The ACE2 expression in Sertoli cells and germ cells may cause male reproductive disorder after SARS-CoV-2 infection.
ABSTRACT: The serious coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Angiotensin converting enzyme 2(ACE2) is the cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2. Considering the critical roles of testicular cells for the transmission of genetic information between generations, we analyzed single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) data of adult human testis. The mRNA expression of ACE2 was expressed in both germ cells and somatic cells. Moreover, the positive rate of ACE2 in testes of infertile men was higher than normal, which indicates that SARS-CoV-2 may cause reproductive disorders through pathway activated by ACE2 and the men with reproductive disorder may easily to be infected by SARS-CoV-2. The expression level of ACE2 was related to the age, and the mid-aged with higher positive rate than young men testicular cells. Taken together, this research provides a biological background of the potential route for infection of SARS-CoV-2 and may enable rapid deciphering male-related reproductive disorders induced by COVID-19.
Project description:Over the past few weeks, we have observed increasing concern about the possible impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) which is caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) on male fertility. Precise mechanisms of male reproductive damages are still unclear, but it seems that high temperature resulting from persistent fever and triggering a secondary autoimmune response leading to an autoimmune orchitis are the most likely involved mechanisms. Also, angiotensin conversion enzyme 2 (ACE2) plays a highly important role in cellular entry for SARS-CoV-2 and male genital system presents high ACE2 expression. All these preliminary findings suggest that COVID-19 could impact men's reproductive health. Thus, we examined available data including published and unpublished articles to assess the potential risk of COVID-19 in particular on the male reproductive system.
Project description:The global outbreak of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) caused by SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome caused by Coronavirus 2) began in December 2019. Its closest relative, SARS-CoV-1, has a slightly mutated Spike (S) protein, which interacts with ACE2 receptor in human cells to start the infection. So far, there are no vaccines or drugs to treat COVID-19. So, research groups worldwide are seeking new molecules targeting the S protein to prevent infection by SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 establishment. We performed molecular docking analysis of eight synthetic peptides against SARS-CoV-2 S protein. All interacted with the protein, but Mo-CBP3-PepII and PepKAA had the highest affinity with it. By binding to the S protein, both peptides led to conformational alterations in the protein, resulting in incorrect interaction with ACE2. Therefore, given the importance of the S protein-ACE2 interaction for SARS-CoV-2 infection, synthetic peptides could block SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, unlike other antiviral drugs, peptides have no toxicity to human cells. Thus, these peptides are potential molecules to be tested against SARS-CoV-2 and to develop new drugs to treat COVID-19.
Project description:Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor of the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. ACE2 has been shown to be down-regulated during coronaviral infection, with implications for circulatory homeostasis. In COVID-19, pulmonary vascular dysregulation has been observed resulting in ventilation perfusion mismatches in lung tissue, causing profound hypoxemia. Despite the loss of ACE2 and raised circulating vasoconstrictor angiotensin II (AngII), COVID-19 patients experience a vasodilative vasculopathy. This article discusses the interplay between the immune system and pulmonary vasculature and how SARS-CoV-2-mediated ACE2 disruption and AngII may contribute to the novel vascular pathophysiology of COVID-19.
Project description:Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a pandemic affecting millions of adults. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2019 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative virus of COVID-19, infects host cells through angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Pre-clinical models suggest that ACE2 upregulation confers protective effects in acute lung injury. Additionally, renin-angiotensin aldosterone system inhibitors reduce adverse atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heart failure and chronic kidney disease outcomes, but may increase ACE2 levels. We review current knowledge of the role of ACE2 in cardiovascular physiology and SARS-CoV-2 virology as well as clinical data to inform the management of patients with or at risk for COVID-19 who require renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor therapy.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To summarize current understanding of the effects of novel and prior coronaviruses on human reproduction, specifically male and female gametes, and in pregnancy. DESIGN:Review of English publications in PubMed and Embase to April 6, 2020. METHOD(S):Articles were screened for reports including coronavirus, reproduction, pathophysiology, and pregnancy. INTERVENTION(S):None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):Reproductive outcomes, effects on gametes, pregnancy outcomes, and neonatal complications. RESULT(S):Seventy-nine reports formed the basis of the review. Coronavirus binding to cells involves the S1 domain of the spike protein to receptors present in reproductive tissues, including angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), CD26, Ezrin, and cyclophilins. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) may cause severe orchitis leading to germ cell destruction in males. Reports indicate decreased sperm concentration and motility for 72-90 days following Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Gonadotropin-dependent expression of ACE2 was found in human ovaries, but it is unclear whether SARS-Coronavirus 2 (CoV-2) adversely affects female gametogenesis. Evidence suggests that COVID-19 infection has a lower maternal case fatality rate than SARS or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), but anecdotal reports suggest that infected, asymptomatic women may develop respiratory symptoms postpartum. Coronavirus Disease 2019 infections in pregnancy are associated with preterm delivery. Postpartum neonatal transmission from mother to child has been reported. CONCLUSION(S):Coronavirus Disease 2019 infection may affect adversely some pregnant women and their offspring. Additional studies are needed to assess effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on male and female fertility.
Project description:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a declared pandemic that is spreading all over the world at a dreadfully fast rate. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen of COVID-19, infects the human body using angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor identical to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic that occurred in 2002-2003. SARS-CoV-2 has a higher binding affinity to human ACE2 than to that of other species. Animal models that mimic the human disease are highly essential to develop therapeutics and vaccines against COVID-19. Here, we review transgenic mice that express human ACE2 in the airway and other epithelia and have shown to develop a rapidly lethal infection after intranasal inoculation with SARS-CoV, the pathogen of SARS. This literature review aims to present the importance of utilizing the human ACE2 transgenic mouse model to better understand the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and develop both therapeutics and vaccines.
