Small Molecule Adjuvants Potentiate Colistin Activity and Attenuate Resistance Development in Escherichia coli by Affecting pmrAB System.
ABSTRACT: Background:Colistin is one of the last-resort antibiotics to treat multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacterial infections in humans. Further, colistin has been also used to prevent and treat Enterobacteriaceae infections in food animals. However, chromosomal mutations and mobile colistin resistance (mcr) genes, which confer resistance to colistin, have been detected in bacterial isolates from food animals and humans worldwide; thus, limiting the use of colistin. Therefore, strategies that could aid in ameliorating colistin resistance are critically needed. Objective:Investigate the adjuvant potential of novel small molecules (SMs) on colistin. Materials and Methods:Previously, we identified 11 membrane-affecting SMs with bactericidal activity against avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). Here, we investigated the potentiation effect of those SMs on colistin using checkerboard assays and wax moth (Galleria mellonella) larval model. The impact of the SM combination on colistin resistance evolution was also investigated by analyzing whole genome sequences of APEC isolates passaged with colistin alone or in combination with SMs followed by quantitating pmrCAB and pmrH expression in those isolates. Results:The SM combination synergistically reduced the minimum bactericidal concentration of colistin by at least 10-fold. In larvae, the SM combination increased the efficacy of colistin by two-fold with enhanced (>50%) survival and reduced (>4 logs) APEC load. Further, the SM combination decreased the frequency (5/6 to 1/6) of colistin resistance evolution and downregulated the pmrCAB and pmrH expression. Previously unknown mutations in pmrB (L14Q, T92P) and pmrA (A80V), which were predicted deleterious, were identified in the colistin-resistant (ColR) APEC isolates when passaged with colistin alone but not in combination with SMs. Our study also identified mutations in hypothetical and several phage-related proteins in ColR APEC isolates in concurrent with pmrAB mutations. Conclusion:Our study identified two SMs (SM2 and SM3) that potentiated the colistin activity and attenuated the development of colistin resistance in APEC. These SMs can be developed as anti-evolution drugs that can slow down colistin resistance development.
Project description:The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae has resulted in a more frequent reliance on treatment using colistin. However, resistance to colistin (Col(r)) is increasingly reported from clinical settings. The genetic mechanisms that lead to Col(r) in K. pneumoniae are not fully characterized. Using a combination of genome sequencing and transcriptional profiling by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis, distinct genetic mechanisms were found among nine Col(r) clinical isolates. Col(r) was related to mutations in three different genes in K. pneumoniae strains, with distinct impacts on gene expression. Upregulation of the pmrH operon encoding 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose (Ara4N) modification of lipid A was found in all Col(r) strains. Alteration of the mgrB gene was observed in six strains. One strain had a mutation in phoQ. Common among these seven strains was elevated expression of phoPQ and unaltered expression of pmrCAB, which is involved in phosphoethanolamine addition to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In two strains, separate mutations were found in a previously uncharacterized histidine kinase gene that is part of a two-component regulatory system (TCRS) now designated crrAB. In these strains, expression of pmrCAB, crrAB, and an adjacent glycosyltransferase gene, but not that of phoPQ, was elevated. Complementation with the wild-type allele restored colistin susceptibility in both strains. The crrAB genes are present in most K. pneumoniae genomes, but not in Escherichia coli. Additional upregulated genes in all strains include those involved in cation transport and maintenance of membrane integrity. Because the crrAB genes are present in only some strains, Col(r) mechanisms may be dependent on the genetic background.
Project description:Background:Polymyxins including colistin are an important "last-line" treatment for infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKp). Increasing use of colistin has led to resistance to this cationic antimicrobial peptide. Methods:A cohort nested within the Consortium on Resistance against Carbapenems in Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRACKLE) was constructed of patients with infection, or colonization with CRKp isolates tested for colistin susceptibility during the study period of December, 2011 to October, 2014. Reference colistin resistance determination as performed by broth macrodilution was compared to results from clinical microbiology laboratories (Etest) and to polymyxin resistance testing. Each patient was included once, at the time of their first colistin-tested CRKp positive culture. Time to 30-day in-hospital all-cause mortality was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard modeling. Results:In 246 patients with CRKp, 13% possessed ColR CRKp. ColR was underestimated by Etest (very major error rate = 35%, major error rate = 0.4%). A variety of rep-PCR strain types were encountered in both the ColS and the ColR groups. Carbapenem resistance was mediated primarily by blaKPC-2 (46%) and blaKPC-3 (50%). ColR was associated with increased hazard for in-hospital mortality (aHR 3.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.73-6.57; P < .001). The plasmid-associated ColR genes, mcr-1 and mcr-2 were not detected in any of the ColR CRKp. Conclusions:In this cohort, 13% of patients with CRKp presented with ColR CRKp. The apparent polyclonal nature of the isolates suggests de novo emergence of ColR in this cohort as the primary factor driving ColR. Importantly, mortality was increased in patients with ColR isolates.
