Protect MSM from HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases by providing mobile health services of partner notification: protocol for a pragmatic stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Recently, more and more men who have sex with men (MSM) look for casual partners through online dating platforms in China. However, most are unable to know their partners' HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STD) statuses, leading to the rapid increase in HIV infection among Chinese MSM. Effective partner notification is urgently needed to increase the risk awareness of MSM and prevent HIV and other STDs transmission. However, the traditional intervention mainly targets to the HIV-positive MSM and the effect is not promising. Our study aims to provide Internet-based partner notification, along with a series of health services for HIV-negative MSM to protect them from HIV and other STDs. METHODS:A pragmatic stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial design is used to evaluate the effectiveness of a new intervention paradigm, which aims to reduce HIV and other STDs incidences among MSM in China. Through integrating a mobile health (mHealth) service application (app) to the current HIV and other STDs prevention and control methods, the new paradigm provides partner notification of HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C statuses. A total of 6172 MSM in 16 districts of Beijing, China will be recruited and randomized to sequentially receive partner notification intervention through the app at 6-month intervals. The primary outcomes are HIV incidence and the additional cost of the intervention. The secondary outcomes include incidences of syphilis, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, disease transmission social networks, testing adherence, knowledge of HIV and STDs control, health self-responsibility awareness, changes of high risk behaviors and other related outcomes. The generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) will be used to analyze the differences of outcomes in the control period and in the intervention period. DISCUSSION:We expect that the HIV incidence will be significantly lower and the secondary outcomes will also be improved with providing health service of partner notification through mhealth intervention. The feasible and affordable public health intervention paradigm will have implications for HIV and STDs prevention and control among MSM and other key populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04349748 . Registered on 16 April 2020.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>New strategies to support partner notification (PN) are critical for STD control and require detailed understanding of how specific individual and partnership characteristics guide notification decisions.<h4>Methods</h4>From 2011 to 2012, 397 MSM and TW recently diagnosed with HIV, syphilis, or another STD completed a survey on anticipated notification of recent sexual partners and associated factors. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a subset of participants to provide further depth to quantitative findings. Prevalence ratios and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to analyze participant- and partner-level factors associated with anticipated PN.<h4>Results</h4>Among all partners reported, 52.5% were described as "Very Likely" or "Somewhat Likely" to be notified. Anticipated notification was more likely for main partners than casual (adjusted Prevalence Ratio [aPR], 95% CI: 0.63, 0.54-0.75) or commercial (aPR, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.31-0.62) partners. Other factors associated with likely notification included perception of the partner as an STD source (aPR, 95% CI: 1.27, 1.10-1.48) and anticipated future sexual contact with the partner (aPR, 95% CI: 1.30, 1.11-1.52). An HIV diagnosis was associated with a lower likelihood of notification than non-HIV STDs (aPR: 0.68, 0.55-0.86). Qualitative discussion of the barriers and incentives to PN reflected a similar differentiation of anticipated notification according to partnership type and type of HIV/STD diagnosis.<h4>Discussion</h4>Detailed attention to how partnership characteristics guide notification outcomes is essential to the development of new PN strategies. By accurately and thoroughly assessing the diversity of partnership interactions among individuals with HIV/STD, new notification techniques can be tailored to partner-specific circumstances.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Men who have sex with men (MSM) with bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are at elevated risk of HIV. We evaluated the integration of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) referrals into STD partner services (PS) for MSM. SETTING:King County, Washington. METHODS:Disease Intervention Specialists (DIS) in King County attempt to provide PS to all MSM with early syphilis and, as resources allow, MSM with gonorrhea or chlamydia. Our health department defines MSM with any of the following as at high HIV risk: early syphilis, rectal gonorrhea, methamphetamine/poppers use, sex work, or an HIV-unsuppressed partner. DIS offer high-risk MSM referral to our STD Clinic for PrEP and other MSM referral to community providers. In 2017, we interviewed a random sample of MSM offered referrals in 2016 to assess PrEP initiation after PS. RESULTS:From August 2014 to August 2017, 7546 cases of bacterial STDs were reported among HIV-negative MSM. DIS provided PS to 3739 MSM, of whom 2055 (55%) were at high risk. DIS assessed PrEP use in 1840 (90%) of these men, 895 (49%) of whom reported already using PrEP. DIS offered referrals to 693 (73%) of 945 MSM not on PrEP; 372 (54%) accepted. Among 132 interviewed for the random sample, men who accepted referrals at initial interview were more likely to report using PrEP at follow-up (32/68 = 47%) than those who did not (12/64 = 19%) (P = 0.0006). An estimated 10.4% of all interviewed MSM initiated PrEP following PS-based referral. CONCLUSIONS:Integrating PrEP referrals into STD PS is an effective population-based strategy to link MSM at high HIV risk to PrEP.