Immunogenic Potential of Beer Types Brewed With Hordeum and Triticum spp. Malt Disclosed by Proteomics.
ABSTRACT: The protein/peptide composition of five beer kinds, including two experimental beer-like products brewed with einkorn (Triticum monococcum), a beer labeled as "gluten-free," a traditional all-barley malt and a wheat (T. aestivum) containing beer, was characterized with HPLC-ESI MS/MS-based proteomics. To enlarge the characterization of the components, the polypeptides were fractionated according to their molecular size (cut-off 6 kDa). All the beer types contained a variety of polypeptides arising from all the gliadin subfamilies (?-/?-, ?-, and ?-gliadins) able to induce an immune response in celiac disease (CD) patients in addition to a panel of IgE-reactive food allergens. Wheat storage proteins were heavily hydrolyzed in the beer samples brewed with einkorn. The presence of gluten-like fragments, also including the 25-mer and 33-mer-like of ?-gliadin, was confirmed in beer brewed with barley and wheat malt as well as in the gluten-free beer. Both CD-toxic and allergenic peptides of all beer samples were drastically degraded when subjected to a simulated gastroduodenal (GD) digestion. After in vitro digestion, the level of gluten-like peptides assayed with the G12 competitive ELISA, was below the threshold (20 ppm) for a food to be considered as "gluten-free." A few gliadin-derived epitopes occurred in the digests of beers crafted with wheat or Norberto-ID331 line of einkorn. In contrast, digests of all barley malt and gluten-free beers did not contain detectable gluten-like epitopes, but only minor fragments of hordeins and IgE-reactive food allergens. All beer samples evoked a weak immune response on gliadin-reactive celiac T cells isolated from intestinal biopsies of celiac patients. Compared to undigested polypeptides, the response was markedly reduced by GD digestion. Although the consumption of a moderate amount of beer brewed with barley or einkorn could deliver a relatively low amount of CD-toxic epitopes, the findings of this study emphasize the urgent need of a reliable and accurate quantification of gluten epitopes in all types of beer, also including the gluten-free one, to compute realistically the contribution of beer to the overall gluten intake, which can be responsible of intestinal tissue damages in celiacs.
Project description:Celiac disease is caused by an uncontrolled immune response to gluten, a heterogeneous mixture of wheat storage proteins, including the ?-gliadins. It has been shown that ?-gliadins harbor several major epitopes involved in the disease pathogenesis. A major step towards elimination of gluten toxicity for celiac disease patients would thus be the elimination of such epitopes from ?-gliadins. We have analyzed over 3,000 expressed ?-gliadin sequences from 11 bread wheat cultivars to determine whether they encode for peptides potentially involved in celiac disease. All identified epitope variants were synthesized as peptides and tested for binding to the disease-associated HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 molecules and for recognition by patient-derived ?-gliadin specific T cell clones. Several specific naturally occurring amino acid substitutions were identified for each of the ?-gliadin derived peptides involved in celiac disease that eliminate the antigenic properties of the epitope variants. Finally, we provide proof of principle at the peptide level that through the systematic introduction of such naturally occurring variations ?-gliadins genes can be generated that no longer encode antigenic peptides. This forms a crucial step in the development of strategies to modify gluten genes in wheat so that it becomes safe for celiac disease patients. It also provides the information to design and introduce safe gluten genes in other cereals, which would exhibit improved quality while remaining safe for consumption by celiac disease patients.