Project description:Background:The emergence of colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from human and animal sources is a public health concern as this antibiotic is considered to be the last line therapeutic option for infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Here we aimed to determine the prevalence of colistin resistance, among enterobacteria isolated from poultry and the possible underlying colistin resistance mechanisms. Methods:A collection of 944 cloacal samples were obtained from poultry and screened for colistin resistance. To uncover the molecular mechanism behind colistin resistance, the presence of plasmid encoded colistin resistance genes mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3 and mcr-4 was examined by PCR. The nucleotide sequences of the mgrB, pmrA, pmrB, phoP, phoQ, crrA and crrB genes were determined. The genetic relatedness of the colistin resistant (ColR) isolates was evaluated by Multilocus sequence typing. Three ColR mutants were generated in vitro by repetitive drug exposure. Results:Overall from 931 enteric bacteria isolated from poultry samples obtained from 131 farms, nine ColR bacteria (0.96%) with high level colistin resistance (MICs???64 mg/L) were detected all being identified as K. pneumoniae. The 9 ColR bacteria originated from different farms and belonged to 7 distinct Sequence types including ST11 (22.2%) and ST726 (22.2%) being the most prevalent STs followed by ST37, ST74, ST485, ST525 and novel sequence type 3380 (11.1% each). mcr-type genes were not detected in any isolate. In 88.8% of the isolates (n?=?8), MgrB was inactivated by Insertion of IS elements (IS1-like, IS3-like, IS5-like families, positions +?75, +?113, +?117, +?135) and nonsense mutations at codons 8, 16, 30. All ColR isolates harboured wild type PmrA, PhoP, PhoQ or polymorphic variants of PmrB. Sequence analysis of the CrrB revealed a familiar S195N and 4 novel I27V, T150R, F303S and K325R substitutions. PmrB T93N substitution and mgrB locus deletion were identified in two laboratory induced ColR mutants and one mutant lacked alteration in the studied loci. In one ColR isolate with wild type MgrB an A83V substitution was detected in CrrA. Conclusion:It is concluded from our results that colistin resistance in the studied avian K. pneumoniae isolates was mostly linked to alterations identified within the mgrB gene.
Project description:Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that poses an increasing threat in the health-care community. Colistin is one of the promising options for treatment of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii. The current study investigated the emergence of colistin resistance among carbapenem-resistant strains of A. baumannii in Egypt. It involved identification of clinically recovered A. baumannii isolates using the VITEK-2 system, and screening of their antimicrobial susceptibilities using broth microdilution techniques. Characterizations of carbapenemase and 16S rRNA methyltransferase genes were performed using PCR. Colistin-resistance determinants were characterized by sequencing. Carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates (n = 40) showed resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, gentamicin and amikacin. Most isolates revealed resistance to ciprofloxacin (95%; n = 38) and co-trimoxazole (92.5%; n = 37). Resistance to tobramycin and doxycycline was 80% (n = 32) and 62.5% (n = 25), respectively. Only two A. baumannii isolates demonstrated colistin resistance. Carbapenemase activity was tested by modified Hodge test and 78% of isolates were positive. All isolates carried blaOXA-51-like genes whereas bla-OXA-23 was detected in 80% (n = 32) of isolates. Among 16S rRNA methylase genes, armA was detected in 22.5% (n = 9) of the isolates. Analyses of lpxA, lpxC, lpxD and pmrCAB genetic sequences suggest that colistin resistance could be attributed to mutations in pmrCAB genes. Alarmingly, colistin resistance was associated with high levels of resistance to other antimicrobials. The current findings represent a serious health-care problem capable of restraining future therapeutic options.