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patient-initiated partner notification (PN) following the diagnosis of a sexually transmitted infection is a critical component of disease control in men who have sex with men (MSM) sexual networks. Both printed and internet-based technologies offer potential tools to enhance traditional partner notification approaches among MSM in resource-limited settings. OBJECTIVE:This randomized controlled trial aimed to evaluate the effect of 2 different PN technologies on notification outcomes following syphilis diagnosis among MSM in Peru: a Web-based notification system and patient-delivered partner referral cards. METHODS:During 2012-2014, we screened 1625 MSM from Lima, Peru, for syphilis infection and enrolled 370 MSM with symptomatic primary or secondary syphilis (n=58) or asymptomatic latent syphilis diagnosed by serology (rapid plasma reagin, RPR, and Microhemagglutination assay for Treponema pallidum antibody; n=312). Prior to enrollment, potential participants used a computer-based self-interviewing system to enumerate their recent sexual partnerships and provide details of their 3 most recent partners. Eligible participants were randomly assigned to one of 4 intervention arms: (1) counseling and patient-initiated Web-based PN (n=95), (2) counseling with Web-based partner notification and partner referral cards (n=84), (3) counseling and partner referral cards (n=97), and (4) simple partner notification counseling (control; n=94). Self-reported partner notification was assessed after 14 days among 354 participants who returned for the follow-up assessment. RESULTS:The median age of enrolled participants was 27 (interquartile range, IQR 23-34) years, with a median of 2 partners (IQR 1-5) reported in the past month. Compared with those who received only counseling (arm 4), MSM provided with access to Web-based partner notification (arms 1 and 2) or printed partner referral cards (arms 2 and 3) were more likely to have notified one or more of their sexual partners (odds ratio, OR, 2.18, 95% CI 1.30-3.66; P=.003 and OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.01-2.79; P=.045, respectively). The proportion of partners notified was also higher in both Web-based partner notification (241/421, 57.2%; P<.001) and referral card (240/467, 51.4%; P=.006) arms than in the control arm (82/232, 35.3%). CONCLUSIONS:Both new Web-based technologies and traditional printed materials support patient-directed notification and improve self-reported outcomes among MSM with syphilis. Additional research is needed to refine the use of these partner notification tools in specific partnership contexts. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01720641; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01720641 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/70A89rJL4).
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To analyze the trends of HIV/syphilis/HSV-2 seropositive rate and explore the related factors with HSV-2 infection to provide the basis for adjusting STD intervention strategies and formulating prevention and control measures among MSM in Shenzhen.<h4>Methods</h4>Time-location sampling was conducted among MSM in Shenzhen in 2012, 2014, 2016, and 2018. Data on demographics, sexual behaviors and the laboratory test results of HIV, syphilis, HSV-2 were collected. The χ2 trend test was used to analyze the trends of HIV/syphilis/HSV-2 seropositive rate. The binary logistic regression model was used to explore the factors associated with HSV-2 infection.<h4>Results</h4>The seropositive rate of HIV fell significantly from 15.9% in 2012 to 8.7% in 2018 (Ptrend = 0.003), syphilis seropositive rate was significantly decreased from 20.4% in 2012 to 14.8% in 2018 (Ptrend = 0.025), HSV-2 seropositive rate had no significant change (16.7% in 2012 to 14.0% in 2018; Ptrend = 0.617). In principal component logistic regression analysis showed that FAC1_1 (X1 = Ever had sex with female, X2 = Gender of first sexual partner, X3 = Marital status, X4 = Age group), FAC2_1 (X5 = Education, X6 = Monthly income (RMB), X7 = Frequency of condom use in anal sex with men in the past 6 months), and FAC4_1 (X9 = History of STDs) were significantly associated with HSV-2 infection.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The seropositive rates of HIV and syphilis have dropped significantly but are still high. HSV-2 seropositive rate had no significant change and maintained a high level. It is necessary to continue strengthening HIV and syphilis interventions among MSM in Shenzhen. HSV-2 detection and intervention are urgently required for MSM, which might be another effective biological strategy further to control the HIV epidemic among MSM in Shenzhen.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine the trends of HIV prevalence, risk behaviours and HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nanjing. DESIGN:Five consecutive cross-sectional surveys. SETTING:Nanjing, China. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:HIV and syphilis prevalence, HIV testing rate and factors associated with HIV infection; demographic characteristics and behaviours. RESULTS:649, 669, 577, 633, 503 MSM were recruited from 2013 to 2017. HIV prevalence was 9.9%, 12.3%, 12.5%, 9.8% and 10.1%, respectively. Syphilis prevalence decreased with a range from 10.6% to 5.6%. Risk behaviours like unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and unprotected virginal sex in the past 6 months decreased, but multiple sex partners and ever used rush popper rose significantly. MSM tested for HIV in the previous year remained stable from 57.0% to 64.1% (P=0.633). Multivariate analysis showed that tested for HIV in the past year was protective factor against HIV infection. MSM who had UAI in the past 6 months, sex role as receptive and dual, diagnosed with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the past year and currently syphilis infected were risk factors for HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS:We observed stable high HIV prevalence, a steady HIV testing rate, decreasing syphilis prevalence and UAI among MSM in Nanjing. However, rush popper use rose dramatically. The HIV preventive strategies for MSM including condom promotion, HIV testing expansion and reduction of rush popper use, STDs screening and standardised treatment should be strengthened.
Project description:Expedited Partner Therapy (EPT) has been shown to improve treatment outcomes among heterosexual partners of individuals with curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Although the use of EPT with men who have sex with men (MSM) has been debated, due to the potential for missed opportunities to diagnose unidentified cases of HIV and syphilis infection in symptomatic partners, increases in partner notification (PN) resulting from use of EPT may promote testing and treatment of otherwise unidentified partners. We assessed the impact of EPT on self-reported PN among MSM in Peru with gonorrheal (GC) and/or chlamydial (CT) infection.We enrolled 173 MSM in Lima, Peru with symptomatic or asymptomatic GC and/or CT infection between 2012 and 2014. We enrolled 44 MSM with symptomatic urethritis/proctitis and 129 MSM with asymptomatic GC/CT infection, diagnosed based on nucleic acid testing (Aptima Combo 2 Transcription-Mediated Amplification [TMA]) from urethral, pharyngeal, and rectal sites. Eligible participants were randomly assigned to receive either standard PN counseling (n?=?84) or counseling plus EPT (cefixime 400 mg/azithromycin 1 g) for up to five recent partners (n?=?89). Self-reported notification was assessed by computer-assisted self-administered survey among 155 participants who returned for 14-day follow-up.The median age of participants was 26 (interquartile range [IQR]: 23-31) with a median of 3 sexual partners (IQR: 2-4) in the previous 30-day period. Among all participants, 111/155 (71.6%) notified at least one partner at 14-day follow-up with a median of 1 partner notified per participant (IQR: 0-2). For participants randomized to receive EPT, 69/83 (83.1%) reported notifying at least one partner, compared with 42/72 (58.3%) of participants in the control arm (odds ratio?=?3.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.68-7.39). The proportion of all recent partners notified was significantly greater in the EPT than in the control arm (53.5%, 95% CI: 45.0-62.0% versus 36.4%, 95% CI: 27.0-47.4%).Provision of EPT led to significant increases in notification among Peruvian MSM diagnosed with GC/CT infection. Additional research is needed to assess the impact of EPT on biological outcomes, including persistent or recurrent infection, antimicrobial resistance, and HIV/STI transmission, in MSM sexual networks.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01720654 . Registered on 10/29/2012.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In the context of increasing syphilis rates, particularly among Black men who have sex men (MSM), the objectives were to determine the associations between methamphetamine (meth) use and syphilis and HIV positivity, and to identify sex partner meeting venues as potential intervention access points among Black MSM in a mid-Atlantic US city.<h4>Methods</h4>This study is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study. Participants were recruited from clinical and nonclinical settings and included sexually active MSM aged 18 to 45 years. The baseline visit included a behavioral survey and testing for syphilis, HIV, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. Logistic regression analyses were used for hypothesis testing.<h4>Results</h4>Among 359 MSM completing baseline, 74.4% (268) Black MSM were included; 31% (84) were aged 24 to 29 years, 43.7% (117) reported unprotected anal intercourse at last sex, and 15.3% (41) reported meth use in the past 3 months. Sixteen percent (43) had syphilis, 46.6% (125) were living with HIV, and 19.0% (51) had gonorrhea and/or chlamydia. Meth use was associated with sexual and drug risk behaviors and HIV, but not syphilis. In adjusted analyses, meth use increased the odds of HIV positivity by 6.43 (95% confidence interval, 2.30-17.98) and syphilis positivity by 2.57 (95% confidence interval, 1.23-5.37). Four online sex partner meeting venues were associated with meth use and HIV, whereas syphilis was associated with one.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Among Black MSM, meth use and syphilis positivity were associated with more than 6-fold and almost 3-fold increased adjusted odds of HIV positivity, respectively. Four specific sex partner meeting venues may be important access points for HIV/sexually transmitted infection and substance use prevention.