Project description:Dietary gluten proteins from wheat, rye, and barley are the primary triggers for the immuno-pathogenesis of Celiac Sprue, a widespread immune disease of the small intestine. Recent molecular and structural analyses of representative gluten proteins, most notably alpha- and gamma-gliadin proteins from wheat, have improved our understanding of these pathogenic mechanisms. In particular, based on the properties of a 33-mer peptide, generated from alpha-gliadin under physiological conditions, a link between digestive resistance and inflammatory character of gluten has been proposed. Here, we report three lines of investigation in support of this hypothesis. First, biochemical and immunological analysis of deletion mutants of alpha-2 gliadin confirmed that the DQ2 restricted T cell response to the alpha-2 gliadin are directed toward the epitopes clustered within the 33-mer. Second, proteolytic analysis of a representative gamma-gliadin led to the identification of another multivalent 26-mer peptide that was also resistant to further gastric, pancreatic and intestinal brush border degradation, and was a good substrate of human transglutaminase 2 (TG2). Analogous to the 33-mer, the synthetic 26-mer peptide displayed markedly enhanced T cell antigenicity compared to monovalent control peptides. Finally, in silico analysis of the gluten proteome led to the identification of at least 60 putative peptides that share the common characteristics of the 33-mer and the 26-mer peptides. Together, these results highlight the pivotal role of physiologically generated, proteolytically stable, TG2-reactive, multivalent peptides in the immune response to dietary gluten in Celiac Sprue patients. Prolyl endopeptidase treatment was shown to abolish the antigenicity of both the 33-mer and the 26-mer peptides, and was also predicted to have comparable effects on other proline-rich putatively immunotoxic peptides identified from other polypeptides within the gluten proteome.
Project description:Gluten is a complex of proteins present in barley, wheat, rye and several varieties of oats that triggers celiac disease in genetically predisposed subjects. Gluten is notoriously difficult to digest by mammalian proteolytic enzymes and therefore, proline-rich digestion-resistant peptides contain multiple immunogenic epitopes. Prolyl endopeptidases (PEP) hydrolyse internal proline residues on the carboxyl side of peptides and have been proposed for food gluten detoxification and as oral enzyme supplementation for celiacs. The aim of this study was to identify new gluten-degrading microbial enzymes with the potential to reduce gluten immunogenicity by neutralizing its antigenic epitopes. Using a gluten-degrading colony screening approach, a bacterial isolate (2RA3) displaying the highest glutenase activity was selected, characterized and its genome completely sequenced. The identification through 16S rDNA gene sequencing showed a 99,1% similarity to Chryseobacterium taeanense. Hydrolysis of gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP) was further monitored, over a 48-hour period, by colony encapsulation in gliadin-containing microspheres, followed by detection with the G12 anti-GIP monoclonal antibody. Glutenase activity was detected in the extracellular medium of 2RA3 cultures, where gel electrophoresis and gliadin zymography revealed the presence of a ~50 kDa gluten-degrading enzyme. Nano-ESI-Q-TOF of the excised active band identified 7 peptides contained in the protein product predicted for an open reading frame (ORF) in the 2RA3 genome. Based on sequence similarity to the PEP family, the new enzyme was named PEP 2RA3. The PEP 2RA3 coding sequence was PCR-amplified from C. taeanense 2RA3, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as a C-terminally His-tagged recombinant protein and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein, with predicted molecular mass and isoelectric point of 78.95 kDa and 6.8, respectively, shows PEP activity with standard chromogenic substrates, works optimally at pH 8.0 and 30°C and remains stable at pH 6.0 and 50°C, indicating a potential use in gluten-containing food process applications. The ability of the recombinant enzyme to degrade GIP in beer into smaller peptides was confirmed.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Celiac disease is a permanent intolerance to gluten prolamins from wheat, barley, rye and, in some patients, oats. Partially digested gluten peptides produced in the digestive tract cause inflammation of the small intestine. High throughput, immune-based assays using monoclonal antibodies specific for these immunotoxic peptides would facilitate their detection in food and enable monitoring of their enzymatic detoxification. Two monoclonal antibodies, G12 and A1, were developed against a highly immunotoxic 33-mer peptide. The potential of each antibody for quantifying food toxicity for celiac patients was studied. METHODS: Epitope preferences of G12 and A1 antibodies were determined by ELISA with gluten-derived peptide variants of recombinant, synthetic or enzymatic origin. RESULTS: The recognition sequences of G12 and A1 antibodies were hexameric and heptameric epitopes, respectively. Although G12 affinity for the 33-mer was superior to A1, the sensitivity for gluten detection was higher for A1. This observation correlated to the higher number of A1 epitopes found in prolamins than G12 epitopes. Activation of T cell from gluten digested by glutenases decreased equivalently to the detection of intact peptides by A1 antibody. Peptide recognition of A1 included gliadin peptides involved in the both the adaptive and innate immunological response in celiac disease. CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity and epitope preferences of the A1 antibody resulted to be useful to detect gluten relevant peptides to infer the potential toxicity of food for celiac patients as well as to monitor peptide modifications by transglutaminase 2 or glutenases.