Project description:Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), a most common bacterial pathogen of poultry, causes multiple extra-intestinal diseases in poultry which results in significant economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. In addition, APEC are a subgroup of extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), and APEC contaminated poultry products are a potential source of foodborne ExPEC infections to humans and transfer of antimicrobial resistant genes. The emergence of multi-drug resistant APEC strains and the limited efficacy of vaccines necessitate novel APEC control approaches. Here, we screened a small molecule (SM) library and identified 11 SMs bactericidal to APEC. The identified SMs were effective against multiple APEC serotypes, biofilm embedded APEC, antimicrobials resistant APECs, and other pathogenic E. coli strains. Microscopy revealed that these SMs affect the APEC cell membrane. Exposure of SMs to APEC revealed no resistance. Most SMs showed low toxicity towards chicken and human cells and reduced the intracellular APEC load. Treatment with most SMs extended the wax moth larval survival and reduced the intra-larval APEC load. Our studies could facilitate the development of antimicrobial therapeutics for the effective management of APEC infections in poultry as well as other E. coli related foodborne zoonosis, including APEC related ExPEC infections in humans.
Project description:Colistin is one of the last-resort therapeutic agents to combat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) including Klebsiella pneumoniae. Although it happens rarely, resistance to colistin has been reported for several GNB. A total of 20 colistin resistant (col-R) and three colistin susceptible (col-S) clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae were studied to explore the underlying mechanisms of colistin resistance. The presence of plasmid encoded resistance genes, mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3, and mcr-4 genes were examined by PCR. The nucleotide sequences of pmrA, pmrB, phoP, phoQ, and mgrB genes were determined. To evaluate the association between colistin resistance and upregulation of pmrHFIJKLM and pmrCAB operons, transcriptional level of the pmrK and pmrC genes encoding for lipopolysaccharide target modifying enzymes was quantified by RT-qPCR analysis. None of the plasmid encoded resistance genes were detected in the studied isolates. Inactivation of MgrB due to nonsense mutations and insertion of IS elements was observed in 15 col-R isolates (75%). IS elements (IS5-like and IS1-like families) most commonly targeted the coding region and in one case the promoter region of the mgrB. Complementation with wild-type MgrB restored colistin susceptibility in isolates with altered mgrB. All col-R isolates lacked any genetic alterations in the pmrA, phoP, and phoQ genes and substitutions identified in the pmrB were not found to be involved in resistance conferring determined by complementation assay. Colistin resistance linked with upregulation of pmrHFIJKLM and pmrCAB operons with the pmrK and pmrC being overexpressed in 20 and 11 col-R isolates, respectively. Our results demonstrated that MgrB alterations are the major mechanisms contributing to colistin resistance in the tested K. pneumoniae isolates from Iran.
Project description:Two different mechanisms of resistance to colistin in Acinetobacter baumannii have been described. The first involves the total loss of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) due to mutations in the lpxACD operon, which is involved in the lipid A biosynthesis pathway. The second entails the addition of ethanolamine to the lipid A of the LPS resulting from mutations in the PmrAB two-component system. To evaluate the impact of colistin resistance-associated mutations on antimicrobial resistance and virulence properties, four pairs of clinical and laboratory-evolved colistin-susceptible/colistin-resistant (ColS/ColR) A. baumannii isolates were used. Antimicrobial susceptibility, surface motility, in vitro and in vivo biofilm-forming capacity, in vitro and in vivo expression levels of biofilm-associated genes, and in vitro growth rate were analyzed in these strains. Growth rate, in vitro and in vivo biofilm formation ability, as well as expression levels of biofilm-associated gene were reduced in ColR LPS-deficient isolate (the lpxD mutant) when compared with its ColS partner, whereas there were not such differences between LPS-modified isolates (the pmrB mutants) and their parental isolates. Mutation in lpxD was accompanied by a greater reduction in minimum inhibitory concentrations of azithromycin, vancomycin, and rifampin than mutation in pmrB. Besides, loss of LPS was associated with a significant reduction in surface motility without any change in expression of type IV pili. Collectively, colistin resistance through loss of LPS causes a more considerable cost in biological features such as growth rate, motility, and biofilm formation capacity relative to LPS modification. Therefore, ColR LPS-modified strains are more likely to spread and transmit from one patient to another in hospital settings, which results in more complex treatment and control.