Project description:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by novel coronavirus Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It was first time reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China and thereafter quickly spread across the globe. Till September 19, 2020, COVID-19 has spread to 216 countries and territories. Severe infection of SARS-CoV-2 cause extreme increase in inflammatory chemokines and cytokines that may lead to multi-organ damage and respiratory failure. Currently, no specific treatment and authorized vaccines are available for its treatment. Renin angiotensin system holds a promising role in human physiological system specifically in regulation of blood pressure and electrolyte and fluid balance. SARS-CoV-2 interacts with Renin angiotensin system by utilizing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor for its cellular entry. This interaction hampers the protective action of ACE2 in the cells and causes injuries to organs due to persistent angiotensin II (Ang-II) level. Patients with certain comorbidities like hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease are under the high risk of COVID-19 infection and mortality. Moreover, evidence obtained from several reports also suggests higher susceptibility of male patients for COVID-19 mortality and other acute viral infections compared to females. Analysis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS) epidemiological data also indicate a gender-based preference in disease consequences. The current review addresses the possible mechanisms responsible for higher COVID-19 mortality among male patients. The major underlying aspects that was looked into includes smoking, genetic factors, and the impact of reproductive hormones on immune systems and inflammatory responses. Detailed investigations of this gender disparity could provide insight into the development of patient tailored therapeutic approach which would be helpful in improving the poor outcomes of COVID-19. Graphical abstract.
Project description:The gateway for invasion by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into human host cells is via the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) transmembrane receptor expressed in multiple immune and nonimmune cell types. SARS-CoV-2, that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; CoV-19) has the unusual capacity to attack many different types of human host cells simultaneously via novel clathrin- and caveolae-independent endocytic pathways, becoming injurious to diverse cells, tissues and organ systems and exploiting any immune weakness in the host. The elicitation of this multipronged attack explains in part the severity and extensive variety of signs and symptoms observed in CoV-19 patients. To further our understanding of the mechanism and pathways of SARS-CoV-2 infection and susceptibility of specific cell- and tissue-types and organ systems to SARS-CoV-2 attack in this communication we analyzed ACE2 expression in 85 human tissues including 21 different brain regions, 7 fetal tissues and 8 controls. Besides strong ACE2 expression in respiratory, digestive, renal-excretory and reproductive cells, high ACE2 expression was also found in the amygdala, cerebral cortex and brainstem. The highest ACE2 expression level was found in the pons and medulla oblongata in the human brainstem, containing the medullary respiratory centers of the brain, and may in part explain the susceptibility of many CoV-19 patients to severe respiratory distress.
Project description:Purpose:SARS-CoV-2 is a SARS-like novel coronavirus strain first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. The virus has since spread globally, resulting in the current ongoing coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is a critical factor in the COVID-19 pathogenesis via interactions with the host cell angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) PD domain. Worldwide, numerous efforts are being made to combat COVID19. In the current study, we identified potential peptidomimetics against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Methods:We utilized the information from ACE2-SARS-CoV-2 binary interactions, and based on crucial interacting interface residues, novel peptidomimetics were designed. Results:Top scoring peptidomimetics were found to bind at the ACE2 binding site of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Conclusions:The current studies could pave the way for further investigations of these novel and potent compounds against the SARS-CoV-2.
Project description:The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused >20 million infections and >750,000 deaths. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of COVID-19, has been found closely related to the bat coronavirus strain RaTG13 (Bat-CoV RaTG13) and a recently identified pangolin coronavirus (Pangolin-CoV-2020). Here, we first investigated the ability of SARS-CoV-2 and three related coronaviruses to utilize animal orthologs of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for cell entry. We found that ACE2 orthologs of a wide range of domestic and wild mammals, including camels, cattle, horses, goats, sheep, cats, rabbits, and pangolins, were able to support cell entry of SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that these species might be able to harbor and spread this virus. In addition, the pangolin and bat coronaviruses, Pangolin-CoV-2020 and Bat-CoV RaTG13, were also found able to utilize human ACE2 and a number of animal-ACE2 orthologs for cell entry, indicating risks of spillover of these viruses into humans in the future. We then developed potently anticoronavirus ACE2-Ig proteins that are broadly effective against the four distinct coronaviruses. In particular, through truncating ACE2 at its residue 740 but not 615, introducing a D30E mutation, and adopting an antibody-like tetrameric-ACE2 configuration, we generated an ACE2-Ig variant that neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 at picomolar range. These data demonstrate that the improved ACE2-Ig variants developed in this study could potentially be developed to protect from SARS-CoV-2 and some other SARS-like viruses that might spillover into humans in the future.IMPORTANCE The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiological agent of the currently uncontrolled coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. It is important to study the host range of SARS-CoV-2, because some domestic species might harbor the virus and transmit it back to humans. In addition, insight into the ability of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-like viruses to utilize animal orthologs of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 might provide structural insight into improving ACE2-based viral entry inhibitors. In this study, we found that ACE2 orthologs of a wide range of domestic and wild animals can support cell entry of SARS-CoV-2 and three related coronaviruses, providing insights into identifying animal hosts of these viruses. We also developed recombinant ACE2-Ig proteins that are able to potently block these viral infections, providing a promising approach to developing antiviral proteins broadly effective against these distinct coronaviruses.