Project description:The celiac disease (CD) is an inflammatory condition characterized by injury to the lining of the small-intestine on exposure to the gluten of wheat, barley and rye. The involvement of gluten in the CD syndrome has been studied in detail in bread wheat, where a set of "toxic" and "immunogenic" peptides has been defined. For wheat diploid species, information on CD epitopes is poor. In the present paper, we have adopted a genomic approach in order to understand the potential CD danger represented by storage proteins in diploid wheat and sequenced a sufficiently large number of cDNA clones related to storage protein genes of Triticum monococcum. Four bona fide toxic peptides and 13 immunogenic peptides were found. All the classes of storage proteins were shown to contain harmful sequences. The major conclusion is that einkorn has the full potential to induce the CD syndrome, as already evident for polyploid wheats. In addition, a complete overview of the storage protein gene arsenal in T. monococcum is provided, including a full-length HMW x-type sequence and two partial HMW y-type sequences.
Project description:Celiac disease is a food-sensitive enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of wheat gluten proteins and related proteins from barley, rye, and some varieties of oat. There are no interventional therapies and the only solution is a lifelong gluten-free diet. The down-regulation of gliadins by RNAi provides wheat lines with all the gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated (low-gliadin). The technological properties of doughs prepared from the low-gliadin lines indicated a general weakening effect, although some of the lines displayed similar properties to that of the wild-type lines. In contrast, the stability was increased significantly in some of the transgenic lines, indicating better tolerance to over-mixing. Results reported here are the first analyses of the mixing and bread-making quality of the wheat lines with all gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated. Flour from these lines may be an important breakthrough in the development of new products for the celiac community. These lines might be used directly or blended with other non-toxic cereals, as raw material for developing food products that can be safely tolerated by CD patients and others with gluten intolerance or gluten sensitivity, incrementing the range of available food products and enhancing their diet.
Project description:Gluten proteins, prominent constituents of barley, wheat and rye, cause celiac disease in genetically predisposed subjects. Gluten is notoriously difficult to digest by mammalian proteolytic enzymes and the protease-resistant domains contain multiple immunogenic epitopes. The aim of this study was to identify novel sources of gluten-digesting microbial enzymes from the upper gastro-intestinal tract with the potential to neutralize gluten epitopes.Oral microorganisms with gluten-degrading capacity were obtained by a selective plating strategy using gluten agar. Microbial speciations were carried out by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Enzyme activities were assessed using gliadin-derived enzymatic substrates, gliadins in solution, gliadin zymography, and 33-mer ?-gliadin and 26-mer ?-gliadin immunogenic peptides. Fragments of the gliadin peptides were separated by RP-HPLC and structurally characterized by mass spectrometry. Strains with high activity towards gluten were typed as Rothia mucilaginosa and Rothia aeria. Gliadins (250 µg/ml) added to Rothia cell suspensions (OD(620) 1.2) were degraded by 50% after ?30 min of incubation. Importantly, the 33-mer and 26-mer immunogenic peptides were also cleaved, primarily C-terminal to Xaa-Pro-Gln (XPQ) and Xaa-Pro-Tyr (XPY). The major gliadin-degrading enzymes produced by the Rothia strains were ?70-75 kDa in size, and the enzyme expressed by Rothia aeria was active over a wide pH range (pH 3-10).While the human digestive enzyme system lacks the capacity to cleave immunogenic gluten, such activities are naturally present in the oral microbial enzyme repertoire. The identified bacteria may be exploited for physiologic degradation of harmful gluten peptides.