Project description:Carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) represents one of the most challenging pathogens in clinical settings. Colistin is routinely used for treatment of infections by this pathogen, but increasing colistin resistance has been reported. We obtained 122 CRAB isolates from nine Greek hospitals between 2015 and 2017, and those colistin resistant (ColR; N = 40, 32.8%) were whole genome sequenced, also by including two colistin susceptible (ColS) isolates for comparison. All ColR isolates were characterized by a previously described mutation, PmrBA226V, which was associated with low-level colistin resistance. Some isolates were characterized by additional mutations in PmrB (E140V or L178F) or PmrA (K172I or D10N), first described here, and higher colistin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), up to 64 mg/L. Mass spectrometry analysis of lipid A showed the presence of a phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) moiety on lipid A, likely resulting from the PmrA/B-induced pmrC overexpression. Interestingly, also the two ColS isolates had the same lipid A modification, suggesting that not all lipid A modifications lead to colistin resistance or that other factors could contribute to the resistance phenotype. Most of the isolates (N = 37, 92.5%) belonged to the globally distributed international clone (IC) 2 and comprised four different sequence types (STs) as defined by using the Oxford scheme (ST 425, 208, 451, and 436). Three isolates belonged to IC1 and ST1567. All the genomes harbored an intrinsic bla OXA-51 group carbapenemase gene, where bla OXA-66 and bla OXA-69 were associated with IC2 and IC1, respectively. Carbapenem resistance was due to the most commonly reported acquired carbapenemase gene bla OXA-23, with ISAba1 located upstream of the gene and likely increasing its expression. The armA gene, associated with high-level resistance to aminoglycosides, was detected in 87.5% of isolates. Collectively, these results revealed a convergent evolution of different clonal lineages toward the same colistin resistance mechanism, thus limiting the effective therapeutic options for the treatment of CRAB infections.
Project description:A series of colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates recovered from different countries was investigated in order to evaluate the involvement of the PmrA/PmrB two-component system in this resistance. Six isolates possessed a mutated PmrB protein, which is encoded by the pmrB gene, part of the pmrCAB operon involved in lipopolysaccharide modification. The same amino acid substitution (Thr157Pro) in PmrB was identified in the six isolates. The six isolates belonged to four distinct clonal groups, recovered in South Africa (sequence type 14 [ST14]), Turkey (ST101), and Colombia (ST258 and ST15). Three out of the four clones produced a carbapenemase, OXA-181, OXA-48, or KPC-3, while a single isolate did not produce any carbapenemase. Expression assays revealed an overexpression of the pmrA (70-fold), pmrB (70-fold), pmrC (170-fold), and pmrK (40-fold) genes in the pmrB-mutated isolate compared to expression of the pmrB wild-type isogenic K. pneumoniae isolate, confirming that the PmrB substitution was responsible for increased expression levels of those genes. Complementation assays leading to the expression of a wild-type PmrB protein restored the susceptibility to colistin in all isolates, confirming that the substitution in PmrB was responsible for the resistance phenotype. This study identified a key amino acid located in the PmrB protein as being responsible for the overexpression of pmrCAB and pmrHFIJKLM operons, leading to resistance to colistin.
Project description:Colistin is a crucial last-line drug used for the treatment of life-threatening infections caused by multi-drug resistant strains of the Gram-negative bacteria, Acinetobacter baumannii. However, colistin resistant A. baumannii isolates can be isolated following failed colistin therapy. Resistance is most often mediated by the addition of phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) to lipid A by PmrC, following missense mutations in the pmrCAB operon encoding PmrC and the two-component signal transduction system PmrA/PmrB. We recovered an isogenic pair of A. baumannii isolates from a single patient before (6009-1) and after (6009-2) failed colistin treatment that displayed low/intermediate and high levels of colistin resistance, respectively. To understand how increased colistin-resistance arose, we genome sequenced each isolate which revealed that 6009-2 had an extra copy of the insertion sequence element ISAba125 within a gene encoding an H-NS-family transcriptional regulator. Consequently, transcriptomic analysis of the clinical isolates identified was performed and more than 150 genes as differentially expressed in the colistin-resistant, hns mutant, 6009-2. Importantly, the expression of eptA, encoding a second lipid A-specific pEtN transferase, but not pmrC, was significantly increased in the hns mutant. This is the first time an H-NS-family transcriptional regulator has been associated with a pEtN transferase and colistin resistance. Overall design: mRNA profiles of two isolates taken from a single patient, one before and one after colistin treatment, cDNA libraries were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2000