the sacroiliac joints. Nr-axSpA is associated with significant impairment in quality of life and, in a proportion of patients, it can evolve into ankylosing spondylitis (AS, also termed radiographic axSpA). The identification in the clinic of nr-axSpA has been made possible by advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Classification criteria for nr-axSpA have been proposed but there remains discussion in the international community regarding this. Studies are ongoing to further define the classification and diagnosis of nr-axSpA. There is much further research required regarding the optimal use of MRI in nr-axSpA, including distinguishing sacroiliac MRI changes in the normal population and the definition of a positive MRI in spinal disease. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and physiotherapy are the core first-line therapy for nr-axSpA. Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors also play a very important role in treatment of patients with active nr-axSpA who do not respond to first-line therapy. Agents directed at interleukin-17, interleukin-23 and Janus kinase inhibitors are proving effective in AS with ongoing and planned studies in nr-axSpA. A great deal of active research is being undertaken in classification, imaging and therapy in nr-axSpA and so the future for improving the lives of patients with nr-axSpA is promising.
Project description:In the present study, we investigated bone geometry, microstructure, and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in a cohort of patients with nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) in order to define the early bone changes occurring in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and to define potential factors for deterioration of bone microstructure.Patients with axSpA (n?=?107) and healthy control subjects (n?=?50) of similar age and sex were assessed for geometric, volumetric, and microstructural parameters of bone using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) at the radius. Additionally, demographic and disease-specific characteristics of patients with axSpA were recorded.Patients with nr-axSpA and control subjects were comparable in age, sex, and body mass index. Geometric and microstructural analysis by HR-pQCT revealed a significantly reduced cortical area (p?=?0.022) and cortical thickness (p?=?0.006) in patients with nr-axSpA compared with control subjects. Total and cortical vBMD were significantly reduced in patients with nr-axSpA (p?=?0.042 and p?=?0.007, respectively), whereas there was no difference in trabecular vBMD. Patients with a short disease duration (<?2 years; n?=?46) also showed significant reduction of cortical thickness and cortical area compared with control subjects. Patients with disease duration >?2 years (n?=?55) additionally developed a decrease of cortical and total vBMD. Multiple regression models identified male sex to be associated with lower cortical vBMD and female sex to be associated with lower trabecular vBMD.Bone microstructure in patients with nr-axSpA is characterized primarily by deterioration of cortical bone. Cortical bone loss starts early and is evident within the first 2 years of the disease.
Project description:Few studies have investigated the impact of obesity on the response to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of different body mass index (BMI) categories on TNFi response in a large cohort of patients with axSpA.Patients with axSpA within the Swiss Clinical Quality Management (SCQM) program were included in the current study if they fulfilled the Assessment in Spondyloarthritis International Society (ASAS) criteria for axSpA, started a first TNFi after recruitment, and had available BMI data as well as a baseline and follow-up visit at 1 year (±6 months). Patients were categorized according to BMI: normal (BMI 18.5 to <25), overweight (BMI 25-30), and obese (BMI >30). We evaluated the proportion of patients achieving the 40% improvement in ASAS criteria (ASAS40), as well as Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) improvement and status scores at 1 year. Patients having discontinued the TNFi were considered nonresponders. We controlled for age, sex, HLA-B27, axSpA type, BASDAI, BASMI, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), current smoking, enthesitis, physical exercise, and co-medication with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, as well as with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in multiple adjusted logistic regression analyses.A total of 624 axSpA patients starting a first TNFi were considered in the current study (332 patients of normal weight, 204 patients with overweight, and 88 obese patients). Obese individuals were older, had higher BASDAI levels, and had a more important impairment of physical function in comparison to patients of normal weight, while ASDAS and CRP levels were comparable between the three BMI groups. An ASAS40 response was reached by 44%, 34%, and 29% of patients of normal weight, overweight, and obesity, respectively (overall p?=?0.02). Significantly lower odds ratios (ORs) for achieving ASAS40 response were found in adjusted analyses in obese patients versus patients with normal BMI (OR 0.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09-0.70). The respective adjusted ASAS40 OR in overweight versus normal weight patients was 0.62 (95% CI 0.24-1.14). Comparable results were found for the other outcomes assessed.Obesity is associated with significantly lower response rates to TNFi in patients with axSpA.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:A positive family history (PFH) of spondyloarthritis, in particular a PFH of AS or acute anterior uveitis, is associated with HLA-B27 carriership in chronic back pain patients. As it is unknown, the study aimed to investigate if a PFH contributes to diagnosing axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) once HLA-B27 status is known. METHODS:In axSpA-suspected patients from the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS), DEvenir des Spondyloarthropathies Indifférenciéés Récentes (DESIR) and SPondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohorts, logistic regression analyses were performed with HLA-B27 status and PFH according to the ASAS definition (ASAS-PFH) as determinants and clinical axSpA diagnosis as outcome at baseline. Analyses were repeated with a PFH of AS or acute anterior uveitis. RESULTS:In total, 1818 patients suspected of axSpA were analysed (ASAS n = 594, DESIR n = 647, and SPACE n = 577). In patients from the ASAS, DESIR and SPACE cohorts, respectively 23%, 39% and 38% had an ASAS-PFH, 52%, 58% and 43% were HLA-B27 positive, and 62%, 47% and 54% were diagnosed with axSpA. HLA-B27 was independently associated with an axSpA diagnosis in each cohort but an ASAS-PFH was not [ASAS cohort: HLA-B27 odds ratio (OR): 6.9 (95% CI: 4.7, 10.2), ASAS-PFH OR: 0.9 (95% CI: 0.6, 1.4); DESIR: HLA-B27 OR: 2.1 (95% CI: 1.5, 2.9), ASAS-PFH OR: 1.0 (95% CI 0.7, 1.3); SPACE: HLA-B27 OR: 10.4 (95% CI: 6.9, 15.7), ASAS-PFH OR: 1.0 (95% CI: 0.7, 1.5)]. Similar negative results were found for PFH of AS and acute anterior uveitis. CONCLUSION:In three independent cohorts with different ethnical backgrounds, ASAS, DESIR and SPACE, a PFH was not associated independently of HLA-B27 with a diagnosis of axSpA. This indicates that in the vast majority of patients presenting with back pain, a PFH does not contribute to the likelihood of an axSpA diagnosis if HLA-B27 status is known.