Project description:Gliadin is a fraction of gluten, known to trigger celiac disease in susceptible people. To date, the life-long gluten-free diet is used for the prevention of this disease. Hence, methods for gluten control in foods are of significant importance. Being one of the most-used methods used for this purpose, ELISA should use high-affinity antibodies to gliadin peptides involved into celiac process. This study investigates the characteristics of a novel anti-gliadin antibody X6. We found the QXQPFPXP site to be a recognized epitope that provides specific binding of the antibody to cereal prolamins involved in celiac disease manifestation. A specificity study using immunoblotting shows the recognition of wheat, barley and rye proteins-as well as ?-gliadin homologs from non-edible cereals (Dasypyrum villosum). Reactivity to avenin was less pronounced, as this protein does not contain the PFP motif most critical for antibody recognition. The proteins of Zea mays and Setaria italica were not recognized by X6. X6-based ELISA highly correlated with R5 and G12, which are Codex Alimentarius standards in the quantitative assessment of gluten content (Pearson's R = 0.86 and 0.87, respectively). Qualitative assessment revealed no significant differences between R5 and G12 and X6.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD) is caused by an uncontrolled immune response to gluten, a heterogeneous mixture of wheat storage proteins. The CD-toxicity of these proteins and their derived peptides is depending on the presence of specific T-cell epitopes (9-mer peptides; CD epitopes) that mediate the stimulation of HLA-DQ2/8 restricted T-cells. Next to the thoroughly characterized major T-cell epitopes derived from the ?-gliadin fraction of gluten, ?-gliadin peptides are also known to stimulate T-cells of celiac disease patients. To pinpoint CD-toxic ?-gliadins in hexaploid bread wheat, we examined the variation of T-cell epitopes involved in CD in ?-gliadin transcripts of developing bread wheat grains. RESULTS: A detailed analysis of the genetic variation present in ?-gliadin transcripts of bread wheat (T. aestivum, allo-hexaploid, carrying the A, B and D genome), together with genomic ?-gliadin sequences from ancestrally related diploid wheat species, enabled the assignment of sequence variants to one of the three genomic ?-gliadin loci, Gli-A1, Gli-B1 or Gli-D1. Almost half of the ?-gliadin transcripts of bread wheat (49%) was assigned to locus Gli-D1. Transcripts from each locus differed in CD epitope content and composition. The Gli-D1 transcripts contained the highest frequency of canonical CD epitope cores (on average 10.1 per transcript) followed by the Gli-A1 transcripts (8.6) and the Gli-B1 transcripts (5.4). The natural variants of the major CD epitope from ?-gliadins, DQ2-?-I, showed variation in their capacity to induce in vitro proliferation of a DQ2-?-I specific and HLA-DQ2 restricted T-cell clone. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluating the CD epitopes derived from ?-gliadins in their natural context of flanking protein variation, genome specificity and transcript frequency is a significant step towards accurate quantification of the CD toxicity of bread wheat. This approach can be used to predict relative levels of CD toxicity of individual wheat cultivars directly from their transcripts (cDNAs).
Project description:The spectrophotometric Bradford assay was adapted for the analysis of gluten protein contents (gliadins and glutenins) of spelt, durum wheat, emmer and einkorn. The assay was applied to a set of 300 samples, including 15 cultivars each of common wheat, spelt, durum wheat, emmer and einkorn cultivated at four locations in Germany in the same year. The total protein content was equally influenced by location and wheat species, however, gliadin, glutenin and gluten contents were influenced more strongly by wheat species than location. Einkorn, emmer and spelt had higher protein and gluten contents than common wheat at all four locations. However, common wheat had higher glutenin contents than einkorn, emmer and spelt resulting in increasing ratios of gliadins to glutenins from common wheat (< 3.8) to spelt, emmer and einkorn (up to 12.1). With the knowledge that glutenin contents are suitable predictors for high baking volume, cultivars of einkorn, emmer and spelt with good predicted baking performance were identified. Finally, spelt, emmer and einkorn were found to have a higher nitrogen partial factor productivity than common and durum wheat making them promising crops for a more sustainable agriculture.