Project description:Incident syphilis infections continue to be especially prevalent among a core group of HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Because of synergy between syphilis and HIV infections, innovative means for controlling incident syphilis infections are needed.Thirty MSM who had syphilis twice or more since their HIV diagnosis were randomized to receive either daily doxycycline prophylaxis or contingency management (CM) with incentive payments for remaining free of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Participants were tested for the bacterial STDs gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) and syphilis at weeks 12, 24, 36, and 48 and completed a behavioral risk questionnaire during each visit to assess number of partners, condom use, and drug use since the last visit. Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze differences between arms in STD incidence and risk behaviors at follow-up.Doxycycline arm participants were significantly less likely to test positive for any selected bacterial STD during 48 weeks of follow-up (odds ratio, 0.27; confidence interval, 0.09-0.83) compared with CM arm participants (P = 0.02).There were no significant self-reported risk behavior differences between the doxycycline and CM arms at follow-up.Daily doxycycline taken prophylactically was associated with a decreased incidence of N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, or syphilis incident infections among a core group of HIV-infected MSM at high risk for these infections. Safe and effective biomedical tools should be included in the efforts to control transmission of syphilis, especially in this population. A randomized clinical trial should be conducted to confirm and extend these findings.
Project description:Syphilis remains a disease of public health importance, with considerable health effects if not treated. Concurrent infection with syphilis and untreated HIV facilitates HIV transmission. The incidence of syphilis in Europe has been increasing, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and in MSM with HIV. However, there is heterogeneity among countries in the case definition used for syphilis and in reported syphilis notification rates. In Ireland, we have undertaken a number of refinements of the national syphilis surveillance system since 2014, including refinement of the laboratory thresholds for notification (rapid plasma reagin 1:16 and/or positive IgM). This article outlines the steps taken and some of the challenges we faced. Our current case definition now accurately reflects the epidemiology of syphilis in Ireland and our current surveillance provides timely information for action, while not reducing the sensitivity of the system too much. For countries where surveillance is driven mainly by laboratory reporting and where obtaining clinical details is challenging, these thresholds for notification may be a pragmatic solution.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Seventeen years into a sustained epidemic, early syphilis (ES) rates in San Francisco (SF) are continuing to increase and the demographics of the affected population are changing. We provide a historical overview of ES in SF among men who have sex with men (MSM) and describe trends in the epidemiology and disease investigation outcomes. METHODS:We examined data from the SF Department of Public Health's patient-based registry of integrated STD surveillance, clinical, and field investigation data to describe demographic and behavioral characteristics of ES cases, as well as outcomes of syphilis partner services (PS). ? Tests were performed to examine categorical differences across periods. Analysis of variance was used to examine differences in continuous variables. RESULTS:In 2016, 1095 ES cases were reported among males in SF, a 219% increase from the 343 cases identified 10 years ago. Between 1996-1999 and 2010-2016, an increasing proportion of ES cases were among MSM younger than 25 years, nonwhite, and HIV negative (P < 0.05). A decreasing proportion of ES cases were assigned for PS, among whom a smaller proportion of reported sex partners were identified by name, resulting in an overall decline in the proportion of cases who had at least one named partner treated as a result of PS (Disease Intervention Rate) from 30.5 in 2000-2004 to 14.8 in 2010-2016. CONCLUSIONS:Syphilis case rates continue to increase in SF and the epidemic is expanding beyond a core population. Additional resources and innovative prevention approaches are needed to reduce the burden of syphilis among MSM.